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to God, in order to obtain for them an eternal Redemption. So critical. a Conjuncture was exceedingly proper fenfibly to affect the Hearts of his then dull Disciples; and was, perhaps, for that Reason, pitched upon for the first Celebration of the Eucharift.
Another Thing to be here observed, is that our Saviour had been just eating the Passover*. Now it seems to be a common Opinion among the Learned of all Parties, that the Eucharilt fucceeded in the Place of the Paffover, and good. Use may be made of this Observation, to explain the Nature of the Eucharist, as well as the Phrases of the Institution. There is certainly a great Resemblance between both Ordinances: And among the many Instances which might be brought in Proof of it, I shall confine myself to such only as may give Light to the Subject.
Now, not to infist upon a great Number of resembling Circumstances which might be
* It has been a great Dispute among the Learned, whe“ ther our Saviour kept the legal Passover, and on the same Day with the Yews; or whether he did not anticipate the Time, foreseeing that he was to die before that Solemnitys or whether rather he had a common Supper only (betore the Day of unleavened Bread began) in Imitation of the Jiovish Passover: It would carry me beyond the Delign of this Treatile to enumerate the several Reasons on which each Side maintains its Opinion: The last, which, at first Sight, seems to be contrary to what three of the Evangelists have said on this Matter, but which is pretended to be founded on the Words of St John (who says, it was BEFORE the Feast of ibe Passover, John xiii, 1) has been lateiy very strongly supported, and the Account of all the Evangelists very plautibly reconciled thereto,' by F. Calmet. See Dissertation sur la derniere Páque de f. C. à la Tête du Comment. furSt Math. See also Wall on Math. xxvi. 27.
produced (as that both these Sacraments were frederal Rites, both of divine Institution, and the like) we may perceive, that the Ceremories are in a good Measure the same : For as in the pafchal Supper (according to the Method observed in our Saviour's Time) the Master of the House used to take Bread, to bless, and break it ; likewise to take a Cup of Wine * and consecrate it, which was afterwards called a cup of Blelling; distributing both, one after tlic other, to those that were with him at. Table; fo it is obvious to every one, that our Saviour does exactly the same. Moreover, as when the firit Paffover was celebrated in Egypt, before the destroying Angel had passed over the Houses, we find the Lamb fain on that Occasion was called, by Anticipation, the Lord's Passover t, tho' it could not be the real Passover, but only a Representation of it; so our Saviour makes Use of the very same Manner of Expression, This is my Body which is brcken, and this my Blood which is feed for you, j.e. “ These are the Signs and Symbols which " I appoint to represent my Body which is soon
to be broken, and my Blood which is foon
to be shed for you and for many, for the “ Remiffion of Sins.” And indeed this Manner of Speaking ll, of giving to the Sign the
Name * Some say that the Master of the House used to take four Cups, one after the other, and that it was the third or fourth, which our Saviour was pleased to sanctify, by taking into his Hands, and giving Thanks over it.
Ť Exod. xii, 11.
!! The Jesus in the Celebration of thc Passover used to say, This is the Bread of Afliction which our Forefathers cat
Name of the Thing signified, was fo common in the Old Testament I, and so often used by our Saviour himself t, that the Disciples ex
press’d no Sort of Surprize at it, which they i would have done, in all Probability, had they
thought the Words capable of being understood in a literal Sense * ; nay, the Jews are obliged to speak in that Manner, having no Word in the Hebrew which expresses the Term fignify.
Our in Egypt ; and, this is the Body of the Pasover. Whether this Form of speaking is so ancient as our Saviour, I pretend not to say ; I only mention it to thew, that these Kinds of Phrases are very familiar to the Jews.
Justin Martyr takes Notice, that Esdras, at a Passover, had said to the Jews, This Palover (i. e. Paschal Lamb) is our Saviour and our Refuge, and that the Fews after Christ's Time had erased these Words out of the Septuagint : Whether he was right or no, the Words are wortb observing, as delivering what the Christians in his Time understood to be paschal Phrases, para!lel to this is
I Gen. xvii. 13, xli. 26. Dan. ii. 38, &c. iv. 20, vii. 17. , Ezek. xxxvii. II.
