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ELEMENTS OF MUSIC.

u EXAMPLE OF THE CHROMATIC SCALE.

Two tones, indicated by two notes, occupying the same degree of the These are given by the white keys of the pianoforte, while the black keys give the five inserted is a SECOND; if three degrees, a THIRD; if four, a FOURTH; if five, a Nors. The notes having the dots ofer them represent the tones of the Diatonic scale, key of c: staff, are said to be in Unison. If the interval includes two degrees, it ASCENDING.

FIFTH, if six, a Sixth, if seven, a SEVENTH ; if eight, an OCTAVE. : & sto &

NOTE.--An interval is always counted upward, unless the contrary is specified, and the degrees occupied by the NOTES, and all those between them are counted.

EXAMPLE OF INTERVALS.
sharp
sharp sharp sharp

DIATONIC INTERVALS.

CHROMATIC INTERVALI. NAMES, One, one, two, two, three, four, four, five, five, six, six, seven, eight. PITCH, c, CD, DE, F, Fm G, GA, A# B, C. DESCENDING å ha ģ

Unison, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Octave. Third, 9:

Third. pa o bo

$ 71. Major and Minor Intervals.- In these intervals, excepting in the

unisons and the octaves, those of the same name will be found to Names, Eight,seven,seven, six, six, five, five, four, three three, two, two, one. differ in extent to the amount of a half-step. The larger ones are PITCH, C, B, B2,

A, AB,
G, G2, F,

E, Eh, D, D2, C. termed Major, the smaller ones MINOR.
$ 68. In singing by syllables, whenever a note occurs with a , or a b UNISONS are of the same pitch.
before it, the same syllable is used that would be, did not the

or bap

SECONDS.-A Minor Second consists of a half-step ; a MAJOR SECOND of a whole step. pear, save that the termination is changed. If a sharp appear," the syl

THIRDS.-A MINOR THIRD consists of a step and a half-step ; MAJOR THIRD of two steps.

FOURTHS.-A * PERFECT Fourth consists of two steps and a half-step; a * SHARP lable ends with ee; if a flat, with the long a or ay; thus : One is called Fourth of three steps. Do: sharp one, DEE; seven, Sı; flat seven, Say.

FIFTHS.--A *FLAT FIFTH consists of two steps and two half-steps : a * PERFECT Fifth $ 69. A# or a b continues in force throughout the measure in which it of three steps and one half-slep.

SIXTHẾ.--A MINOR Sixth consists of three steps and two half-steps; a MAJOR Sixth of occurs; also through succeeding measures when the same tone is con- four steps and one half-step. tinuously repeated, unless canceled by the sign 1, called a NATURAL. SEVENTHS.-A Flat Seventh consists of four steps and two half-steps ; a SHARP EXAMPLES.

SEVENTH of fide steps and one half-step.
1.

2.
3,

OCTAVÉS.-OCTAVES are equal, each consisting of five steps and two half-steps. When the lower note of the two representing an interval is placed an octave higher, or the upper one an octave lower, the interval is said to be INVERTED.

Notr..--These are called DIATONIC INTERVALS, as they are all found in the Diatonic SCALE. Those

marked * have special names. Other intervals, called CHROMATIC INTERVALS, may be forined by the In 1, by the rule, 969, the fourth note indicates F$; and the four tones in the third mea.

use of Sharps and Flats. Thus F to A $ is an EXTENDED third, being a half-step greater than a major Bere are G In 2, the fourth note is F, the s being canceled by the 3. In 3, the first two third ; and E to Gb is a DMiNiseen third. tones second measure would be F!, but for the E. In 4, the first tone of the second measure is Bbw , but two tones, A and G, intervening, the fourth tone is B (or as is frequently said

CHAPTER XIII. B natural). A sharp or a flat occurring in a measure, is called an accidental, in distinc

MELODICS CONTINUED. tion from those forming the signature. See $ 80.

