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He that says the Haphtarak, before he begins says as follows. Baruch Attah. Blessed art thou, O Lord ! our God, King of

the universe, that hath chosen good Prophets, and with pleasure declared to them the truth : blessed art thou, O Lord! who gavest the law to Moses thy servant, to Israel thy people, and to the true and righteous Prophets.

Then he says the Haphtarah, and afterwards as follows. Baruch Attah. Blessed art thou, O Lord! our God, King and

Creator of the universe, whose righteousness is to all generations; the God that is faithful, saith and doeth, speaketh and performeth, whose words are truth and just. Faithful art thou, O Lord! our God, thy faithful words thou recallest not; for the Almighty, faithful, and merciful thou art. Blessed art thou, O Lord! who art faithful with all thy words. Rachem Ol Zion. Have compassion on Zion, for that is oui

residence, and to the meek mayest thou perform thy salvation speedily in our days. Blessed art thou, O Lord! who will rejoice Zion with her posterity. Somchinu Adonie Rejoice us, O Lord! our God, with Elias Elohinu. the Prophet thy servant, and with the

kingdom of the house of David, that thine anointed speedily shall come on his throne, to rejoice our hearts. Let no other enjoy that glory to sit thereon, as thou hast declared that the light of David shall not be quenched. Blessed art thou, O Lord! the shield of David.

OL Hatora. For the sake of thy law, thy sacrifices, and thy

prophets, and for the sake of this day of rest, which thou hast given unto us, O Lord! our God, to sanctify and to rest, to honour and to glorify. Therefore, O Lord ! our God, with reverence we acknowledge thee, and bless thee and thy name, in the mouth of all living continually, and to eternity. Blessed art thou, O Lord! who sanctifieth the Sabbath.

• The word Haphtarah, signifies Section.

קודם קריאת ההפטרה יברך

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בִּנְבִיאִים

טוֹבִים וְרָצָה בְּדִבְרֵיהֶם הַנֵּאֶמָרִים בֶּאֱמֶת בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ הַבּוֹחֵר בַּתּוֹרָה בְּמשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ וּבְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַמּוֹ

וּבִנְבִיאֵי הָאֱמֶת וְהַצְדֶק :


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הָאֵל הַנֵּאֶמָן

ואחר קריאתה יברך בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם צוּר כָּל הָעוֹלָמִים

צדִיק בְּכָל הַדּוֹרוֹת הָאֵל הַנַּאֲמָן הָאוֹמֵר וְעוֹשֶׂה מְדַבֶּר וּמְקַיִם כִּי כָל דְּבָרָיו אֱמֶת וָצֶדֶק נֶאֱמָן אַתָּה הוּא יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְנֶאֱמָנִים דְּבָרִיךְ וְדָבָר אֶחָד מִדְבָרִיךְ אָחוֹר לֹא יָשׁוּב רֵיקָם כִּי אֵל מֶלֶךְ נֶאֶמָן אָתָּה בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה

הַנֵּאֶמָן בְּכָל דְּבָרָיו : רַחֵם עַל צִיוֹן כִּי הִיא בֵית חַיִּינוּ וְלַעֲלוּבַת נֶפֶשׁ תּוֹשִׁיעַ

בִּמְהֵרָה בְיָמֵינוּ: בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ מְשָׂמֵחַ צִיוֹן בְּבָנִיק : שַׁמְחֵנוּ יָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּאֵלִיָּהוּ הַנָּבִיא עַבְדֶךָ וּבְמַלְכוּת בֵּית

דָּוִד מְשִׁיחֶךְ בִּמְהֵרָה יָבא וְיָגֶל לִבֵּנוּ עַל כִּסְאוֹ לא שֶׁב זָר וְלֹא יִנְחֲלוּ עוֹד אֲחֵרִים אֶת כְּבוֹדוֹ * כִּי בְשֵׁם קָדְשְׁךְ נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לי שֶׁלֹא יִכְבֶּה נֶכִי לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד : בָּרוּךְ

אַתָּה יְ מָגֵן דָּוִד : עַל הַתּוֹרָה וְעַל הָעֲבוֹדָה וְעַל הַנְבִיאִים וְעַל יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת

הַזֶּה שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לָנוּ יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ לִקְדוּשָׁה וְלִמְנוּחָה לְכָבוֹד וּלְתִפְאֶרֶת עַל הַכּל יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אָנוּ מוֹדִים לָךְ וּמְבָרְכִים אוֹתָךְ יִתְבָּרֵךְ שִׁמְךְ בְּפִי כָל חַי תָּמִיד לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד: בָּרוּךְ

אַתָּה יְ מְקַדַּשׁ הַשַׁבָּת :



The event which gave rise to the Reading of the no97, i. e. Sections,

of the Prophets, commenced from the Reign of Antiochus, surnamed Epiphanes, or Famous; called also Epimanes, or mad; (he was the eighth King of Syria :) who after he had smitten Egypt, went against the Israelites in Jerusalem, where he made a great massacre, plundered and polluted the Holy Temple, and gave orders to destroy their books, and prohibited them of Reading the Weekly Divisions * of the Pentateuch : during which time they substituted to read the Haphtarahs, i. e. Weekly Sections of the Prophets, to correspond as nearly as possible, with the Weekly Divisions of the Pentateuch; which they continued Reading till the time of the Maccabees, when Mattathias and his son Judas Maccabeus rose up, and went to war with Antiochus Epiphanes, and conquered him: at which time, the Weekly Divisions of the Pentateuch were re-established to be read among them. In commemoration of their being deprived of the Pentateuch, they continued saying the Haphtarahs after Reading the Weekly Division of the Pentateuch, which custom is retained and observed among them unto this day.


