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kingdom, and considered him only in the light of an emf. nent temporal deliverer. The cx. Psalm is so far from fa. touring the system of our opponents, that it affords the most cogent arguments against it. It is Jehovah that places LADONI, my Lord, or the Lord Christ at his right hand, and makes his enemies his footstool. It is Jehovah that sends the rod of the Messiah's strength out of Zion, and causes him to rule in the midst of his enemies, and makes his people williag in the day of his power. It is Jehovah, that swears and constitutes him a priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedec; and who at his right hand or at. tending upon him, strikes through kings in the day of his wrath, and judges among the heathen, &c. It is astonish. ing to me, that any person of knowledge or good sense, should ever have adduced any part of this Psalm, as á proof of the divinity of Christ, or his equality with the Father : seeing every part of it is a demonstration of the contrary.
Prov. viii. 22 to 31. - The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his
before his works of old. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When there were no depths, I was brought forth : when there were no fountains abounding with water.
Before the mountains were settled, before the hills, was I brought forth : while as yet he had not made the earth, nor the fields, , nor the highest part of the dust of the world. When he prepared the heavens, I was there, when he set a compass upon the face of the deep. When he established the clouds above; when he strengthened the fountains of the deep, when he gave to the sea: his decree, that the waters should not pass his commandment; when he appointed the foundations of the earth: then I was by him, as one brought up with him: and I was daily his delight, rejoica ing always before him. Rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth and my delights were with the sons of men.' Bea cause, wisdom is here figuratively described, as residing with God, and attending upon him; and because Jesus Christ is called by St. Paul, i Cor. i. 24. “The wisdom of God,' therefore some of our opponents have imagined that the wisdom spoken of by Solomon, denotės Jesus Christ, and represents his eternal existence as a divine person in the godhead. But if we consider the context, we shalt
find that no real agent or person is here spoken of, and that Solomon intended nothing more than to represent the attribute of wisdom as the spring of action in the Deity, presiding over his works, and ordering and dispos. ing all the parts of creation in the most excellent and ju. dicious manner. For in the beginning of this chapter, this wisdom is characterised as a female being, and coupled with understanding. · Doth not wisdom cry? and under. standing put forth her voice? She standeth in the top of high places, by the way in the places of the paths : She crieth at the gates, at the entry of the city, at the coming in at the doors. Again, Ver. 11, 12.- For wisdom is better than rubies : and all the things that may be desired, are not to be compared to it. I, wisdom, dwell with pru. dence, and find out knowledge of witty inventions,' &c. From these passages it is evident, that the wisdom mentioned by Solomon is not a person or an intellectual being, but an attribute, property, virtue, or quality. It is indeed a most beautiful prosopopeia, or personification, but nothing more. But if it could be admitted, that any real person or being was intended in this passage, and that that person was Jesus Christ, yet the cause of our opponents would derive no advantage from it. For this supposed person, is plainly distinguished from the Lord or Jehovah, and he is said to possess him; and although he is said to have been"; set up from everlasting, Ver. 23, yet this is explained and restricted by the words following," from the beginning, or ever the earth was:' which shews that a strict and proper eternity is not meant; but only that he'existed before our world was produced. Yea, in ver. 25. it is affirmed, that he was brought forth before the hills ;' which plainly de. notes that he is not eternal; but that he was prodnced or brought into being at some particular period, in the eternity that preceded the creation. It is proper to note here, that the Septuagint translate, ver. 22. The Lord 'posa sessed me in the beginning of his way. Κυριος εκτισε με αρ Xmy odwy, that is, The Lord created me the beginning of his ways, &c.
Prov. XXX. 4. Who hath ascended up into heaven, and descended? Who hath gathered the winds in his fists? Who hath bound the waters in a garment? who hath esta. blished all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and
what is his son's name if thou canst tell?' This passage has been sometimes brought into the controversy concerning the divine Unity, although it has not the smallest relation to the subject. Agur is not speaking here of God but of man. It would be ridiculous to suppose - Agur, to challenge the Jews to tell him the name of God. Every Jew knew very well, that the name of the God of Israel was Jehovah : Psal. Ixxxiii. 18. That men may know, that thou whose name alone is Jehovah,' &c. Agar here professes his own ignorance of the works of God; and challenges any person to produce him the name of a man, or the name of his son, who understood the whole system of nature, and could fully explain it:
It is in this way, that a learned writer paraphrases this passage.
66 Who is he among all the wise men, that ever went up into heaven and came down again, to tell us the order and motion of the stars? Who but God hath: tied up the waves of the sea, that they should not exceed their bounds; and who hath fixed the earth? By what name is he called, that can explain these things? or if he be dead, what is the name of his son or his family, that we may inquire of them* ?
