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A History of the Apostles and Evangelifts, Writers of the

New Testament. In three Volumes. Containing ge-
neral Observations upon the Canon of the New
Testament, and a History of the four Evangelists,
with the Evidences of the Genuineness of the four
Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles, the Times
when they were writ, and Remarks upon them. By

This book of Dr. Lardner, otherwise intitled the Supplement to the
Credibility of the Gospel History, was published in 1756-7. It is so full
and judicious on the Subject of the Canon of the New Testament, that
it may of itself be sufficient to give the Reader very satisfactory in-
formation on that point. Du Pin published a complete History of the
Canon and Writers of Books of the Old and New Testament, which
was tranflated into English in 1699, 2 Vols. Fol. Bp. Cofin published
a Scholaftical History of the Canon of the Holy Scripture, in 1672,
4to. In Carpzovius's Introduction to the Canonical Books of the Old
Testament, the Reader will find many learned Remarks on the Consti-
tution of the Canon of Scripture. He may also, if he thinks fit, con-
sult Jones's full Method of settling the Canonical Authority of the New
Teftament; Mills' Prolegomena; Richardson's Defence of the Canon
of the New Testament, against Toland; Dr. Clarke's Reflexions on
Amyntor, &c. Dr. Owen published a sensible Tract in 1764, intitled,
Observations on the four Gospels, tending chiefly to ascertain the
Times of their Publication, and to illustrate the Form and the Manner
of their Composition; his Scheme of the Times, &c. is printed at the
End of this Volume. Much information on the same subject may be
had in Macknight's Preliminary Differtations; in Michaelis's Intro-
ductory Lectures; in Georgii Pritii Introductio in Lectionein Novi
Teftamenti, and in a variety of other Authors.


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General Denominations of the Collection of sacred Books, received by Christiansi

1. Scripture. 11. Bible. III. Canon IV. Old and New Teftament.

V. Inftrument. VI. Digeft. VII. Goppel.

NE of the general denominations of sacred books
is Scripture, or Scriptures, literally, and primarily

Scripture. Signifying writing. But by way of eminence and distinction the books in the highest esteem are called Scripture, or the Scriptures.

This word occurs often in the New Teftament, in the Gospels, the Ads

, and the Fpistles. Whereby we perceive, that in the time of our Saviour and his Apostles this word was in common use, denoting the books received by the Jewish People, as the rule of their faith. To them have been fince added by Christians the writings of Apostles and Evangelifts, completing the collection of books, received by them as facred

Some of the places, where the word Scripture is used in the fingular number for the books of the Old Testament, are these. 2 Tim. iii. 16. All feripture is given by the inspiration of God. And Luke iv. 21. John 1:22. Acts i. 16. vii. 32. 35. Rom. iv. 3. Gal. ii. 8. James ii. 18.23. 1 Pet. ii. 6. 2 Pet. 1. 20. Scriptures, in the plural number, in these following, and many other places. Matth. xxi

. 42. xxii. 29. xxvi. 54. Luke xxiv. 27. 32. 45. John v. 39. Acts xvii. 2. 11. xviii. 24. 28., 2 Tim. üi, 15. 2 Pet. ii. 16.


St. Peter

and divine.

Vol. II.

St. Peter applies this word to the books of the New, as well as of the Old Testament, to St. Paul's Epistles, in particular. 2 Pet. iii. 16. .. as also in all his epislles . . which they that are unlearned, wrest, as they do all the other fcriptures, unto their own destruction. Plainly denoting, that

St. Paul's Epistles are Scriptures in the highest sense of the word.

II. Bible is another word, which has now been long in use

among Christians, denoting the whole collection of writings received by them, as of divine Authority.

The word, primarily, denotes book. But now is given to the writings of Prophets and Apostles by way of eminence. This collection is the Bock, or Bible, the book of books, as fuperior in excellence to all other books. The word seems to be used in this sense by Chryfoftom in a parsage already (ar) cited, " I therefore exhort all of you to procure to your"felvés Bibles; B.Caico' If you' have nothing else,' take care to have the “ New Testament, particularly, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Gof

constant initructors.” And Jerome fays, “ That (b) the « Scriptures being all writ by one Spirit, are called one book.” We likewise saw, formerly a passage of Augustin, where he informs us, “ That (0) « fome called all the canonical scriptures one book, on account of their “ wonderful harmonie, and unity of design throughout.” And I then said: “It is likely, that this way of speaking gradually brought in the general use of the word Bible, for the whole collection of the scriptures, or the books of the Old and New Testament."

In short, the ancient Christians were continually speaking of the Di. vine Oracles, and the Divine Books, and were much employed in reading them, as Chrysostom directs in a passage, transcribed (d) below: where he recommends the reading the divine books daily, forenoon and afternoon. At length the whole collection was called the book, or the bible.

Dr. Heumann has an Epiftle, or short Dissertation (e) concerning the origin of this name of our sacred collection of books. And for some while he was of opinion, that (f) it was so called, as being the most ex. cellent of all books : in like manner as the Jews had before called their collection the Scriptures, by way of eminence. So Acts xviii. 24. and 28. But (8) afterwards he fuspected, that the origin of this name was in


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* Hac parte (quod bene notandum eft) Petrus canonizat, ut ita loquar, id
est, in canonem facrarum fcripturarum afcribit, atque canonicas facit epifto-
las Pauli. Dicens enim, ficut & ceteras fcripturas, utique fignificat, fe etiam
illas in fcripturarum numero habere, De facris autem fcripturis eum loqui,
in confesso eft. Ef. in loc.
.. (a) Vol. X. p. 319.

(6) The same. p. 158. (c) The fame. p. 256. (4) Αλλά δεν τανία καιρών επιλήδειον ηγείσθαι προς την των πνευματικών λόγων διαλεξιν, ..... Δυνησόμεθα και επί οικίας διατρίβονλες, και μετά την επιάσιν, και προ της έσιάσεως μέλα χείρας λάθονίες τα θεία βιβλία της εξ αυτών καρπεσθαι ωφέλειαν. In i. Gen, bom. x. T. 4. p. 81. C. Bened,

(e) De origine nominis Bibliorum. Heum. Poecile. Tom. i. p. 412...4!5.

I Sufpicari deinde cæpi, ideo Biblia dictum esse sacrum codicem, quod tanquam liber omnium præstantissimus xx?itoxin di&tus fit và Bibrio. Sup. petias conjecture huic ferre videbatur illa appellatio, qua idem divinum opus vocari folet ai ngapai. e. gr. Act. xviñ. 24. 28. Id. ib. p. 413. (8) Ib. p. 414.


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