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and took bribes, and perverted judgment.-1 Sam. viii. 1.3. Prov. xvii. 23. Samuel said, Whose ox have I taken? Whom have I oppressed? &c. -1 Sam. xii. 3, 4.

And David executed judgment and justice unto all his people.-2 Sam.

viii. 15.

There was a famine in the days of David, three years, year after year; and David inquired of the Lord (or sought his face). And the Lord answered, It is for Saul, and his bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites, &c. Now the children of Israel had sworn unto them, and Saul sought to slay them in his zeal to the children of Israel and Judah, &c. David endeavoured to make the atonement, and effected it.-2 Sam. xxi. 1, &c.

He that ruleth over men, must be (or be thou ruler over men) just, ruling in the fear of God. 2 Sam. xxiii. 3.

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When the plague was upon Israel for David's sins, he said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done wickedly: but these sheep, what have they done? Let thine hand, I pray thee, be against me, and against my father's house, &c. -2 Sam. xxiv. 17.

Solomon said, Give therefore thy servant an understanding heart to judge thy people, that I may discern between good and bad, &c. And the speech pleased the Lord.-1 Kings iii. 7-10.

They set up false witnesses against Naboth, against Stephen, and sought for such against Christ.-1 Kings xxi. 10. 13. Matt. xxvi. 59. Acts vi. 11. 13.

Amaziah, &c. as soon as the kingdom was confirmed in his hand, slew his servants which had slain the king his father: but the children of the murderers he slew not, according to that which was written, &c. Every man shall be put to death for his own sin.-2 Kings xiv. 5, 6.

Rehoboam took the counsel of the young men, and rejected the old men's advice: and answered the people

roughly, and said, He would add to their burdens, and not ease them: whereupon many of the tribes revolted, and chose them a king.-2 Chron. x. xiv. 7, &c. 1 Kings xii. 1, &c.

He was going to fight against Israel, but God forbade him.-2 Chron.

xi. 1. 4.

Jehoshaphat, &c, sent to his princes, even to Ben-hail, and to Obadiah, &c. to teach in the cities of Judah: and with them he sent Levites, even Shemaiah, &c. and they taught in Judah, and had the book of the law of the Lord with them: and went about throughout all the cities of Judah, and taught the people. — 2 Chron. xvii. 7—9.

Jehoshaphat said to the judges, Take heed what you do; for ye judge not for man, but for the Lord, who is with you in the judgment; wherefore now let the fear of the Lord be upon you; take heed and do it, for there is no iniquity with the Lord our God, nor respect of persons, nor taking of gifts.-2 Chron. xix. 6, 7.

Jehoshaphat, in a time of danger, stood in the congregation in the house of the Lord, and prayed himself with them, and for them there.-2 Chron. xx. 2-13. 1 Sam. xii. 23. 2 Chron. xxx. 18-20. Ezra ix. x.

Hezekiah sent letters throughout all Israel and Judah, to invite them to turn to the Lord.-2

Nehemiah saith, From the time that I was appointed to be their governor, &c. I and my brethren have not eaten the bread of the governor: but the former governors, &c. were chargeable unto the people, &c. yea, even their servants bare rule over the people; but so did not I, because of the fear of God, &c.-Neh. v. 14—16. 18.

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I gave my brother Hanani and Hananiah, &c. charge over Jerusalem for he was a faithful man, and feared God above many.-Neh. vii. 2.

Ahasuerus the king forbade any to compel another to drink, but according to his pleasure.-Esth. i. 8.

I was a father to the poor; and the

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Neither will the Almighty pervert judgment.-Job xxxiv. 12.

Be wise now therefore, O ye kings; be instructed, ye judges of the earth: serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling.-Ps. ii. 10, 11.

The wicked walk on every side, when the vilest men (or the vilest of the sons of men) are exalted.-Ps. xii. 8.

Man that is in honour, and understandeth not, is like the beasts that perish.-Ps. xlix. 20.

God standeth in the congregation of the mighty; he judgeth among the gods. How long will ye judge unjustly, and accept the persons of the wicked? Selah. Defend the poor and fatherless: do justice to the afflicted and needy: deliver the poor and needy rid them out of the hand of the wicked.-Ps. lxxxii. 1-4.

David said, I will not know a wicked person whoso privily slandereth his neighbour, him will I cut off: him that hath an high look and a proud heart, him will I not suffer: mine eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land, that they may dwell with me he that walketh in a perfect way, he shall serve me, &c. I will early destroy all the wicked of the land, &c.-Ps. ci. 4, &c.

Where no counsel is, the people fall but in the multitude of counsellors there is safety.-Prov. xi. 14. xxiv. 6.

It is an abomination to kings to commit wickedness: for the throne is established by righteousness: righteous lips are the delight of kings, and they love him that speaketh right. —Prov. xvi. 12, 13. xxix. 12.

It is not good to accept the person of the wicked, to overthrow the righteous in judgment.-Prov. xviii. 5.

