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those words of Paul, 2 Tim. iv. 13. The cloak that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comesi, bring with thee, and the books, xy Tà B.Cria. For he believed, that thereby the ancient Christians underitood the sacred code. But he afterwards acknowledgeth, that he had not found any instance of that interpretation in ancient writers. It seems to me therefore, that this conjecture should be dropt, as destitute of foundation: and that it should be better for us to adhere to the forementioned origin of this name, which appears to have in it a good deal of probability.

III. Canon is originally a Greek word, fignifying a rule or Canon. standard, by which other things are to be examined and judged.

As the writings of the Prophets and Apostles and Evangelists contain an authentic account of the revealed will of God, they are the rule of the belief and practice of those who receive them..

Sometimes canon seems equivalent to a lift or catalogue, in which are, inserted those books, which contain the rule of faith.

Du Pin says, “ This (5) word fignifies not only a law or rule, but "likewise a table, catalogue, lift. ' Some have fuppofed, that the cano“ničal books were so called, because they are the rule of the faith. But " though it be true, that they are the rule of our faith; yet the reason of “their being called canonical, is, because they are placed in the cata" logue of lacred books.”

Perhaps, there is no need to dispute about this. For there is no great difference in those two senses. And there may be passages of ancient writers, where it would be difficult to determine, which of them is intended.

St. Paul has twice used the word canon, or rule., Gal. vi. 16. As many as walk according to this rule. Upon which yerse Theodoret's comment is to this purpose: “ He (i) calls the forementioned doctrine a rule, " as being strait, and having nothing wanting, nor superfluous.” Again, says St. Paul, Philip. iii. 16. Whereunto we have already attained, let us walk according to the same rule. Where he speaks of the doctrine of the gospel in general, or of some particular maxim of it: not of any books, containing the rule of faith. However, his use of the word

may have ! been an occasion of affixing that denomination to the books of scripture. For it is of great antiquity among Christians.

Ireneus, speaking of the scriptures, as the words of God, calls (k) them the rule, or canon of truth. Here canon is not a catalogue, but the books, or the doctrine contained in the books of scripture.

Clement of Alexandria, referring to a quotation of the Gospel according


(5) Le mot signifie non seulement une loi, une regle, mais aussi une table, un catalogue, une liste. ... Quelques-uns ont cru, que les livres canoniques étoient ainsi appellez, parcequ'ils sont la regle de la foi. Mais quoique cela foit vrai, ce n'est pas ce qui leur a fait donner le nom de canoniques, qu'ils n'ont que parceque l'on a nommé canon le catalogue des livres facrez. Dil. Prelim. l. i. ch. 1. i.

(i) Κανόνια έκάλεσε την προκειμένην διδασκαλίαν, ως ευθύτη κοσμημένην, και μήτε ελλείπων τι μήτε περιτίον έχεσαν. Τheod. in loc.

(d) Nos autem unum et folum verum Deum doctorem fequentes, et regulam veritatis habentes ejus fermones, de iisdem semper eadem dicimus omnes. Iren. l. 4. 6. 35. al. 69. f. p. 277.

to the Egyptians, says with indignation : “ But (1) they who choofe to « follow any thing, rather than the true Evangelical Canon (or the ca« non of the Gospel) insist upon what follows there as said to Salome.In another place he says : « The (m) ecclesiastical canon is the consent « and agreement of the Law and the Prophets with the teftament delia vered by the Lord."

Eusebe, as (n) formerly quoted, says of Origen : “ But in the first book “ of his Commentaries upon the Gospel of Matthew, observing () the “ ecclefiaftical canon, he declares, that he knew of four Gospels only."

I shall add a few more passages from later writers, chiefly such as have been already quoted in the foregoing volumes: to which passages there. fore the reader may easily have recourse.

Athanasius (p) in his feftal Epistles speaks of three forts of books, the canonical, the same which are now received by us, such as were allowed to be read, and then of such as are apocryphal : by which he means books forged by heretics.

