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Tre object of a preface, nowadays, seems to be to inform the public, firstly, that a successful practical teacher of singing, and the most eminent author of instructions for new book is needed, and secondly, that the one now presented is just the one re- the voice, in this or any other country ; one who has originated a perfect system for quired.

vocal practice, which insures the improvement of the voice in quality, flexibility and Regarding our own work, we shall not labor to remind the public that a new book power, and preserves its beauty and healthfulness, because it is founded on true phyis all-important to their musical well-being ; and moreover, there are plenty of new siological principles. The contributions of Mr. Bassini, then, we regard as a most ones besides ours. But applying the second proposition, that ours is the one to sup- valuable feature of our work. ply the present want, we think we can say more. With the public the questions are, Upon the whole, we think that we present such matter as is needed at the present "what are our wants, and which book will best supply them ?” If we have been day, and we ask an examination of our work by teachers, choristers, and musicians more successful than others in giving the proper matter to accomplish this object, generally. We do not deem it necessary to give any lengthy description of the varithen, we think, we have reason to offer to the public a new book. Let us inquire, ous tunes, anthems, &c., but propose to let the public judge for themselves. We have then, what the wants of the musical public are. Firstly, they always want new made every effort to present a collection of good tunes, in all meters, and of a good music. Not because it is any better than the old, but it is our nature to want new variety. Our anthems we think will prove useful. We call attention to our excelthings, and we are happier when we are gratified by obtaining them ; and so long as lent, clear type, and hope it will prove acceptable to the many who do not enjoy the this desire is not abused, we should strive to gratify it in the best way. This will benefit of gas-light. The small, indistinct type so much used of late, has done much apply to both the Choir and the Singing-School.

to injure the eyesight of thousands. Secondly, the Singing-School is now becoming more and more important in our In the division of labor, we thought it best for each of us to take charge of separate country, and its wants enlarging. It is so intimately connected with the church choir, departments. Mr. Perkins had superintendance of the Tunes, while Mr. Cook had (whose members it furnishes and afterwards improves,) that it is desirable to give in that of the Anthems, Glees, and Singing-School Exercises. Mr. J. M. Pelton, (a our books such music as is needed by both. This we have done very fully, of secular popular composer), at the request of Mr. Cook, prepared the Notation department ; as well as sacred music, both of which are needed for practice.

and although the time for its accomplishment was very limited, we think he has Thirdly. Proper instruction for the voice is greatly needed. Thousands of sing admirably done his work—presenting in a plain, yet logical and philosophical manner, ers are yearly losing or impairing their voices by improper use of the vocal organs, the elementary principles of music. We have to express our thanks to many kind the consequence of incorrect teaching. Few are aware to what an extent this is true, friends for contributions to the work. and of the import:ince of a correct knowledge of the vocal organs.

Our book, such as it is, we send forth to the world, trusting that a candid public This is a subject which has received but little attention in works of the character will give it an impartial examination, and accept it according to its merits. of ours. Indeed, but few authors of such works are competent to give the required

T. J. COOK. instruction. It has been our rare good fortune to have associated with us the most



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York.






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pitch. This difference arises from the long string vibrating more slow

ly than the short one. If we strike a key forcibly, we get a loud tone; Music, like speech, is addressed primarily tothe ear. Both, we know, are composed of sounds ; and that all sound is produced by ibrations of the air falling upon the car, if gently, a soft tone. Therefore we say, Tones differ in Length, in Pitch, which vibrations are the result

of power or foce of some kind. Speech is composed of and in Power. articulate sounds--music of musical sounds. A musical sound is produced by some body of a regular shape, giving out a regularıumber of vibrations in any given period

$ IV. Departments. Hence the division of elementary musical instrucof time, as for example so many vibrations ira second.

tion into three departments, shown below in tabular form : $ I. Notation. If we are to undergand music without hearing it from Department.


Distinctions. the human voice, or from an instrument, we must have some way of in- RuYTHMICS, treating of LENGTH, with its distinctions of Long and SHORT. dicating it to the eye. This is doneby “Musical Notation.” Therefore MELODICS, treating of Pitch, with its distinctions of Low and High. what letters and their attending caracters are to speech, notes with Dynamics, treating of Power, with its distinctions of Loud and SoFT. their attending characters are to msic.

