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be fometimes found guilty of murder. The natural fhape of the tongue refembles a flame of fire, and therefore in Hebrew one word fignifies a flame and the tongue; yea and it is what it feems to be, a fire, a world of iniquity, James iii. 6. It refembles alfo a fword, and fo it is oft-times, Pfal. lvii. 4. & lix. 7. The mouth and tongue refemble bow and arrow, and fo they are. Pfal, Ixiv. 3. The rage of an ill tongue muft needs be dangerous then, feeing fuch an one lays about him with his bow and arrow, and advances with fire and fword, which must needs bring him in blood-guilty. Now, this fword devours feveral ways.

ift, By quarrelling, provoking, and contentious fpeeches, Prov. xxiii. 29. Such words have oft-times begun a plea that has ended in blood. And therefore the apoftle compares fuch to beafts that begin to fnarl and bite one another, till'it end in the ruin of either or both, Gal. v. 15. Let us make confcience then of peaceable, mild, and gentle fpeeches.

2dly, By bitter words. Thefe are the impoifoned arrows that tongue murderers fhoot at their neighbour, Pfal. lxiv. 3.4. Their tongues are dipt in gall, and they pierce to the heart, and give a home-thruft like a fword, Prov. xii. 28, They be come not the difciples of the meek Jefus. Lay afide thefe, as ye would not be reckoned murderers in the fight of God, Eph. iv. 31.

3dly, By railing and fcolding. This was Shimei's murdering deed, 2 Sam. xvi. 5. 6. 7. for which he died as a murderer in Solomon's days. Thus men and women manage their tongue-battles with eagernefs, making their doors or the town-gate the field of battle, where words pierce like fwords to the heart. Thefe are the plagues and pefts of fociety, whofe bloody mouths proclain their hearts fearless of God. Hear ye what the Lord fays, 1 Pet. iii. 9. Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwife, bleffing; knowing that ye

are thereunto called, that ye fhould inherit a bleffing. 4thly, By reviling, reproachful, and difdainful fpeeches. Men think little of thefe; they are but words, and words are but wind. But they are a wind that will blow people to hell, Mat. v. 22. They are the devil's bellows to blow up the fire of anger; which may make fearful havock ere it be quenched, Prov. XV. I.

5thly, By mocking, fcoffing, and deriding fpeeches. These are reckoned among the fufferings of the martyrs, Heb. xi. 36. Others had trial of cruel mockings. The foldiers mocking of Chrift, John xix. 3. is compared to the baiting by dogs, Píal, xxii. 16, See how children paid for this ufage to the prophet Elifha, 2 Kings ii. 23. 24.

Laftly, By curfings, imprecations, and wrathful wifhings of ill and mischief to our neighbours; which is but throwing up of hellish fire on others, that comes down and burns up him that threw it, Pfal. cix. 18.

3. There is eye-murder, which vents itself by a wrathful countenance, and all geftures of that kind, fuch as high and proud looks, and fierce looks, Prov. vi. 17. The Spirit of God takes notice of Cain's countenance, Gen. iv. 5. As there is adultery in looks, fo there may be murder in them, not only angry looks, but looks of fatisfaction on the miseries of others, which God knows the meaning of, Obad. 12.; gnashing with the teeth, and all fuch geftures of a perfon, denoting a heart boiling with wrath and revenge, Acts vii, 54.

4. There is hand-murder, even where death kill. eth not. And people may be guilty of this two ways,

ift, By way of omiffion, when we with-hold and give not help to thofe that are in diftrefs, to favę their life or living, Judg. v, 2. 3.; neglecting the fick, not vifiting and helping them as need requires, Luke x. 31. 32.; not affording means of life to the poor in want, Jam. ii, 15. 16. for those put out the

me of life that do not feed it. We fhould then a cowels of mercy and charity, in imitation of 13. cap. xxxi. 15. c. It is obfervable, that the stence guinit the wicked runs on unmercifulness ⚫re or members of Chrift, Matth. xxv.41. &c.