A king that sitteth in the throne of judgment, scattereth away all evil

with his eyes, &c. A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth the wheel over them, &c. Mercy and truth preserve the king, and his throne is upholden by mercy.-Prov. xx. 8. 26. 28.

To do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice. -Prov. xxi. 3. Isa. i. 17, 18.

It is the honour of kings to search out a matter, &c. Take away the wicked from before the king, and his throne shall be established in righteousness.-Prov. xxv. 2. 5.

As a roaring lion, &c. so is a wicked ruler over the poor people: a prince that wanteth understanding, &c.— Prov. xxviii. 15, 16.

When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice: but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn, &c. The king by judgment establisheth the land: but he that receiveth gifts overthroweth it, &c. If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked. The king that faithfully judgeth'the poor, his throne shall be established for ever, &c. Many seek the ruler's favour, but every man's judgment cometh from the Lord. - Prov. xxix. 2-4. 12. 14.26.

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It is not for kings to drink wine : nor for princes strong drink: lest they drink and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted.-Prov. xxxi. 4, 5.

I saw under the sun the place of judgment, that wickedness was there, &c. God shall judge the righteous. Eccles. iii. 16, 17.

Better is a poor and a wise child, than an old and foolish king, who will no more be admonished.-Eccles. iv. 13.

If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent perverting of judgment and justice, &c. he that is higher than the highest regardeth.— Eccles. v. 8.

Oppression maketh a wise man mad, and a gift destroyeth the heart. -Eccles. vii. 7.

Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child, and thy princes eat in the morning; blessed art thou, O land, when thy king is the son of nobles, and thy princes eat in due season, for strength, and not for drunkenness. -Eccles. x. 16, 17.

Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them, &c. Ah! I will ease me of mine adversaries, &c.. -Isa. i. 23, 24. Jer. v. 28.


I will give children to be their princes, and babes shall rule over them and the people shall be oppressed every one by another. What mean ye, that ye beat my people to pieces, and grind the faces of the poor? &c.—Isa. iii. 4, 5. 15.

Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, &c. to turn aside the needy from judgment, &c. what will ye do in the day of visitation? &c.İsa. x. 1-3.

In that day shall the Lord of hosts, &c. for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment. Hear the word of the Lord, ye scornful men, that rule this people, &c. because ye have said, &c.—Īsa. xxviii. 5, 6. 14,

15. 18.

He that despiseth the gain of oppressions, who shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, &c. he shall dwell on high.-Isa. xxxiii. 15, 16.

Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke?-Isa. lviii. 6-8. Zech. vii. 5, &c.

Judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off: for truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot enter.-Isa. lix. 14.

Hear the word of the Lord, O king of Judah, &c. Thus saith the Lord, Execute ye judgment, and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor: and do

no wrong, do no violence to the stranger, &c. neither shed innocent blood in this place, &c. Shalt thou reign, because thou closest thyself in cedar? Did not thy father eat, and drink, and do judgment and justice, and then it was well with him? he judged the cause of the poor and needy, then it was well with him, &c. but thine eyes, and thine heart are not but for thy covetousness, and for to shed innocent blood, and for oppression, and for violence to do it.-Jer. xxii. 1-3. 15-17. Ezek. xxii. 27.

O princes of Israel, remove violence and spoil, and execute judgment and justice: take away your exactions from the people, saith the Lord God. -Ezek. xlv. 9. Zech. viii. 16.

King Nebuchadnezzar, for his great pride, was driven from men, to eat grass as oxen.-Dan. iv. 30-34.

When the princes had procured a wicked law, and Daniel was taken upon it, the king, Darius, was troubled, and would have delivered him.Dan. vi.

I hate, I despise your feast days, &c. Let judgment run down as waters, &c.-Amos v. 21. 24. Zech, vii. 9.

O heads of Jacob, and ye princes! Is it not for you to know judgment, who hate the good, and love the evil? &c. Hear this, ye princes, &c. that abhor judgment, &c. The heads thereof judge for reward.-Micah iii. 1-3. 9. 11. vii. 3.


The law is slacked, and judgment doth never go forth the wicked doth compass about the righteous, therefore wrong judgment proceedeth. Hab. i. 4.

Judge not according to the appearance; but judge righteous judgment. John vii. 24.

Refrain yourselves from these men, and let them alone: for if this counsel, or this work be of men, it will come to nought: but if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it.-Acts v. 38, 39.

Yeought to be quiet, and do nothing rashly, &c. the law is open, let them

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It is not the manner of the Romans to deliver any man to die, before that he which is accused have the accusers face to face, and have license to answer for himself, &c. It seemeth to me unreasonable to send a prisoner, and withal not to signify the crimes laid against him.-Acts xxv. 16. 27. Rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil, &c. for he is the minister of God to thee for good, &c. a revenger, to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil, &c. They are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.-Rom. xiii. 3, 4.6. Governors, &c. for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well.-1 Pet. ii. 14.

The great whore, with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication. The ten horns shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate, and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire; for God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will. Rev. xvii. 1, 2. 16, 17.