$ 72. Minor Scale.--In the Natural Minor Scale (8 56) the half steps CHAPTER XII.

occur between two and three, and five and six. Other forms of the

minor scale are used, that may be called artificial. MELODICS CONTINUED.

8 73. The Harmonic Form differs from the natural by the introduction of $ 70. Intervals.-We have said, in $ 50, that "the difference in piich sharp seven. between any two tones is called an INTERVAL.” The various intervals $ 74. The Melodie Form in ascending has both sharp six and sharp seven, are best illustrated upon the staff.

while it usually descends by the natural form.

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ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. $ 75. Relative Major and Minor - If six of any major scale be taken as

EXAMPLES OF THE KEY OF D. one of a new scale, it will give its relative minor scale. If three of any

1. WRONG.
minor scale be taken as one of a new scale, it will give its relative major
scale. O edgiet;
Saha när han baki EXAMPLE OF THE MINOR SCALE,

1 2 3
6 7 8, 1 2 3 4 5

7 8.
Showing the relative
positions of the inte
intervals in the three forms.

Here we find it necessary to use two of the INSERTED tones from the chromatic scale, but if we pro1. Natural FORM 2. HARMONIC FORM.

ceed by a certain law in our transpositions, only one tone in each new scale will be found wrong, as we will find below.

$ 79. The First Transposition of the Scale by Fifths, from C to G, requires

that F# be taken instead of F, to preserve the proper intervals between 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 step 78

six and seven, and between seven and eight.

and a half, 3. MELODIC FORM.

ILLUSTRATION. ela ASCENDING. lavita

for alk.

DESCENDING,
Ha

THE SCALE.
KEY OF C.

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1 2 3 4

5 5 6

7 8 2 7 8 8

6 5 4 3 2 1. NOTE.-Observe that one feature is common to all three forms; that Three of the scale is a minor third from the Key note One, wbile in the major scale it is a major

third. This is the distinguishing THE SCALE. feature of the minor scale.

KEY OF G.
CHAPTER XIV.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. MELODICS CONTINUED.

Observe in the scale that the first four tones, and the last four, follow 876. Transposition.—Thus far in all our examinations of the major scale each other in the same order as to intervals, making step, step, half we have taken C as one; but a tone of any other pitch may be taken as step, from one to four, and step, step, half step, from five to eight. one. Then the position of the scale as to pitch is changed, and such a Beginning then on Five, it is plain that taking the upper half (as we change is called TRANSPOSITION, or the TRANSPOSITION OF THE SCALE. may call it,) of the scale, Key of C, as the lower half of the scale,

$ 77. The letter taken as one of the scale, is called the Key. Thus, if Key of G, the first four tones will be right. Taking G then as one, C be one, the scale is said to be in the Key of C; if D, it is in the Key and ascending, we find all right but F, seven, which is but a halt of D, and so on.

step from E, six, and a step from G, eight in the new Key of G. $ 78. When the scale is transposed, the order of its intervals is pre- from E to F#, six to seven, and a half step from F#to G, seven to

Therefore F is omitted and F# inserted, by which we obtain á step served by the use of one or more of the inserted tones represented to eight, making a correct scale, Key of G. the eye by sharps or flats. NOTR.-Suppose we are singing the scale in the Key of C. Let us sing up to two and stop. Now

8 80. Signature.—The sign or signs of the inserted tone or tones used take that tone (which of course is D), as one, and using the syllables Do, Re, Mi, &c., sing the scale. in any key, placed on the staff next to the clef, are called the SIGNATURE provided the tones are within the range of our voices. But as in the major scale, the half-steps come of that key. Thus the signature of the key of G is one sharp, or F#. between thrce and four

, and seven and eight, it follows, that when we began on D, we did not sing the The signature of the key of C is said to be natural ; that is, there are no B to C (6, 7) Are HALF STEPS, while the scale requires that from 2 to 3, and from 6 to 7 shall be stEPS. signs indicating tones not found in the so-called natural scale or key. The tone we used in the place of E was #, and in the place of C, C. Let us sing the scale in the $ 81. Second Transposition by Fifths, from G to D. - (four in the key of Key of D, while some one plays a pianoforte. When we come to three, we find F too low, and it is necessary to play the black key next above, Ff. In the same way, C is too low for seven, and Cs G) being found too low, must be omitted, and C# taken, as seven in the

new key of D. Signature two sharps.