Note. These names of departments are from Greek words. Rhythmics, from a word $ II. Tone.--A musical sound ater it is compared with our musical signifying to flow;" comprehends all with regard to the measured movement of mu

sic. Rhythm, from the same, less comprehensive, is used when speaking of some particusystem, and its place therein ascertined, is called a Tone.

lar movement or movements. Melodies, from a word meaning " a song or poem,”-a $ III. How Tones Differ.—Let us pw examine some tones of the Piano tune, comprehends everything relating to Pitch. Melody, from the same, we use when

speaking of a pleasing succession of tones forming a tune. We say of it, it is a good Forte. + Suppose we strike a keynear the middle of the key-board and or bad melody Dynamics, from a word meaning to be able,”—power, covers every hold it down. We get a tone thit continues long. If on striking the thing relating to power, whether of loud or soft, or of accent or emphasis ; and generalkey we raise the finger at once, we have a short tone. If we strike a ly, of everything relating to the delivery of music independent of length and pitch. key far to the left, we get a tae deep and grave, from a long, thick string. It is called a low tone. If we strike a key far to the right, we

CHAPTER II. get a sharp, shrill tone, called : high tone. These are said to differ in


As the rhythm of a movement can be easily appreciated either by the familiar wyle that shall be practically usefuln advancing indiviảnals and classes as rapidly, and as ear, by counting, or by the eye, by beating, or by marching, rhythmics the assumption that each person, likely to ue these lessons and exercises, has heard music, and seen may be taken first in order.

SV. Measurement of Tones.—If a series of tones is to be produced in any 2 top

In these elements we shall not so much grive to build up a system, as to make our remarks in a

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any given tone shall be made at the right point of time. To do this, we

divide the time passing during their performance into equal portions. This pa

division may be indicated to the ear by counting regularly, and to the

eye by motions of the hand, called Beats, or Beating Time. printed musical characters like the abovi In short, then, it is proposed to assist the learner to under. $ VI. Measures and Parts of Measure.--Suppose the following line of stand and sing the music he hears or seesrepresented by “Musical Notation"--and to leave the teacher tree to teach in his owu way. J. M. P.

poetry to be sung to a series of tones of the same pitch and length: This and other keyed instruments de now so common, frequent reference will be made to them by way of illustration.

Over • seas and over · mountains.




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ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. Here we have eight tones divided by the regularly falling accent the vowel a should conting to the second note, and thus the word into four equal portions, as indicated by the points between the words. take two counts or beats. Bt this takes too much space, and we thereThese portions are called MEASURES. These measures we see are divid- fore use a note - taking two ounts, called a half note. ed by the syllables into Parts of measures.

lui and

dale. $ 7. Double Measure.—A measure with two parts is called DOUBLE

Thus : MEASURE. The usual way of counting double measure is one, two; i one, two;-regularly for each measure. The way of beating, is by a doron- By Counting: One, Two,


One, Two, One, Iwo. warı beat on the first part, and an uproard beat on the second part of By BEATING: Down, Up, Dom, Up, Down, Up, Down, Up. each measure.

$ 11. Accent.—Double Measue is accented on the first part of the Note.--Let ench count be firm and decided, without drawling, and let each beat be made measure. in a right line, with decision. Beating and counting together will be found a most useful

Note.-This is the rule, though frequent exeptions occur. exercise. $ 8. Notes.-Tones are represented to the eye by NOTES ; thus, 22 $ 12. Rests.-During the perfomance of a piece of music we some

times find it best to leave a part o the whole of a measure silent. Silence &c.

is represented by Rests. Thus :

&c. Notr.--Remember, a lone means á musical sound, while a note only represents it to the

Take the words Hark! Hark! Yes, they come! In singing them $ 9. Bars and Double Bars.—Measures are indicated to the eye by ver

it would be quite natural to make : pause after each word “ Hark!” and. tical lines, called Bars, drawn between the notes. Each

perhaps after the word “ come”. let us write the notes and rests, repre

space between two bars is a measure.

senting our way of singing it. Successive measures in a movement contain equal portions of time,


Yes, they whether filled with one note or several. Now let us write notes to re


1 present the tones we sing to the words before used, and divide them into measures by Bars. The end of a line of poetry, or of some division of

Tone, Silence, Tone, Sile.ce, Tone, Tone, Tone, Silence. music larger than one measure, is shown by a DOUBLE Bar. Thus,

This character p represents the sane amount of time as a quarter note, using the note called a quarter noti.

and is therefore called a quarter rest. This is a half rest, and is equal 0 and


in time to a half note.

