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selves. Their slavery was rather and embroidery; working in wood political than personal. They were held as public, not as private property. The labour exacted from them was for the benefit of the state, rather than of individuals. (Exod. i. 9-14.)

“2. They were not bought and sold, transferred from hand to hand, and removed from place to place, as caprice or profit might dictate. They formed family connexions as they pleased, which were not broken in upon. The education and management of their own children were left to themselves; and all the endearments of the domestic circle were untouched; the temporary attempt to destroy their male children excepted, which we will notice pre

sently.

"3. They remained where they were first settled, in the best part of the land of Egypt. (Gen. xlvii. 4-11; Exod. ix. 26.)

“ 4. They not only were allowed to retain the property which they brought into Egypt, but greatly inereased it during their stay. (Gen. xv. 14; Exod. xii. 38.)

“5. They lived well, by their own confession ;—so much so, that they afterwards lamented the loss of their good living; and had almost returned to slavery for the sake of it. (Exod. xvi. 3; Num. xi. 4—6.)

“6. They were made to labour; but their great increase is against the notion that their labour was so very oppressive as some suppose. (Exodus, i. 9-14.) Experience proves that oppressive labour, especially on the part of females, operates against a great increase. But the increase of the Hebrews, while in Egypt, I think unparalleled. "7. It does not appear that they were shut out from any of the common modes of improvement and education. The various works performed as spinning, weaving,

and iron; in gold, silver, and brass; even to the cutting and setting of diamonds, with many other things connected with the erecting of the tabernacle-prove a very considerable knowledge of the ornamental, as well as useful arts. (Exod. xxxv—xxxix.; Numbers, vii.) The direction to write parts of their law upon their doorposts and on their gates (Deut. xi. 18-20), seems to imply that the great mass of the people, if not all, could read and write. The notice of writing the names of officers (Num. xi. 26), of writing the law on pillars (Deut. xxvii. 3), of writing a copy of the law upon stones (Joshua viii. 32), of the king's writing out a copy of the law for his own use (Deut. xvii. 18), agree with the opinion that reading and writing were common among the people.

It

8. The attempt to destroy their male children was the darkest feature in the case. We shall have occasion to refer to this again, in noticing Pharaoh's excuses and reasons. In this place I must notice, that the whole facts of the case favour the opinion that the number destroyed must have been very small. The first attempt to effect it totally failed. The attempt to drown them, appears to have lasted but a short time. was not, we may infer, in operation at the birth of Aaron; as nothing is said about a difficulty in saving him. Moses was but three years younger. (Exod. vii. 7.) It was in force at his birth. (Exod. ii. 2, 3.) At three months old he was cast out, but was immediately rescued and adopted by the daughter of Pharaoh. No other case is particularly mentioned. From Acts vii. 20, it seems probable some others were cast out. In all probability, the same sympathy which led Pharaoh's daughter to save and

from the public stores for about six years (what they carried to Canaan cost them nothing, as Joseph returned their money, Gen. xlii. 25, xliv. 1), and their prospect of a free trade with Egypt, with Joseph prime minister there, might with some reason be thought a pretty liberal reward. Not many good deeds get better pay.

adopt Moses, led her to prevail on | made prime minister, the cordial her father to abandon the cruel welcome given to his family in practice. We can indeed hardly their distress,-giving them as a conceive of her indulging the full residence the best district in Egypt tide of female and maternal kind-(Gen. xlvii. 11), supporting them ness for the infant Moses, and not make an effort to save others from the watery grave from which she had rescued him. That the practice was abandoned-that but few were destroyed-I think nearly certain, from the fact that there were 600,000 men contemporaries with Moses when they left Egypt, and that the number of Israelites immediately after leaving Egypt “2. At the end of the famine, in(Exod. xii. 27), compared with stead of returning to Canaan, as their number on entering Egypt might naturally have been expect(Gen. xlvi. 27), only about 215 ed, the Hebrews continued to ocyears before, shews that they dou-cupy the land of Goshen. Joseph bled, in less than every fifteen | never forgot that he was a Hebrew, years an unusual increase. The or lost any just and proper opporabove statement, I think, proves tunity of advancing the interests that Egyptian slavery was much milder than the slavery which has been often practised since, and is now practised by many who profess Christianity.

of his own kindred. While Egypt owed much to him in many respects, various things were so managed (perhaps accidentally) that the Hebrews had decidedly the ad"The following facts, drawn from vantage, as to wealth, ease, and' the Hebrew records, will shew, I the means of improvement, over think, that Pharaoh had what he the Egyptians. The close of the probably thought good reasons for famine found the Egyptians withholding that people in bondage ;-out money, flocks or herds, or reasons which at least will bear comparison with what pass for good

reasons now:

"1. The Hebrews were received into Egypt at a time of unexampled scarcity, when like to perish; and were, with their flocks and herds, supported free of cost (Gen. xlv. 10, 11); while the Egyptians, who raised the grain laid up in store (Gen. xli. 34, 35), had to sell their flocks, herds, and even themselves, for food for their families. (Gen. xlvii. 15-24.) While the obligation of Pharaoh to Joseph for his foresight and ability is fully admitted, it is thought that some bounds ought to be set to the returns made to him, and especially to his whole kindred. His being

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even personal freedom (Gen. xlvii. 12-26), and under an engagement to give Pharaoh one fifth part of all their produce. On the other hand, the Israelites were full handed, had lost nothing, were in possession of the best part of Egypt, and had under their management the cattle of Pharaoh (Gen. xlvii. 6); and as all the cattle of the Egyptians had come into Pharaoh's hands, the Hebrews no doubt received a good portion of Pharaoh's fifth, in payment for managing them for him. They had full employment, of the very kind they preferred (Gen. xlvi. 33, 34): no wonder therefore they were willing to have remained where they were. (To be concluded in our next.)

16

POETRY.

The vanity and incertitude of Human Life.

WITH solemn measured pace time steals along,

And thrusts his sithe amid the busy throng
Of restless mortals, pitiless of age,
Of life in every form, at every stage.

Pass o'er the fairest scenes; the brightest sky,

The gayest flow'rets soon turn pale and die, The pearly gems their silvery lustre lose, Each earthly form some sign of frailty shews. Through Nature's volume we may clearly

see

The smiles of friendship, or the tears of This truth inscribed—all here is vanity.

love,

His arm unnerve not, nor his purpose move.

That sithe's keen edge has harmless passed me by,

I yet am spared, perhaps, to heave the sigh
And drop the tear at woeful scenes, or smile
At thoughts of bliss, that tend to chase
awhile

Foreboding fears, and cast a gleam along
The vale of life, as lunar beams among
The thicken'd foliage intervene the shade,
Lighten and beauteous paint the deep hid
glade.

The ray of hope the Christian's journey cheers,

Life's rugged spots his future home endears.

I yet am spared to endure the ills of
life,

To mourn its vanity, turmoil and strife;
To feel a void within this aching breast,
That tells me here my spirit cannot rest.
Could I the world encompass at my will,
A void remains the phantom cannot fill.
Were I to grasp, as solid good, some form
Of earth, as well might he, who 'mid the

storm

Struggles with mighty waves himself to

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No more I would my busy thoughts employ

On painted forms of evanescent joy. Hope points to skies that fadeless light illumes,

To fields where amaranthine beauty blooms; Joys to commence when Nature's works shall close,

Sacred their source, and raised above their foes.

Oh, thou Supreme! who art th' unfailing friend

Of him who seeks thy aid; I humbly bend Before thy throne, and through thy Son im

plore

Thy guidance, till these circling years are o'er.

When called to mourn o'er faded joys, impart

Some heavenly balm to heal my wounded heart;

Teach me with meekness to resign my will,
My all to thee, whilst I life's course fulfil.
And oh! if he whose sovereign gentle form
Chased the dark terrors of the raging storm,
Deigns to bestow one melting look awhile,
My pallid cheek shall brighten with a smile,
A sacred joy shall animate my breast,
And every care tumultuous sink to rest.
And when my fleeting years are numbered
o'er,

And time's keen sithe shall pass me by no

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REVIEW.

The Oppressive, Unjust, and Profane Na- |

A

"Britons! This is the glorious civil and ture and Tendency of the Corporation religious liberty of which we boast! and Test Acts exposed; in a Sermon worthy and conscientious man must be ruined preached before the Congregation of for doing his duty! Truly, methinks no Protestant Dissenters, meeting in Can- unprejudiced man, that feels as a man, would non Street, Birmingham, Feb. 21, 1790. refuse to strain every nerve in order to break By the late Rev. SAMUEL PEARCE. such shackles from his fellow citizens !" Second edition. London: Wightman and Cramp. pp. 28.

O no! we shall be thankful if our rulers will "loose us, and let the opWE bave been informed from what pressed go free;" but we would much we conclude to be good authority, that rather bear our burden than use any the pious author of this sermon very other methods, besides those of petitionmuch regretted at a subsequent period ing, for the purpose of “breaking such of his life, some of the modes of expres- shackles." Whilst we are secured from sion which he employed to expose those persecution for conscience sake, we shall acts which he justly designates "oppres- boast of our "glorious civil and reli sive, unjust and profane." On this ac-gious liberty."