In the Synopsis of Scripture, ascribed to him, but probably not writ till above a hundred years after his time, near the end of the fifth centurie, is frequent mention (9) of canonical and uncanonical books.

The council of Laodicea, about 363, ordains, that (9)“ no books, not “ canonical, should be read in the church, but only the canonical books

of the Old and New Testament."

Rufin, enumerating the scriptures of the Old and New Testament, makes (r) three forts of books, such (s) as are included in the canon, such as are not canonical, but ecclefiaftical, allowed to be read, but not to be alleged for proof of any doctrine, and lastly, apocryphal books, which were not to be publicly read.

Jerome likewise often speaks of the canon of Scripture, as we faw in his chapter, where he says: “ Ecclefiafticus, (t) Judith, Tobit, and the « Shepherd, are not in the canon:” and “ that (u) the Church reads, or « allows to be read, Judith, Tobit, and the Maccabees, but does not reu ceive them among the canonical scriptures: and that they, and the « books of Wisdom and Ecclefiafticus, may be read for the edification of « the people, but not as of authority, for proving any doctrines.” And for the Old Testament he recommends (*) the true Jewish canon, or


(1) See Vol.ii. p. 529. or 527.

(m) Κανών δε εκκλησιαστικός και συνωδία και η συμφωνία γόμα τι και προφητών τη καλα την τε κυρία παρεσίαν παραδιδομένη διαθήκη. Cl. Strom. 1. 6. p. 676. C.

(7) Co. 38. Vol. tii. P: 235 (ο) ... τον εκκλησιαστικών φυλάτων κανόνα. Αρ. Eafeb.1.6. τ. 25. p. 226. Β.

See Vol. iii. p. 228. 229. (9) The same. p. 243. 245. G) The fame. p. 291.

(r) See Vol. x. p. 187. 188. (5) Hæc funt, quæ patres intra canonem concluferunt, & ex quibus fidei noftræ affertiones conftare voluerunt. ... Sciendum tamen eft, quod alii libri funt, qui non funt canonici, sed ecclefiaftici a majoribus appellati funt. .. Quæ omnia legi quidem in ecclefiis voluerunt, non tamen proferri ad auctoritatem ex his fidei confirmandam. Ceteras vero scripturas apocryphas nominarunt, quas in ecclefiis legi noluerunt. Rufin. citat. ubi fupra p. 185. not. (8) (6) Vol. x. p. 41.

(u).p: 43:


Hebrow verity. I refer below (y) to another place relating to the books of the New Testament.

The third Council of Carthage, about 397. ordains," that (z) nothing “ beside the canonical scriptures be read in the Church under the name “Divine Scriptures.”

Auguftin, in 395. and afterwards, often (a) speaks of canonical scriptures, and the (6) whole canon of fcripture, that is, all the sacred books of the Old and New Testament. We “(c) read of some, says he, that they searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so. Acts xvii. 11. “ 'What scriptures, I pray, except the canonical scriptures of the Law and " the Prophets ? To them have been fince added the Gospels, the Epistles « of Apostles, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Revelation of John.Of the superior authority of the canonical scriptures to all others, he speaks frequently in passages afterwards alledged (d) in the same chapter.

Chryfoftom in a place already cited (e) says: “ They (f) fall into "great absurdities, who will not follow the rule (or canon) of the divine u scripture, but trust entirely to their own reasoning." I refer to another place (8) to the like purpose.

Says Ifidore of Pelufium, about 412.." That (i) these things are so, we “ fhall perceive, if we attend to the rule (canon] of truth, the divine “ fcriptures.”

And Leontius, of Conftantinople, about 610. having cited the whole catalogue of the books of scripture from Genesis to the Revelation (k) concludes : “ These (1) are the ancient and new books, which are re“ceived in the Church as canonical."