$ 13. Triple Measure.-Let us take the words “Tripping so cheerily,

singing so merrily,” and repeat them as before to tones alike in pitch and Measure, Bar, Measure, Bar, Measure, Bar, Measure, Double bar.

length. We readily see the accent divides them into four measures of We had eight syllables sung to eight tones, all of like pitch. This three parts each ; each part having on syllable. These notes and bars we indicate by eight notes, written on a horizontal line. They made will represent these tones, measures, and parts of measures. four measures, which we separate from each other by bars.

Trip - ping cheer - i
ly, Sing - ing

ri ly. § 10. A Tone may extend over a whole Measure.--Above we have two notes in each measure. But suppose the line contained but seven syllables.

Thus: Thus: Over hill and over dale. If we apply this to the same music, we

One Two Three, One Two Three, One Two Three, One Two Tbree. will have the last note left without a syllable. But it is quite natural

Down Left Up: Down Left Up, Down Left Up, Down Left Up: for us in singing it to hold the last syllable longer than the others; even twice as long. This we may indicate thus : le to show that

Triple measure then has three parts to ea:h measure, and the accent falls on the first part of each measure. The usualway of counting triple measure




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is one, two, three, and of beating it, down, left, up, as in the example $ 18. The Staff.---The scale is represented to the eye by notes written


in regular order on horizontal lines and their intermediate spaces. Five


lines with their four intermediate spaces form, and are called the STAFF.

List - en !

List - en ! Slow - ly they come!

§ 19. Degrees. Each line and each space of the Staff is called a DE-


GREE. Counting the lines and spaces from the bottom upward, we find

in the staff nine degrees.

One Two Three, One Two Three, One Two Three, One Two Three.

$ 20. The Scale is not confined to one Position on the Staff, but one may be

These are the simplest forms of measures, yet to these two forms all

others, however complex, may be reduced. It is therefore of the great their regular order.

placed on any line or space, whence the other tones must proceed in

est importance that they be well understood.

$ 14. Measures have no absolute length; that is, they are not each a § 21. Added or Leger Lincs.—The compass of the Staff may be extended

second, or a half second long, but a succession of tones may at one time by using the space above or the space below, and still farther, by LINES

be sung more rapidly than at another.

above or Lines below, with their intermediate spaces. These short lines

are called ADDED or LEGER lines.

NOTE.-Many use the term Bar in place of measure, saying, perhaps, "sing two bars.” It is

well, sometimes, to beat each part of the measure alike with a downward motion and quick rebound,

as is often doue by the conductor of an orchestra. The way of beating is of little consequence, ex-

$ 22. Syllables.—In teaching vocal music, especially in classes, the fol-

cepting that eaclı beat, or cach count should be made with a positive impulse, that the rhythm lowing syllables are used in connection with the tones of the scale, to sug.

ing rhythm. In simple vocal music, like plain psalnody, where usually a single note is applied to a gest their relative pitch by the power of association.

syllable, the ineasures sometimes are not separated by bars, they being sufficiently indicated by the

Thus :

to ONE, Two, THREE, FOUR, Five, Six, Sevex, Eight.

Written : Do, Re, Mi, Fa,

Sol, La, Si, Do.

Pronounced: Doe, Ray, Mec,

Fah, Sol, Lah, See,



§ 23.—The Scale represented on the staff in several Positions.


With One on the first line :

In ý 3 we said, the difference of tones as to pitch was caused by a difference in the ve-

locity of the vibrations producing them, the lower tones vibrating more slowly than the

higher ones.

$ 15. The Octave.-Two tones produced in such a manner that the vi-

One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight.

brations causing the higher tone move twice as rapidly as those causing

the lower one, are said to differ an OCTAVE in pitch; that is, one is an oc- With One on the second space, ending on the Leger line above :

tave higher than the other. Between these two tones six others are ar-

ranged, according to fixed laws, making eight in all. (Ilence the name

Octave, from the Latin, meaning eight.)

8 16. The Scale.--The eight tones of the Octave arranged in a certain

One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight.

order, form the SCALE.

With One on the added or Leger line below:

NOTE.-The word scale is from the Latin, SCALA, signifying a ladder. This succession of tones that

ibe ear demands, and which seems natural to it, is the basis of all melody.

8 17. Names of the Tones of the Scale.The tones of the scale are named,

beginning with the lowest, thus:-ONE, Two, THREE, Four, Five, Sıx, Names. One, Two, Three, Four, Five,

Seven, Eight.


Mi, Fa, Sol, La,


Si, Do,

NOTE. --Not first, second, &c., as the first tone of a melody may not be one of the scale. 1 For exercises in the scale see page sixteen and onward.


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