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Permanent servants - Maiming servants - Oppressing servants. bondage our sons and our daughters to be servants, and some of our daughters are brought into bondage already: neither is it in our power to redeem them; for other men have our lands and vineyards.
3. Permanent servants were of the heathen, or of strangers, and not Hebrews
Lev. 25: 44 Both thy bond-men, and thy bond-maids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen that are round about you; of them shall ye buy bond-men and bond-maids. 45 Moreover, of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land: and they shall be your possession. 46 And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession, they shall be your bond-men for ever: but over your brethren the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigor.
678. Mosaic penalty for maiming servants.
Ex. 21: 20 If a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished. 21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money. 26 And, if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye's sake. 27 And if he smite out his man-servant's tooth, or his maid-servant's tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth's sake.
679. Justice and kindness to servants enjoined oppression forbidden.
Dt. 23: 15 Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the servant which has escaped from his master unto thee: 16 He shall dwell with thee, even among you in that place which he shall choose in one of thy gates where it liketh him best: thou shalt not oppress him. -24: 14 Thou shalt not oppress a hired servant that is poor and needy, whether he be of thy brethren, or of thy strangers that are in thy land within thy gates: 15 At his day thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down upon it, for he is poor, and setteth his heart upon it: lest he cry against thee unto the LORD, and it be sin unto thee.
Jer. 22: 13 Wo unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, and his chambers by wrong; that useth his neighbor's service without wages, and giveth him not for his work.
Col. 4: 1 Masters, give unto your servants that which is just and equal; knowing that ye also have a Master in heaven.
1 Tim. 5: 18 The scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The laborer is worthy of his reward. [Ezk. 16: 49.] [See 490, 636, 687.]
680. Apostolic precepts respecting the duties of masters and servants.
Ep. 6: 5 Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ; 6 Not with eye-service, as men-pleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart; 7 With good will doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men: 8 Kowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free. 9 And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with him.
Col. 3: 22 Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh; not with eye-service, as men-pleasers; but in singleness of heart, fearing God: 23 And whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men; 24 Knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance: for ye serve the Lord Christ.
1 Tim. 6: 1 Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honor, that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed. 2 And they that have believing masters, let them not despise them, because they are brethren; but rather do them service, because they are faithful and beloved, partakers of the benefit. These things teach and exhort. 3 If any man teach otherwise, and consent not to wholesome words, even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which is according to godliness, 4 He is proud, knowing nothing.
Tit. 2: 9 Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things; not answering again; 10 Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.
1 Pet. 2: 18 Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward. 19 For this is thank-worthy, if a man for conscience toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully. 20 For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God.
Ancient traffic in slaves - Penalties for man-stealing.
681. Ancient merchandise in "slaves and the souls of men."
Ezk. 27: 13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were thy merchants: they traded the persons of men and vessels of brass in thy market.
Joel 3: 3 They have cast lots for my people; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink. 6 The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.
Rev. 18: 2 Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. 11 And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more: 12 The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble, 13 And cinnamon, and odors, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, [Gr. bodies,] and souls of men. [See 488, 636.]
682. Penalties for man-stealing, and infringing human liberty, in procuring and holding servants.
Ex. 21: 16 He that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.
Dt. 24: 7 If a man be found stealing any of his brethren of the children of Israel, and maketh merchandise of him, or selleth him; then that thief shall die; and thou shalt put evil away from among you.
Jer. 5: 26 Among my people are found wicked men: they lay wait, as he that setteth snares; they set a trap, they catch 34: 17 Thus saith the LORD; Ye have not hearkened unto me, in proclaiming liberty, every one to his brother, and every man to his neighbor: behold, I proclaim a liberty for you, saith the LORD, to the sword, to the pestilence, and to the famine; and I will make you to be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth.
1 Tim. 1: 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers, and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind,
Freedom of jubilee - Freedom desirable— General precepts.
for men-stealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine.
[See 489-491, 631, 636.]
683. Freedom at the year of jubilee for servan's.
Lev. 25: 10 Ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubilee unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.
684. Freedom recommended as preferable to servitude.
1 Cor. 7: 21 Art thou called being a servant? care not for it; but if thou mayest be made free, use it rather. 22 For he that is called in the Lord, being a servant, is the Lord's freeman likewise also he that is called, being free, is Christ's servant. 23 Ye are bought with a price; be not ye the servants of men.
Philemon 15 Perhaps he therefore departed for a season, that thou shouldest receive him for ever; 16 Not now as a servant, but above a servant, a brother beloved, especially to me, but how much more unto thee, both in the flesh, and in the Lord? 20 Yea, brother, let me have joy of thee in the Lord: refresh my bowels in the Lord. 21 Having confidence in thy obedience I wrote unto thee, knowing that thou wilt also do more than I say.
685. General precepts respecting the duty of man to man in all the relations of life.
Mal. 2: 10 Have we not all one father? hath not one God created us? why do we deal treacherously every man against his brother, by profaning the covenant of our fathers?
Mat. 7: 12 All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets. 22: 37 Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. 38 This is the first and great commandment. 39 And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 40 On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.
Gal. 5: 13 Brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another. [See 412-414, 631-5.]
Sympathy for those in bonds, required.
686. Encouragement to treat those "in bonds," and in poverty and oppres sion, with sympathy and liberality.
Is. 58: 6 Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke? 7 Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house? when thou seest the naked, that thou cover him; and that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh? 8 Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, and thine health shall spring forth speedily: and thy righteousness shall go before thee; the glory of the LORD shall be thy rere-ward. 9 Then shalt thou call, and the LORD shall answer; thou shalt cry, and he shall say, Here I am. If thou take away from the midst of thee the yoke, the putting forth of the finger, and speaking vanity; 10 And if thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted soul; then shall thy light rise in obscurity, and thy darkness be as the noonday: 11 And the LORD shall guide thee continually, and satisfy thy soul in drought, and make fat thy bones: and thou shalt be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water, whose waters fail not.
Heb. 13: 3 Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them; and them which suffer adversity, as being yourselves also in the body. [See 527.]
687. Duty to espouse the cause of the injured and oppressed.
Ps. 82: 3 Defend the poor and fatherless: do justice to the afflicted and needy, 4 Deliver the poor and needy: rid them out of the hand of the wicked.
Pr. 21: 13 Whoso stoppeth his ears at the cry of the poor, he also shall cry himself, but shall not be heard. — 24: 11 If thou forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be slain; 12 If thou sayest, Behold, we knew it not; doth not he that pondereth the heart consider it? and he that keepeth thy soul, doth not he know it? and shall not he render to every man according to his works? 31: 8 Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction. 9 Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy.
Is. 1: 17 Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow. - 16:3 Take counsel, execute judgment; make thy shadow as the night in the midst of the noon-day; hide the outcasts; bewray not him that wandereth. 4 Let mine outcasts dwell with thee, Moab be thou a covert to them from the face of the spoiler: