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ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. $ 24. Letters and Absolute Pitch.—The tones of the octave are named


SECOND after the first seven LETTERS of the alphabet, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, which


PositioX. thus indicate the ABSOLUTE Pitch of them, independently of any scale relationship to each other,

$ 28. Clefs.-To show the position of the letters upon the staff, charac$ 25. Our Range of Tones Extended.—We formed the octave by taking two tones

, the higher of which was made by vibrations twice as rapid as ters, called Clefs, are used. This, as above, shows the first position. those producing the lower one, and inserting six other tones between It indicates that G is placed on the second line from the bottom, and is them. By taking the highest tone of this series of eight as the lowest one of a new series, and repeating the process, we get cight tones, form- called the G Cler. This 9: shows the second position, fixing F on the ing an octave above our first octave. Observe that the highest tone of the first octave is the lowest tone of the second or higher octave. By

fourth line from the bottom, and is called the F CLEF.

Note.-Clef is a French word, signifying key. reversing the process and taking a tone so much lower than the lower tone of the first octave that its vibrations are but half so rapid, and Example of the scale in the Key of C written on the staff, in the two inserting the six additional tones, we get eight tones, forming an positions indicated by the two clefs. octave below our first one. In the same manner we extend the scale above and below. Observe now that the lowest tone of our first oc

In the G Clef. tave is the highest tone of the octave below it. Let these letters represent the tones of the three octaves——the first A being the lowest

NAYES OF THE Tones. One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight. in the series.

с D E F

А B C.


Sol La Si Do. 1st Octave. | 24 Octave. | 3d Octave. | 4th Octave.


Here we see that the A marked 2 is the highest tone of one oc In the F Clef. 92
tave and the lowest of another. This is the reason why but seven
letters are used. The only limit to the extension of our range of NAMES.

One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight.

D tones, higher or lower, is the ability of the ear to distinguish them.

E F G А B C.

SYLLABLES. Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Si About nine octaves are used in music,

Do, NOTE.—'Though we have here arranged the octaves from A to A, yet that is unnecessary, for if we Another clef, the C clef, sometimes used indicates the tone C; sometimes on one line of count from any letter up or down to and including the sanie letter, we will have eight tones, or an oc. the staff, sometimes on another. Thus. tave. Thus : from B to B, or C to Care octaves.



Treble. 8 26. Natural Scale, Key of C.—Beginning on the tone C and proceeding to C again, we have eight tones, forming the scale. This

Thus: scale, the first used in the study of music, is called the NATURAL SCALE. Beginning on C, it is said to be in the KEY OF C. In this

C on the fourth line. On the third.

On the first. key, C is one, D two, E three, F four, G five, A six, B seven, and C NOTE.- Various OBSERVATIONS.-Learning to sing the scale is a matter of pure imitation-we mak.

ing the tones as to their relative pitch as indicated to us by the human voice or by an instrument eight.

The best illustration of octaves, lower and bigher, is found upon keyed instruments, such as the NOTE.-There is no reason why his scale more than another should be called NATURAL. Biodel pianoforte, where the keys show them to the eye. For example, observe that the black keys are scale perhaps would be better.

C D E F G A B C D E F G $ 27. Letters applied to the Staff.—These letters, indicating tones, like the

A B C D E F, scale may be placed upon the staff in various positions. Two positions, placed in groups of two and of turke, like these dots, where the lower row represents the white keys,

and the upper row the black ones, while the letters indicate the tone given by, and the name of cach however, are most conumonly used.



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7 Press down any white key, and the next one of the same name to the right: The latter will pros | as that indicated by a note without a dot. A rest may also be dotted. ing the six tones, which,

with the two at the extremes, are the eight tones of the octave. These are call. A whole note o indicates a tone containing four parts of a measure. ed the NATURAL, tones. Begin on C and play ending on the next C, and we have the scale of the ber This is the corresponding rest -. or key. In teaching, be careful, as soon as the staff is introduced, not to confine the scale to any one position apon it, but place one sometimes on one line or space, and sometimes on another. Perhaps

For Exercises, see page 21, Nos. 26 and 27 it will be well at first to use the tone C as one in all positions, but as soon as the letters are located on the staff by a clef, be sure, as a general rule, to sing tbe scale in the pitch in which it is written, that the $ 33. A Syncopated Note represents a tone that begins on an unaccented absolute pitch of each key may be learned. Be sure at least that the pupil in reading be not confined at the fourth line for Tenor, on the third for Alto, aud on the first for Soprano, but always indicates where the second is the syncopated note. A syncope, or a syncoputed all to the key of C. The characters called clefs are only altered forms of letters. The C clef is used on part of a measure and continues on an accented part. Thus: é

the staff, merely means position or place. The use of the syllables in singing is called solfaing: tone should always be accented. Singing to the syllable la, ah, or to any open vowel, which should be frequently done, is called vocalizing. Noies, by their POSITION on the staff, show the pitch of tones ; by their shape, their rela- Note.--Syncope, from the Greek, “to cut,” cutę into, or breaks the regular order of tive length.

the accent.

8 34. Sextuple Measure is composed of two triple measures.

Thus :


Tripping so cheer - i ly, Singing 80 $ 29. Quadruple Measure has four parts. It is composed of two double

mer - ri - ly. measures, with the intervening bar removed, and is counted one, two, three, four, and is beat, down, left, righting up


COUNTS: One Two Three Four Five Six, One Two Three Four Five Six. Here we have the same eight tanes

Beats: Down Down Left Right Up Up, Down Down Left Right Up Up.

For Exercises in sextuple measure see " Singing School Exercises." in DOUBLE MEASURE:

Sextuple measure is frequently marked to the eye by two beats, and is bill and

dale. then called compound measure.

Other kinds of measures, not often nsed, may be formed thus : Four double measures will make an

EIGUT-PART MEASURE, four of triple, a TWELVE-PART MEASURF, and three of triple, a SIXX-PART MEASURE. and in QUADRUPLE MEASURE: COUNTS: One Two Three Four, One Two Three Four.

BEATS: Down Left Right Up, Down Left Right Up.
NOTE.-No one can tell by hearing us sing these tones whether they are written in double or in

MELODICS. quadruple measure,

$ 35. Skips.-A melody or tune may proceed, not only by taking the § 30. The Accent of quadruple measure falls upon the first and third tones of the scale in regular succession (di grado), but also by skips (di parts, that on the first being stronger than that on the third.

salto). § 31. Tones may continue during one part, two, three or four parts of a

§ 36. The skips most easy and natural occur between the tones one, measure; or one part of a measure, or the whole of it may be left silent. three, five and eight. These form what is called a common chord. $ 32. Dotted Note.-A tone continuing three parts of a measure may be the other four of the scale.

These tones should be firmly fixed in the mind, they being guides to thus represented ad by a half note and a quarter note tied together,

8 37. Two being between one and three, either will be a guide to it; but much more easily by the usual contraction de called a three-quarter that is by thinking of one or three, we easily sing two. note, or oftener a dotted half. This is its corresponding rest

$ 38. Four leads to three, or the ear naturally expects to hear three afWe here see that a dotted note indicates a tone once and a half as longter hearing four. Therefore three is a guide to four.

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ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 8 39. Six being next above five, five is a guide to it.

are called once-marked small c, &c., and four have twice marked letters,

C, &c. § 40. Seven leads to eight, or after seven the ear expects to hear eight; and are called twice-marked small therefore eight is a guide to seven.

NOTE.--Here we have three OCTAVES, but as our natural or model scale begins on C, we have but two

ENTIRE SCALES, with a part of another above, and of still another below. C(thus č is EIGHT of the lower For Exercises on these tones, see No. 30 and onward.

scale and one of the higher. Some voices can naturally sing higher or lower tones than those here written, while the compass of all voices may be extended by cultivation.

$ 45. Classification of Voices.-The human voice is naturally divided CHAPTER VI.

into four classes—those of the male voice being an octave lower than MELODICS CONTINUED.

those of the female voice. 1. Low male voices, called BASE; 2. High The Scale Extended — The usual Vocal Compass—How we distinguish Tones that male voices, TENOR ; 3. Low female voices, Alto; 4. High female voices,

TREBLE. are Octaves to each other, and named by the same Letter—and the Classification

Note.-Other distinctions are also made, as BARITONX, between the Base and Tenor, and MEZZOof Voices.