SECT. IV. The Duties of Subjects to Magistrates, with respect both to their Persons and Decrees.

FIRST. What they may not do: when, and wherein they may not obey them. ISRAEL sinned, &c. in walking in the statutes of the heathen, &c. and of the kings of Israel, which they had made, &c.-2 Kings xvii. 7, 8. 19.

Render to Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's }; and unto God, the things that are God's.-Matt. xxii. 21.

surely die. And the people said, &c. As the Lord liveth, there shall not one hair of his head fall, &c. So the people rescued Jonathan, that he died not.-1 Sam. xiv. 43-45.

Hezekiah, the Lord was with him, &c. and he rebelled against the king of Assyria.-2 Kings xviii. 7.

Mordecai bowed not to Haman, notwithstanding the king's commandment.-Esth. iii. 1—3. v. 9.

When king Nebuchadnezzar had commanded the worshipping of an image, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, refused to obey; and said, Be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image, &c.-Dan. iii. 15-18.

When Darius had established the decree, that none should ask any petition of any God or man for thirty days; Daniel went into his house, after his wonted manner, and prayed three times a day.—Dan. vi. 7—10.

When the apostles were forbidden to preach in the name of Christ, they answered, &c. Whether it be right in the sight of God, to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye.— Acts iv. 18-20.

When the council charged them with preaching contrary to their commands, &c. Peter, &c. said, We ought to obey God rather than man.-Acts v. 27-29.

Moses was hidden three months of afraid of the king's commandment, his parents, &c. and they were not

&c. He feared not the wrath of the king.-Heb. xi. 23. 27.

SECONDLY. What they ought to do, or wherein they should acknowledge and obey them.


Submit to, and obey them in all lawful things.

Miriam and Aaron spake against Moses, and God smote Miriam with a leprosy.-Numb. xii. 1. 9—11.

The king of Egypt commanded the midwives to kill the men children of the Hebrews. But they feared God, and obeyed not the king: and God took it well of them.-Exod. i. 15-17. The Lord destroyed Korah and his 20, 21. company, for their rebellion against Saul said, Jonathan, thou shalt Moses, &c.-Numb. xvi. 1, &c.

Keep the king's commandment; and that in regard of the oath of God. Eccles. viii. 2-4.

If the spirit of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place; for yielding pacifieth great offences. Eccles. x. 4.

God threatened the Jews for revolting from the king of Babylon, and breaking their oath and covenant with him. Ezek. xvii. 12-20.

Though there was no tribute due from Christ, yet he said to Peter, Lest we should offend them, go thou, &c. give unto them for me and thee. -Matt. xvii. 24-27.

Render therefore unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's.-Matt. xxii. 21.

David said to Saul, My Lord the king! and when Saul looked behind him, David stooped with his face to the earth, and bowed himself, &c. He said, I will not put forth my hand against the Lord's anointed.-Í Sam. xxiv. 6. 8. 10. xxvi. 9. 11.

Nathan the prophet, when he was come in before the king, bowed himself before the king with his face to the ground, and said, My lord, O king! &c.-1 Kings i. 23, 24.

Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art wicked? and to princes, Ye are ungodly?-Job xxxiv. 18.

The king's wrath is as the roaring of a lion, &c.-Prov. xix. 12.


Put not forth thyself in the presence of the king, &c.-Prov. xxv. 6, 7.

The fear of a king is as the roaring of a lion whoso provoketh him to Let every soul be subject unto the anger sinneth against his own soul. higher powers, &c. Whosoever there--Prov. xx. 2. xvi. 14, 15. fore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist, shall receive to themselves damnation, &c. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, &c. Ye must needs be subject; not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake: for, for this cause pay you tribute, &c. Render therefore to all their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due, custom to whom custom, fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour.-Rom. xiii. 1-7.

Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, &c.-Titus iii. 1.

Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man, for the Lord's sake; whether it be to the king, as supreme, or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him, for the punishment of evildoers, &c. For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men.-1 Pet. ii. 13-15.

II. To give them Honour and Respect: not contemn their Persons, or speak evil of them.

Thou shalt not revile the gods (or judges), nor curse the ruler of thy people.-Exod. xxii. 28.

Where the word of a king is, there is power: and who may say unto him, What doest thou?- -Eccles. viii. 4.

Curse not the king; no not in thy thoughts.-Eccles. x. 20. Daniel said to Darius the king, O king, live for ever!-Dan. vi. 21.

When the apostle had spoken sharply to the high priest, and some who stood by had said, Revilest thou God's high priest? Then said Paul, I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest: for it is written, Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of thy people.-Acts xxiii. 2—5.

Paul said, I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself this day before thee, &c. Festus said with a loud voice, Paul, Thou art beside thyself; much learning doth make thee mad. But he said, I am not mad, most noble Festus; but speak forth the words of truth and soberness, &c.-Acts xxvi. 1-3. 24, 25. xxiv. 10.

Render therefore to all their dues, &c. fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour.-Rom. xiii. 7.

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