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ILLUSTRATION.

§ 88. The sign of B flat, or one flat' (b) on B, is the signature of this Five,six,seven,one, two, three, four,five,six,seven,eight.

key. @a

§ 89. Second Transposition by Fourths ; F to Bk-Omit E and take Ek KEY OF G.

Key of B 2. Signature two fiats.

$ 90. Third Transposition by Fourths; B2 to E 2.--Omit A and take A k. KEY or D. One, two, three, four,five,six,seven,eight. Key of E. Signature three flats. $ 82. Third Transposition by Fifths, from D to A-Here G (four) must be $ 91. Fourth Transposition by Fourths; Ek to Ak.-Omit 1 and take Dk omitted, and G# taken as seven to Á, Key of A. Signature three sharps. Key of A 2. Signature four flats.

$ 83. Fourth Transposition by Fifths, from A to E.-Omit D (four) and $ 92. Eifth Transposition by Fourths; Ak to Dk.-Omit G and take Gk. take Das seven to E, Key of E. Signature four sharps.

Key of Dk. Signature five flats. $ 84. Finh Transposition by Fifths, from E to B.—Omit A and take A # of 2: Signature six flats

$93. Sixth Transposition by Flats; Dk to Gk ---Omit C and take ck. Key Key of B. Signature five sharps. $ 85. Sixth Transposition by Fifths , from B to F#---Omit E and take E #. ther carried, but as the last key, Gk with six flats, sounds the same to

$ 95. This transposition by fourths, like that by fifths, can be still farKey of F: Signature six sharps.

the ear as F# with six sharps, and as at the next transposition we only This transposition by fifths may be continued without end, theoretically, but as the will have the"key of ck, with seven flats, which sounds the same as the keys thus obtained appear to the ear the same as those more easily found, as shown in the next chapter, they are of little practical use. When we arrive at the key of G$ f! key of B, with only five sharps, it will be of little use. The keys beyond must be omitted, and F Double SHARP (F x) taken. The keys beyond E (four sharps) A B (four flats) are seldom used in church music. are seldom used in church music.

$ 96. Observe here, that in each transposition seven of the old scale is $ 86. In each of these transpositions One has been taken a fifth higher, altered to flat seven, which becomes four of the new scale. Hence the and the new tone introduced has been sharp four; hence the rule, “SHARP rule that fiat seven transposes the scale a fourth. Four transposes the scale a fifth,” or the tone of transposition between

ILLUSTRATION OF KEYS AND SIGNATURES. any key and the one based on its fifth, is Sharp FOUR.

KEY OF C. KEY OF G. KEY or D. KEY OF A. KEY OF E. KEY OF B. KEY OF THE CHAPTER XV.

MELODICS CONTINUED. As we have taken the upper four tones of a scale for the lower four of a new scale, based KEY OP C. Key or F. Key or Bb. Key or Eb. Ker op Ab. Key of Dk. KEY of Gh. on five of the old key, so we may take the lower four for the upper four of a new scale, based on four of the old key.

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8 87. First Transposition by Fourths, from C to F.-Taking F as one, it will be found necessary to omit B, and to take Bk as four in the new key of F.

Note.-Observe that the transposition by Flats is precisely the reverse of that by Sharps. Each

new sharp transposes the scale a FIFTH HIGHER, or which is the same by inversion, a FOURTH LOWER. ILLUSTRATION.

Here the upper four tones of the old scale are taken as the lower four of the new scale, while sharp

On the contrary, each new flat transposes the scale a FOORTH HIGHER, or a FIFTH LOWER. Now the Key or C.

lower four tones become the higher ones of the new scale, and flat seven of the old becomes four of

the new. Starting at C, with either we run into the other at Gb or F, and return in a circle again to One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, two, three, four.