SOPRANO, between the Alto and Treble. The Treble is often called SOPRANO. We have said in $ 25, that above or below any octave or scale, other octaves and scales § 46. Clefs as used for the different Voices.—The F clef is used for Base may be formed, in all of which the succession of the tones and of the letters will be alike ; and Tenor, the G clef for Tenor, Alto and Treble, meaning, however, the only limit being the ability of the ear to distinguish the tones.

when used for Tenor, G an octave lower than when used for Treble or $ 41. Upward.—When we pass from a scale to higher tones, the tone Alto. Eight is taken as ONE of a higher scale.



Tenor. 2. $ 42. Downward.— When we pass from a scale to lower tones, One is

TENOR. 4. taken as Eight of a lower scale. $43. The usual Vocal Compass, including both male and female voices, is

Nos. 1 and 2 are the same to the eye, but 2 when sung or played is an octave lower three octaves, as represented below:

than 1, and strikes the ear as if written like 3. No. 4 is the same in pitch as No. 1. In Scale. Key of C. One. Scale. Key of C. One.

other words, stands for f, and

stands for g in Tenor, and for g in Treble and Alto. —

The C clef, $ 28, always means c, or middle C.


Eight. ! i !
Eight. 23:47

G A B c d e f g b *c d

b c d e f


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9 $ 47. Each part may be written on a single staff, or the Treble and

CHAPTER VIII. Alto on one staff, and the Tenor and Base on another, marked with the

MELODICS CONTINUED. , F clef. The last way is perhaps as well for plain psalmody.

$ 50. Intervals. The difference of pitch between any two tones, is CHAPTER VII.

called an INTERVAL.

8 51. The Scale Examined. In ascending or descending the scale reMELODICS CONTINUED.

gularly, two kinds of intervals are found, a larger and a smaller. § 48. The range of tones appreciable by the human ear, is comprised

8 52. The larger intervals are called STEPS; and the smaller ones in about nine octaves, about one-third of which, from C to g, as we have Half-STEPS. seen, is within the compass of the human voice.

$ 53. These steps and half-steps occur in the following order: be§ 49. According to the mode shown in $ 44, we will now mark the tween one and two a step; two and three a step; three and four a letters in all the octaves. The organ is the only instrument capable of half-step; four and five a step; five and six a step; six and seven a producing all the tones of these nine octaves.

step; and seven and eight a half-step.
1. C, the lowest tone of the Organ, requires a pipe

NOTE.—The terms tone and HALF TONE are much used to designate these intervals, but as the word thirty-two feet long, and can be produced the terms STEP and Half-STEP.

TONE also means a musical sound of a definite pitch, it is thought best in elementary instinction to use 9th Octave, c d e f g a b c. by no other instrument.

2. C, the lowest C, of the Pianoforte, requires
8th Octave, c d e f g
an organ pipe of sixteen feet.

1 Step,
| step, I step,

| step
3. C, or great C, the lowest tone of the Violoncello.
7th Octave, c d e f g

Eight feet pipe.

4. C, small c, occupies the second space, Base clef.

Four feet pipe.

3 4


7 8 6th Octave, c d e f g a b. 5. c, midille c. Leger line above the Base clef,



b Ĉ
and leger line below the Treble clef. Two
5th Octave,




ç de
feet pipe.

Here we have these larger and smaller intervals shown to the eye 6. c, the third space, treble clef. One foot pipe. by the position of the notes. 4th Octave, c d e f g b.

Observe that the half steps come between thrce and four, and seven and eight. 7. c. second leger line above the Treble clef. Pipe § 54. This is called the Diatonic SCALE. sa Octave, CDEFG AB. of half-a-foot.

NOTE.- DIATONIC, from the Greek, meaning through the tones. 2nd Octave, C D E F G A B. 8. C, pipe of one quarter of a foot.

§ 55. It is also called the MAJOR SCALE, to distinguish it from an.

other scale, having its intervals in a different order, called the MINOR 1st or Lowest Octave, CDEFG AB.

9. c, highest c on the Pianoforte. Pipe of one- SCALE.
cighth of a foot.

$ 56. Taking A as ONE,.,we have the MINOR SCALE, called the naYOTE -- Read the above from the bottom upward, beginning at C, observing that each octave ends tural Minor SCALE. upon the C of the line above where the next one begins. C is sometimes written thus, CC, and called Dorels C: and C thus, CCC, and called TRIPLE C.