We will stand in awe of thy word, which saith, As often as ye do this, do it in remembrance of me.' No, we will never go to Calvary to seek temporal emoluments! Never will we visit Gethsemane with our

We will never make thy tomb the path to earthly preferment. We will rather endure shame and disgrace, contempt and persecuand lips thy sacred institutions," &c. p. 27. tion, than profane with unhallowed hands

count we regret the republication of Mr. Pearce is more at home, when he paragraphs, which, we are persuaded, thus expresses his abhorrence of Dishad Mr. Pearce been living, he would senters taking the sacramental test. have expunged from a "Second edi"No, blessed Redeemer! we will never tion." prostitute the memorials of thy death and No persons can feel greater opposi-sufferings, to obtain secular advantages. tion than ourselves, to the laws which this sermon exposes and condemns, especially as they relate to the required profanation of the Lord's Supper; but we have not been in the habit of consi-feet, while our hearts are set upon our idols! dering exclusion from civil offices, to be the perfect resemblance to those laws 66 through which England glistened with the flames, and echoed with the groans of dying martyrs, in the days of the sanguinary queen Mary!" The features of these unjust, impolitic and profane acts, are, when correctly exhibited, most hideously horrible; there is not the least occasion for caricature! We are persuaded, had the heavenly minded evangelical Pearce, drawn this picture in 1800 instead of 1790, it would have been much more accurate. Most hear-cated to the Earl of Eldon, and the tily do we wish success to the measures about to be adopted, by respectful applications to the Legislature, to get rid of these obnoxious and oppressive laws; bnt we could not, either from a pulpit or a platform, make use of such incautious language as the following :

On Education. A Sermon preached in
the Cathedral Church of Wells, at the
Anniversary Meeting of the Bath and
Wells Diocesan School, on Tuesday,
Oct. 9, 1827. By GEORGE HENRY
LAW, D. D. F. R. and F.A. S. Lord
Bishop of Bath and Wells. Rodwell.
THIS Sermon on Prov. xix.2. is dedi-

Bishop takes credit to himself, for not having done such a thing while the Lord High Chancellor of England was dispensing the patronage of the crown, reminding us, with a classical apology, that the "ancients did not sacrifice to

their heroes till after sun-set.

And in these degenerate days, it is re viving to hear that he has been speedily encouraged to reprint it with enlarge. ments.

He seems friendly to universal education, though he is not without some apprehension lest it should produce evil rather than good, and, of course, he strenuously pleads for "the principles and doctrines of the church of England." But in p. 18. he makes a most un-bishop-like distinction between Chris-happy effects of religious education, in tianity and the national church. leading to early piety, to great useful

The plan is judicious. It is divided into three parts. "Part 1. shewing by many examples drawn from real life, the

Part 2.

"We are sure that Christianity is foundedness, and to final salvation. upon a rock, and that the gates of hell shall showing, by examples also from real not prevail against it. The security, how-life, the blessing which has finally atever, and the permanence of every civil es-tended the patient labours and fervent tablishment depend on its utility; and its prayers of Christian Instructors, after utility is best manifested by its promoting great anxiety, fear, and disappointthe true interests of religion and morals. The clergy, therefore, must watch the signs ment." This collection, very properly of the times, if they wish to retain their placed by itself, will be read, we trust, wonted influence over the hearts of the peo- with great advantage by many an afflictple. More exertion, more energy are re-ed parent. "Part 3. showing how a quired now, than were called for in the days

of our forefathers. Whilst improvements in other things are taking place, let not the ministers of religion alone stand still."

All this is very intelligible: therefore

we add neither note nor comment.

The Bishop anticipates the result of the present universal zeal for education, a speculation highly interesting to the philanthropist, to the politician, and above all to the Christian. His words are worth transcribing :

Christian education ought to be conducted. Here the sentiments and directions of the best writers on this interesting subject may be found. The rules are given which were adopted by wise and holy parents in the instruction and government of their families; and a variety of anecdotes and suitable examples are interspersed."

If the eye of a pious youth should glance upon the touching scenes in the Biographical Sketches, he will be re

"The period in which we live is pecu-minded of his obligations to God and liarly eventful and admonitory. A most im- to his parents. And if the reader be portant experiment, an experiment which an impious youth, he may see his face must be highly favourable or adverse to in the glass, and learn the necessary the prosperity of this empire, is soon about to be tried. Ere long, the British Isles lessons of humiliation and penitence. may exhibit an instance never before known, Here he will be directed and encouof a whole nation educated und able to read raged to place himself under the care and write." and guidance of the adorable Redeemer, who "is able to save unto the uttermost all who come to God by him."

The Parent's Monitor; or Narratives, Christian parents will find the most Anecdotes, and Observations on Reli- pungent motives to diligence in traingious Education and Personal Piety;ing up their offspring for their country's designed for the instruction and encouragement of Parents, Guardians, and sake, and more especially for Zion's Teachers. In three parts. By DAVID sake. BARKER, Minister of the Gospel. Second edition enlarged. Richard Baynes.

Piety at home is so powerfully enforced in the sacred writings, and yet unhappily so much neglected, that we are glad to see any thing on our table which appears adapted to promote it. Mr. Barker's is a family book of great value.

Let the pastors of our churches consider what sort of members their successors will have. We know that God can from the stones raise up children to Abraham; but we are warranted to expect that the ravages of death will be repaired chiefly from the families of those who are now church members. Whether they will be judicious, well

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