C. Thus by fifths (or downward by fourths) we have, on the upper staff of the illustration, C, G, D, A,

E, B, F# which is the same as Gb on the lower staff; then to the left over it by Db, Ab, Eb, Bb, F

क Kay or F.

back to C. Again by fourths, or downwards by Afths) we have on the lower staff C, F, Bb, eb, Ab, Db, gh, which is the same as F on the upper staff, and then back by that staf B, E, A, D, G to C.

A transposition may occur in the middle of a melody, and is then called a MODULATION. If long conOne, two, three, four, five, six, seven,eight. tinued, it is often well to change the syllables to correspond with the new key

four of the old scale becomes seven of the new.

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by notes of a smaller size. They are foreign to the harmony in 16

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ELEMENTS OF MUSIC.
CHAPTER XVI.

TURN. WRITTEN.

OU MELODICS CONCLUDED. APPOGGIATURA, AFTER NOTE, SHAKE or TRILL and TURN. 8 97. Tones, not essentially belonging to a melody, are often introduced, PERFORMED. called Passing Tones. They are sometimes, though not always, represented b which they appear. $ 98. The Appoggiatura is a passing tone that preceedes an essential tone NOTE.-- Neither the Trill or Turn belongs to chorus singing. The Trill at least should only be intro

duced by a cultivated voice after long practice. on an accented part of a measure. NOTE.- From the Italian APPOGGIARE, TO LEAN, OR REST UPON. The voice leans or rests upon the

$ 102. Various Characters, some of which have not been introduced.—The appoggiatura before taking the principal tone. It takes its time from the principal tone.

BRACE, placed before two or more staves, show how many parts move $ 99. The After Note.--A passing tone that follows an essential tone on an piece of music is to be sung or played twice. Sometimes a repetition of

,

The REPEAT shows that a portion of a 'inaccented part of a measure, is called an AFTER TONE.

a short

passage is indicated by the term Bis. A DOUBLE SHARP is used

before a note that represents a tone elevated two half-steps above the ILLUSTRATIONS.

natural tone. Thus F is a half-step higher than F, while Fx is two APPOGGIATURAS. WRITTEN. PERFORMED.

half-steps above F, and "sounds the same to the ear as G, though occupying another degree of the staff. A DOUBLE FLAT is the reverse of the DOUBLE SHARP. Thus, G 22 is two half-steps lower than G. A

DOUBLE SHARP is canceled thus : 6#, and a DOUBLE Flat thus : k. A PERFORMED. AFTER NOTES.

note may be twice-dotted, the second dot adding half to the length of
the first.

ILLUSTRATION.
BRACE. SLUR. REPEAT. BRACE. Bish

DOUBLE SHARP. HOLD.

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NOTE.-Thc DOUBLE SHARP is used in those keys having several sharps in their signatures, before a note representing a tone of the scale THAT IS ALREADY MARKED BY A SHARP IN THE SIGNATURE. the example above we want at the second note SHARP FOUR in the Treble. In the key of E, A is four, Athen will be sharp four, as written. In the Alto we want SHARP Two, but two in the key of E is F Therefore it will not do to put a before the note on two, as it would only indicate F#, which is already indicated in the signature; but a 8 double sharp is used to show that not two of the scale, (F$ is to be sung or played, but that shaRP Two, which is a half-step higher than $, is required. This is especially necessary for the organist or pianist, where a indicates that he shall" play the key next to the right, and a X, the second key to the right of the one he otherwise would play. The would

An Appoggiatura before a dotted note generally receives double the time it otherwise would.

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ELEMENTS OF MUSIC.