By all which we discern, how much the use of these words, canon and canonical, bas obtained among Chriftians, denoting those books, which are of the highest authority, and the rule of faith: as opposed to all other whatever, particularly to ecclefiaftical, or the writings of orthodox and learned catholics, and to apocryphal, the productions, chiefly, of heretics, which by a specious name and title made a pretension to be accounted among sacred books. IV. The most common and general division of the ca

Old and Neau nonical books, is that of ancient and new, or the Old and New Teftament. The Hebrew word, berith, from which



B. 208.

6) Vol. x. p. 86. (2)...p.193. (a). . . p. 207. (6) Totus autem canon scripturarum . . his libris continetur. Ib. not. (r) (c) .p. 252. (d) See p. 253. 256.259... 268. (c) Vol. xii. p. 126.

f) Οράς, εις όσιν ατοπίαν εκπίπλυσιν οι μή βελόμενοι τω της θείας γραφής καTariztin revóví

. x a. In Gen. cap. 33. bom, 58. 7. 4. P. 566. B. (3) Vid. hom. 33. in A&. Ap. sub fin.

(i) Οτι δε ταύτα έτως έχει, τον κανόνα της αληθείας, της θείας φημί γραφάς, waarleucoply. Ifid. ep. 114. 1. 4. (t) See Vol. xi. p. 381.

ή Ταυτά έσι τα κανουιζόμενα βιβλία εν τη εκκλησία, και παλαιοί και νέα. Citas. ibid. p. 380. not, (e)

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it is translated, properly signifies (m) covenant. St. Paul, 2 Cor. iii. 16. .... 18. sewing the superior excellence of the gospel-covenant, or the dispensation by Christ, above the legal covenant, or the dispensation by Mofes, useth the word testament, not only for the covenant itself, but likewise for the books, in which it is contained. At least he does so, in speaking of the legal covenant. For, representing the case of the unbelieving part of the Jewish People, he fays, v. 14. Until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in reading the Old Testament,

It is no wonder therefore, that this way of speaking has much prevajled among Christians. Melito, Bishop of Sardis, about the year 177. went into the East, to get an exact account of the books of the Law and the Prophets. In his letter to his friend Onesimus, giving an account of his journey, and reckoning up the books in their order, he calls them (n) the ancient books, and (0) the books of the Old Testament. Eusebe calls it (P) “a catalogue of the acknowledged scriptures of the Old Testament. Our Ecclefiaftical Historian elsewhere (9) speaks of the scriptures of the New Testament. I shall remind my readers of but one instance more. Cyril of Jerujalem, introducing his catalogue of scriptures received by the Christian Church, says : « These (9')' things we are taught by the diu vinely inspired fcriptures of the Old and New Testament. Many other like examples occur in the preceding volumes of this work. Infirılment.

V. Inftead of teftament Latin writers sometimes use the

word infirument, denoting writing, charter, record. We find it feveral times in Tertullian, reckoned the most ancient Latin writer of the Church now remaining. In a passage already (s) cited he calls the Gospels, or the New Testament in general, the Evangelic Instru. ment. And says, “ How (t) large chalms Marcion has made in the "epistle to the Romans; by leaving out what he pleases, may appear from “ our entire Instrument:" or our unaltered copies of the New Testament, particularly of that epistle. Speaking of the Shepherd of Hermas, he says, it (u) was not reckored a part of the Divine Instrument: thereby meaning, as it seems, the New Teitament. Which passage was quoted (*)


(m) Notandum, quod Brith, verbum Hebraicum, Aquila ouvohnny, id eft, pa&um, interpretatur: Lxx femper dia sxv, id eft, teftamentum : et in plerifque scripturarum locis teftamentum non voluntatem defunctorum fonare, sed pactum viventium. Hieron. in Malach. cap. ii. 7. 3. p. 1816.

(η) Ετι δε και μαθειν την των παλαιών βιβλίων έβα, ήθης ακρίβειαν. κ. λ. Αp. Eufeb. l. 4. c. 27. p. 148. D. (0)

Και ακριες μαθών τα της παλαίας διαθήκης βιβλία. ..Ι. p. 149. A.

(P) Ibid. p. 148. D. () Sce Vol. viii. p. 197.
(r) The fame. p. 267. (s) See Vol. i. p. 577.