3 way of commiffion. And fomen are guilty, as they ftrike against the living of others, means and way of fubfiftence. This goes under se crni name of oppreffion, a crying fin, Ezek. Thus this command is broken by extordlords racking of their lands fo as labourers zrect live on them, tenants taking others lands werner heads fometimes to the ruin of honest fames, maiters not allowing fervants whereupon to se und generally by all kind of oppreffion, which in 20% recount is murder, If. iii. 14. 15. Micah iii. 3. As they trike against the body and life itself. haien are guilty by fighting, ftriking, and How many wounding echers, Exod. xxi. 18. 22.

e guilty as murderers in the fight of men, have had no design to go the full length, when el to aghting?

ecution is a complication of all these; and were the better the caufe is, the worfe is the It is a main engine of him that was a murver from the beginning. And God will reckon ch them as murderers at the great day, Matth. Ta nói để các

24 Men may be guilty of the blood of others wowie. As,

By fiutul occafioning in others thofe things wheer our neighbour fins againft his own foul, Con el caufà caufe, eft etiam caufa caufati. So peoea by occafioning in others difcontent, fretfulinimoderate forrow, &c, 1 Sam. i. 6. Whereore we thould beware of that, as we would not be gulty of their blood.

By all the ways we faid men co-operate to the oving of others fouls, they may be guilty of

I killing others bodies: as by commanding, counfelling, or any wife procuring the taking away of mens living or lives unjuftly. So David murdered Uriah by the fword of the Ammonites. So informers against the Lord's people in time of perfecution are murderers in God's fight, Ezek. xxii. 9. Yea, the approving or any way confenting to it makes men guilty, Acts viii. 1.

Now, Sirs, examine yourselves in this matter; and who will not be brought in blood-guilty, guilty of their own and their neighbours blood, the blood of their fouls and bodies! God's law is fpiritual, and fees the guilt of blood where we plead Not guilty. Let us be humbled and convinced, and apply to the blood of Chrift, that we may be washed from it.

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HE fcope of this command is the prefervation of our own and our neighbour's chastity and purity. God is a holy God, and the devil is an unclean fpirit; we must therefore study purity in all manner of converfation. Our Lord puts this command before the fixth, Mark x. 19. because our chaftity fhould be as dear to us as our life, and we fhould be as much afraid of that which defiles the body as that which deftroys it.

This command is a negative precept, and expreffly forbids adultery.: but under that is comprehended all manner of uncleanness whatfoever, with all the caufes and occafions leading thereunto. And the pofitive part of this command is, that we muft preferve our own and our neighbour's chastity by all due means,


In difcourfing further, I fhall confider,

L. The duties required in this command.
1. The fins forbidden therein.

lil. Make fome practical improvement.

I. Our first business is to confider what is required in this command; and the catechism, agreeably to hely fcripture, tells us, that it " requires the pre*fervation of our own and our neighbour's chastity

in heart, fpeech, and behaviour." The duties of this command may therefore be reduced to two ge1. The preservation of our own chatity. 2. The preservation of that of our neighbour.

neral heads.

FIRST, This command requires us to preferve our own chastity and purity. There is a twofold chality. 1. In fingle life; when it is led in purity, it is like the angelical; when in impurity, it is devilith. 2. There is conjugal chastity, when married perfons keep themfelves within the bounds of the law of that ftate. This lies in two things. (1.) With respect to all others, keeping themselves pure and uncorrupted. (2.) With refpect to ancther, keeping themfelves within the bounds of Chriftian fobriety and moderation. In whatfoever flate we are, this is the will of God, even our fanctification, that we should abstain from fornication; that every one of us should know how to poffefs his veffel in janctification and honour, not in the luft of concupifcence,

Theff. iv. 3. 4. 5.

Now, there is a threefold chastity required of us, and to be preferved by us.

First, Chastity in heart, 1 Theff. iv. 5. forecited. God knows the heart, and therefore his laws reach the heart, and he will judge for heart fins. We must keep our minds pure, that the thoughts be not led aftray and corrupted. Hence Job made a covenant with his eyes, chap. xxxi. 1. And we must keep our

ections pure, that they be not vitiated. Job faw

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