15 not answer here to cancel sharp two, for the note following it would then represent F natural : there expressing nothing, but sympathetic like the voice in speech, where fore 5s is used to show that one $ is removed, and that the note now represents F#, which, we know, the tone itself will betray the emotions of the speaker, though we can is two in the scale, key of E. THE DOUBLE FLAT is simply the reverse of the doublë sharp. The letters D. C. (da capo, to the head,) placed at the end of a piece of music, direct the ing tone, heard from many imitators of the opera, especially Soprano

not distinguish a word. Most especially, however, avoid that agonizmiddle, at a double bar, over which is the word Fine, meaning the end. DAL Segno, ( from singers, who sing everything, even the most spirited music and words the sign) in the same position, means, repeat from the sign F A Pause or Hold with a tone of voice that would lead a hearer to suppose, all hope over a note or rest, signifies that its time is to be prolonged beyond the usual length. In had fled, and they, poor souls! were standing on the very verge of beating time, the hand during such prolongation must remain stationary at the point it blank despair. may have reached. The o is frequently used with or without the word Fine over a double bar, to mark the close of a composition after a D. C.

$ 105. The proper Delivery of Words in Connection with Song. The Slue - connects notes that are to be sung to one syllable. When placed over notes upon the same degree, it is called a Tie.

Here we would observe, that a person who does not pronounce, accent, and emphasize his words correctly in reading, will not do so in singing. Again, that if the tone be de

livered luzily and without vigor, the words will surely be indistinct. CHAPTER XVII.

The general rule is to pronounce, accent, and emphasize words in DYNAMICS.

singing as in reading, unless there be some purely musical reason to § 103. Good taste requires that in singing the power or force of our the contrary. More care however is needed in singing, by reason tones shall be varied according to the character of the song or the sen- of the prolongation of the tones. A few hints only will be added. Form timent of the words.

the vowels correctly, and hold them firmly without change. Who can Tones as to their delivery are named, marked and described as below: tell pine from pin, unless the vowel in each be correctly formed ? In

any syllable it is the rouel only that is prolonged. Be careful, then, Mezzo (Met-20).

..marked m..
Of medium power.

that it be prolonged without change. For example, do not sing the Piano (Pee-a-no).

P
.Soft.

word great, grea-ee-t. Pianissimo..

pp

Very soft Forte (For-te).

Loud.

The consonants should be given quickly, forcibly, and with great Fortissimo..

ff.
Very loud.

precision, for on them, in a great measure, depends the distinct artiMezzo Piano...

Middling soft.

culation of words. In the words say, lay, hay, ray, bay, may, nay, Mezzo Forte..

m. f.

Middling loud. Crescendo.

Increase the power.

who can tell one from another, unless the consonant beginning it, be Diminuendo

dim, or
Diminish the power.

distinctly given? Form the habit of knowing just what elements conSwell ...

..Increase and then diminish.

stitute a word. Sforzando, or Explosive.. sf. or > ...Forcibly struck and quickly diminished. Pressure < or ~.A very sudden cres. or swell.

§ 106. Taking Breath-Take breath at such places as will not injure Legato.

..Smooth and connected.

the sense; at pauses and after emphatic words. Staccato.

.Very short and distinct. Semi-Staccato ...Less short and distinct.

§ 107. Finally let the tone be pure and the style simple; then en: Martellato.. sometimes < Marked, but not shortened.

tering into the spirit of both words and music, deliver the one disDynamics in music, like color in painting, give light and shade, life and finish to a tinctly, and the other neatly, and the performance will seldom fail to composition, and should be well understood.

produce the intended effect. $ 104. Emission of Tone.--In singing, let the tone be free, open, round,

Note.--In concluding these elements, the writer would say, that being unexpectedly called upon full, pure and resonant ; attacked with vigor "by a shock of the glot

at a time when the printer's “more copy" was already heard, they have been written amid the tis” (but without a jerk), delivered without drawling, and held firmly, many interruptions of business hours. Limited also as to space, many illustrations are necessarilyn:

left out. Still, he trusts, they will be found both intelligible aud useful. without trembling or wavering. Let it not be dry and monotonous,

J. M. P.

NAMES.

HOW MARKED.

EXPLANATIONS.

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m. p.

cres. or

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