(1) Quantas autem foveas in ifta vel maxime epistola [ad Romanos] Marcion fecerit, auferendo quae voluit, de noftri inftrumenti integritate patebit. Adv. Marcion.l. 5. cap. 13. p.6ei.

(1) Sed coderem tibi, fi fcriptura Paftoris-divino instrumento meruillet incidí... De l'udicit. cap. 10. p. 727. A.

(x) Su Vol.ii.p. 638. !

by us formerly." "He calls (y) the Law and the Prophets the "Jewish Instruments; that is, writings, or 'scriptures. He speaks of the antiquity (z) of the Jewish Instruments, or Scriptures. He (a) seem's in one place to use the word instrument, as equivalent to scriptures, containing the doctrine of revelation, or the revealed wilt of God. VI. Digest is another word used by Tertullian in speaking of

Digeft, the scriptures. " Luke's (b) Digest, he says, is often afcribed to Poul.He calls (c) the Gospels, or the whole New Testament, our Digeft, in allufion, as it seems to some collection of the Roman Laws digested into order. Those two passages were cited in the chapter of Tertullian. I now transcribe the latter below fd) more at large, it having also the word inftrument, as equivalent to the New Testament. He likewise calls the Jewish Scriptures (e) Sacred Digests. He seems to use the word digest if ) elsewhere, as equivalent to writing, or work, in general.

I shall not take notice of any other general denominations of the sacred fcriptures.

VII. My chief concern is with the New Testament, which, as is well known, consists of Gospels, the Acts, and Epistles.

Gospelo The only word, that needs explanation, is the first.

Gospel is a translation of the Greek word wegyézsoy, the Latin word Evangelium, which fignifies any good message or tidings. In the New Teftament the word denotes the doctrine of salvation, taught by Jefus Christ, and his Apostles. Which indeed is gospel by way of eminence, as it is the best tidings that ever were published in this world. Says Theodoret upon Rom. i. 1. “He (3) calls it gospel, as it contains af

“ furance 6) Aut nunquid non justi Judæi, & quibus pænitentia non opus effet, habentes gubernacula disciplinæ, &qimoris instrumenta, Legem & Prophetas. De Pudicitia, cap. 7. p.722. B.

(2) Primam instrumentis iftis auctoritatem summa antiquitas vindicat. Apol. cap. 19.p. 19. B.

Sed quoniam edidimus, antiquiffimis Judæorum instrumentis sectam iftam effe fuffultam. Apol.cap. 21. in p. 20.

(a) Sed quo plenius & impressius tam ipsum, quam dispositiones ejus & voluntates adiremus, inftrumentum adjecit literaturze, fi quis velit de Deo inquir rere. Apol. cap. i8.p.18. C. (6) See Vol. ii. p. 581. or 579. (c) The same. p. 629. or 630.

d) Si vero Apoftoli quidam integrum evangelium contulerunt, de fola convictus inæqualitate reprehenfi, Pseudapostoli autem veritatem coruin interpolárunt, et inde sunt nolira digesta : quod erit germanum illud Apustulorum inftrumentum, quod adulteros paffum eft ? Adver. Marc.. l. 4. cap. 3. p.

() Sed homines gloriæ, ut diximus, et eloquentiae folius libidinofi, fi quid in sanctis offenderunt digeftis, exinde regeftum pro instituto curiositatia ad propria verterunt. Apolo cap.47.p.41. B.

f) Elegi ad compendium Varronis opera, qui rerum divinarum ex omnibus retro digeftis commentatus, idoneum fe nobis fcopum exposuit, Ad Natione 1. 2. cap. i. p. 64. C.

(3) Ευαγγέλιον δε το κήρυγμα προσηγόρευσεν, ώς πολλων αγαθών επισχύ εναν χορηγίαν. Ευαγγελίζεται γαρ τάς τε θες και αλλαγές, την τυ διαβόλα καιάλυσιν, των αμαρτημάτων την άφεσιν, το θανάτε την ταυλαν, των νεκρών την ανάσασιν, την ζωήν την αιω, ιον, την Bestán Tür epavăx, In ep. ad Rom. T. 3. p. 10. B.

504. B.

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