† Mat.xiii,38. Johnx.7.XV.1. As to this last Text, I cannot forbear saying, How would the Church of Romc exult, if our Saviour had said, at the Institution of this holy Sacrament, This is my true Body, as he says here, I am the TRUE Vine, which yet the understands, as well as we, in a metaphorical Sense ? See also Rom. vi, 4. i Cor. x, 4. Col. ii, 12. Rev. i, 20. xvii, 7.
* The Church of Rome, at the same Time that me would have the Words, this is my Body and Blood, taken literally, is obliged to have Recourfe to a Figure in other Parts of the Institution itself: For me does not pretend that it is the Cup, but the Wine in the Cup, which is the Blood of Chrift; nor that the Cup itself is the Blood of the New Testament (or Covenant), tho' the Words are as express, as those The lays so great a Stress on: Now if the Absurdity of understanding those Expressions literally obliges the Romanists to fly to a metaphorical Senfe, why nould it not extend for that very Reason to the whole Passage? Surely, if they would act consistently, they must interpret the same Form B 4.
Our Saviour feems further to allude to the ewish Paflover, when he says, This Cup is the new Covenant in my Blood; for as the Blood of the Lamb was the Token, and was to be the Memorial of the Covenant between God and his people, whereby the Plague was not to be upon them to destroy them, when he smote the Land of Egypt * ; fo the Cup is a Repretentation of the blood of Christ, which Blond was the Token and Ratification (nay the very Foundation) of the Covenant of Grace, made between God and Men for the Remifion of Sins ||
Thus far we may see the very striking Resemblance there is between these two Sacraments : It appears that both were intended to preserve to the then present Generation, and to Pofterity after them, the Remembrance of fome special Deliverance which God had wrought for his People; and in this Respect they perfectly agree: But there are some Diffe. rences which occur between them, and which of Speech in one uniform Way, and not against all Rules of Criticism, and in the incft arbitrary Manner, understand one Part literally, and another Part figuratively, without giving any Rule for such Licence, but what will in the End turn against themselves. * Exod. xii, 13.
|| At the Institution of the Passover, it was said, THIS BLOOD shall be to you for a Token upon the Houses where you are; and when I see the Blood, I will pass over you, and the Plague snall not be upon you. Exod. xii. 13. In the Institution of the Eucharist, the Cup is by a Figure put for Wine; and Covenant, according to the ancient Scripture Phrase, is put for Token of a Covenant; and Wine, Representative of Christ's Blood, answers to the Blood of the Paffover, typical of the same Blood of Christ; and the Remiffion of Sins here, answers to the passing over the Israelites, and preserving them from the Plague.
will appear to be greatly to the Advantage of the Eucharift.
Thus, for Instance: The Passover was meant to point out a Deliverance from a temporal Bondage ; whereas the Eucharist was intended to be a Memorial of a greater Deliverance from spiritual and eternal Bondage. The Passover prefigured, but in an obscure Manner, the Death of Christ, before it was accomplish'd ; while the Eucharist represents, and sets forth in the plainest Manner, the Death of our Saviour as past *. The Jewish Deliverance was confined and peculiar to that People; whereas the Deliverance we commemorate is universal, and extends to all the World. The Passover was only to continue during the Jewish Oeconomy ; but the Eucharist is to last till the Confummation of all Things t, till our Saviour comes again || to Judgment, to render to every Man according to his Deeds $.
* Our Saviour, probably in Allusion to the Passover, is often called the Lamb of God. John i. 29.
1 Pet. i. 19. Rev. v. 9, and even the Passover itself: Chrift our Palover is facrificed for us. I Cor. V, 7.
† When it is here said of the Cup; that it is the NEW Testament (or Covenant) that teems to carry a plain Insinua-. tion, that the Old one was to be abolished': In that be faitb.2. new Covenant, be bath made the first old : Now that which dicayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away. Heb. viii. 13.
! Not as some Quakers vainly pretend, till He comes fpiritually into our Hearts ; for surely our Saviour was come into the Heart of the Apostle before he wrote this Epiftle, A. D. Circ. 58, many Years after his Conversion; so that it appears that the Instruction he gives was to be of stand. ing Force and Obligation, till our Saviour comes to the final Judgment :---And accordingly, after this Epistle was wrote, the Disciples used to come together to eat Bread, at one of which Meetings St Paul is expressly mention'd ta have been prelent, Atts xx. il 1 Cor.xi 26. § 2 Cor. V, 10. Rom.ji, 6.