See 0 26. This is said to be the RELATIVE MINOR to the Major Scale, Key of C, and

is also called DIÁTOXIC. It would require a staff of thirty-two lines, on which to write all these tones; but as such a mass of lines would confuse the eye, we take from them two staves of five lines each, representing the tones oftenest used, adding short lines above or below, for higher or

CHAPTER IX. lower tones. The clefs show the tones represented by each staff.

RHYTHMICS. NOTK.-Observe that in the great staff of thirty-two lines the five lines of the Treble staff are the

8 57. Division of a Part of a Measure.-As a measure is divided into Dext five above those of the Base staff, with the exception of the omission of the line for c, and that in the example in $ 43, this line is supplied by a short one, which is the added line above the Base staff Parts, so a part of a measure may be subdivided, and have two, and below the Treble staff. Were this line extended like the others, we would have a staff of eleven lines; but it is easily seen how much clearer it is to the eye when the two are separated.

four, eight, or more tones sung to it.

a b.


ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. § 58. If, then, a tone filling a part of a measure, be represented by ing the number of parts on which the kind of measure depends, and the a quarter note, these subdivisions will give us Eighth S, Sixteenth denominator, the kind of note used for each part on which depends its

variety. and Thirty-second notes. A still farther division will give Sixty. EXAMPLE OF THE VARIETIES OF MEASURE IN COMMON USE.


SEXTUPLE. fourth notes. . These all have their corresponding rests.

dddd ho ddddd
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まささささささ 8 59. The Triplet.-A part of a measure may be filled by three tones of equal length, instead of the usual division by two or four. Such a group of three, is called a TRIPLET. The notes used to indicate these three tones, are of the same denomination that are used for the two NOTE.- When a measure has one note or one rest in cach part, it may be said to be in a Simple or that would take the same time, and are usually marked with a figure 3. PRIMIT beli firm bheurthe parts are united by a longer note, in a DERIVED form ; and when the parts

are subdivideri Thus in this double measure: where the group of two fills | Thus i A simple : 1-24 derived : and

complex. the first part, and the triplet the second part.

When the movement is slow and the form of measure complex, it is often better to count twice to NOTE.-Other subdivisions, such as those of 6 and 5 are occasionally used

each part of a measure, making four counts to double measure, &c. A piece of music may begin on



MELODICS. Whole note & rest, Half, Quarter, Eighth, Sixteenth, Thirty-second, Sixty fourth.

§ 64. Between any two tones of the scale, forming the interval of a Called also Semibreve, Minim, Crotchet, Quaver, Semiquaver, Demisemiquaver, flemidemisemiquaver. step, another tone may be placed, dividing the step into two half steps. Nors.-A character tot called a Dotrle NOTE, or Breve, equal to two whole notes, is sometimes Thus a tone may be inserted between one and two, between two and

three, four and five, five and six, and six and seven.

$ 65. Each inserted tone is named from one of the tones between CHAPTER X.

which it occurs, with the addition of the word sharp or flat; sometimes RHYTHMICS CONTINUED.

from the lower one, sometimes from the higher. Thus the inserted tone 8 60. Thus far a quarter note has always been taken to represent a

between One and Two, Key of C, when named from the tones of the part of a measure. But any other kind of note may be taken instead;

scale, is called SHARP ONE or Flat Two. When named by the letters, either a Whole note, a Half, or a Sixteenth.

C Suarr or D FLAT.

Note.--'The word suarp, as here used, means higher; the word flat lower; thus sharp one is higher $ 61. Measures differing as to the number of their parts, are said to be than one, but not so high as two ; while flat two is lower than two, but not so low as one. different kinds of Measures ; as Double measure, with two parts, and $ 66. An inserted tone is written on the degree of the staff occupied Triple measure, with three.

by the tone from which it takes its name, with either a Sharp $ 62. Measures of the same kind, differing as to the notes taken to

Flat (b) prefixed. represent a part of a measure, are of different VARIETIES OF MEASURE. $ 67. Chromatic Scale.—The series of thirteen tones, formed from the Nork.- Varieties of measure differ only to the eye, not to the ear.

Diatonic Scale with the five inserted ones, having twelve intervals, 8 63. Figures placed over each other like fractions, are used to indi- of a half-step each, is called the CHROMATIC SCALE.

NOTE.-Chromatic, from the Greek, signifying COLOR. It is said the notes representing the inserted cate at once the kind of measure and its variety; the numerator show-tones, were formerly written in colored ink:



or a

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