Isaiah vii. 1, 9, 10. "Ei saw. also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted iup, and his train filled the temple, &c. And he said, go and tell this people, hear ye jadeed, bet perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes, lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed." John, xji. 39, 40, 41. « Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again, he hath blinded their eyes and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be con. verted and I should heal them. These things said Esaias when he saw his glory, and spake him.”
From these two places compared together, our opponents infer, that our Lord Jesus Christ was the Jehovah that Isaiah saw, filling the temple with his train, &c. But in the first place, it may be said against this inferences that the expression, his glory, may be more properly referred
to God the Father than to Christ. For in the 38th verse of this chapter, St. John had been quoting Isaiah liii. 1. "Lord who hath believed our report, and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed :' which passage cer, tainly relates to God the Father, because the prophet adds, that he (the Messiah) shall grow up before him as a tender plant. Now this being the case, the words, his glory,' must be considered as relating to the glory of that Lord, viz. the Father, of whom St. John had been speaking before, and so the objection will be wholly removed. But secondly, admitting that the words, his glory,' are to be interpreted of Christ, it will not follow that he was the Lord of hosts that Isaiah saw; for Isaiah may be said to have seen the glory of Christ beforehand, by the spirit of prophecy, according to the observation of a learned wri. ter. • These things said Esaias when he saw his glory and spake of him.'. The true meaning is : when Esaias (Chap. vi. 1.) saw the glory of God the Father revealing to him, the coming of Christ, he then saw the glory of him who was to come in the glory of his Father, Mathe xvi. 27. Esaias, in beholding the glory of God, and in receiving from him a revelation of the coming of Christ, saw (that is, foresaw) the glory of Christ, just as Abraham (John viii. 56) saw (that is, foresaw) his day, and was glau*.” But in the third place, it is necessary to remark, that the common reading of this passage is far from being absolutely certain : for there are three Greek manuscripts, that either read, the 'glory of God,'or,' the glory of his God;' and two oriental versions render this place the glory of his God, which readings, necessarily restrain the words to God the Fathert.
Isaiah yii. 14. • Behold a virgin shall conceive, and. * Dr. Clarke's works, Vol. iv, p. 58. Lond. 1738. + The manuscripts which exhibit these readings are, the Leicester MS. Goles in the margin, and he celebrated Cambridge MS, which is of great antiquity; and which reads in the Greek part the glory of God, and in the Latin, 'the glory of his God. The two oriental versions are, the Coptic, and later Syriac version. See Mill and Wetstein in loco. Dr. Harwood was so fully persuaded, that the common reading of this place was erroneous, that he has changed it, and gives the text as follows in conformity to the Cambridge Misi Tuurt δι ειπεν Εσαιας ότι ειδε την δοξαν το θεο και ελαλησε περι αυτου, that is, *These things said Esaias when he saw God's glory and spake of him." Harwood's Gr. Test. Lond. 1776.
bear a son, and shall call his name IMMANUEL.' Math. i. 23. • Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name EMMANUEL, (which being interpreted, is God with us.') The expression EMMANUEL God with us, does not denote (as we before remarked, p. 41. in the note, that the child' who was born of a virgin, (viz. our Lord Jesus Christ) was God, or that God was incarnate in him, which is a thing absolutely impossible, but it means only, that God would reveal or manifest himself to his people by Jesus ; and be present with him in a peculiar and extraordinary manner.
Christ was the great ambassador or messenger of God the Father. to man, and the Father dwelt in him, and enabled him to perform all his miraculous works. The Hebrew word el also, makes a part of other names in scripture, besides this prophetic name which St. Mathew applies to Christ. Thus Elihu significs he is my God, and Eliatha, thou art my God: but nobody ever imagined from this, that the men who were so called were really divine persons. In short the word Immanuel is no proper vame of Jesus Christ : for we never find that he called himself so, or that any body else ever did in the gospel history; and therefore it is only to be considered as declarative of what God would perform
Isaiah viii. 13. 14. 'Sanctify the Lord of hosts himself, and let him be your fear and let him be your dread; and he shall be for a sanctuary, but for a stone of stumbling and rock of offence to both houses of Israel.' Rom. ix. 33. • As it is written, Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone, and a rock of offence; and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.' 1 Pet. vii. 8. "The stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head, of the corner; and a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence,? &c.
Because Jehovah, or the Lord of hosts, was a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence to the Jews of old ; and because our Lord is also declared to have been so to many afterwards : it is therefore sagaciously concluded by our opponents, that Jesus Christ is the Lord of hosts. But it should be remembered that there may be more stumbling blocks than one; and that the same language may be applied both to God and Christ is very different senses, and