The Pentuteuch is divided in fifty-two parts, for the fifty-two weeks in the year, one of which is read every week till the Pentateuch is finished.



As well to secure the uniformity of our work, as to give copious and perspicuous illustrations, we have

been induced to arrange the following Observations under distinct heads.

OBSERVATIONS ON CHAP. III. Verse 25. The tabernacle mentioned here means the ten curtains of fine linen; vide Exodus, chap. xxvi. ver. 1, and chap. xxxvi. ver. 8, and the tent the eleven curtains of goat's hair; vide Exodus, chap. xxvi. ver. 7. Ver. 31. And the veil of the covering. This is commonly expressed in Hebrew by ·

; , , : chap. xxxviii. ver. 14 and 21, of Genesis : for, it cannot mean the hanging, as in the present translation, as that was the charge of the children of Gershon, as in ver. 25.

Ver. 39. Here appears a seeming contradiction: the total of the Levites expressed here is 22,000; and, summing up the number of the particular families, we find them to be 22,300, viz. The families of Gershon

7,500 of Koath...

8,600 of Merari



But the Rabins tell us, from tradition, that the 300 could not serve to ransom the first-born of Israel, as they themselves were first-born.

Ver. 4. About is here added, by the English translator, without any occasion.

OBSERVATIONS ON CHAP. V. Ver. 31. By this it appears, that, when a inan knows that his wife is not true to his bed it is a sin for him to cohabit with her.

OBSERVATIONS ON CHAP. VI. Ver. 2. Shall separate themselves: Hebrew, shall act marvellously; meaning thereby, that this is an extraordinary exertion of his ty to debar himself of those things which men are so fond of

Ver. 3. Liquor of grapes : Hebrew, solution of grapes.


Ver. 3, 5, and 11. At even-should be, between the evenings. Vide observations on Exodus, chap. xii. ver. 6.

Ver. 7. Are we kept back? Hebrew: shall we be deficient in not offering the offeriyg of the Lord &c.

OBSERVATIONS ON CHAP, XI, Ver. 24. The article the, added by the English translator, is superfluous and improper; for, the Lord did not nominate them, but they were chosen by Moses; neither is it expressed in the Hebrew text.

Ver. 25. 66 And did not cease. The grammatical meaning of this word is, “ And they did not continue,” though Onkelos renders it like the English translator, meaning, that they continued prophecying ever since.

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Ver. 26. These two men were excluded from the assembly of elders; for Moses, to prevent jealousy, chose six out of every tribe, which amounted to seventy-two: and as he wanted only seventy, two of them were excluded by lot; and that is the meaning of the expression, And they were among them that were written.


OBSERVATIONS ON CHAP. XIV. Ver. 29. By this it appears, that the Levites were not included in this sentence, for, they were not numbered from twenty years old and upwards.

Ver. 45. Discomfited them. The Hebrew expression means, and beat them small.

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Ver. 4. And he said-means Balaam. Unto him-means God.

Ver. 7 and 8. The verb Oyj, means always in Scripture, to detest, to have indignation, or,. to be wrath; never to defy.

Ver. 15. The verb is passive, and there is no Lord expressed in the Hebrew.
Ver. 20. The word op here means instruction, or doctrine. Vide Proverbs, chap. iv. ver. 2.

Ver. 22. I think this translation, in the English Bible, favours of a profane speech. See chap. xxiv. ver. 8.

Ver. 23. This means, that they were made acquainted with future events of what God would do at all times by means of prophets, so that they had no occasion for omens or divinations.

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OBSERVATIONS ON CHAP. XXIV. Ver. 1. Some understand that he did not go to meet God as usual, but he went in search of enchantments; so he set his face towards the wilderness, meaning, according to some expositors, the same as in ver. 13 of the preceding chapter, in order to see the people; but, according to the Chaldean version of Onkelos, it was to call to mind the golden calf they had made to try to provoke God's wrath against them.

Ver. 4. This should be rendered in the present tense, as it means to express what he is constantly used to.

Ver. 7. This doth not mean that he shall be greater than Agag, but he shall overpower him; this, perhaps, may refer to Saul,

Ver. 8. And this to Gog and Magog. And pierce them through with his arrows--may also mean, that he will destroy his implements of war, understood by his arrows. Vide Isaiah, chap. liv. ver. 16 and 17.

Ver. 14. Yve never means, in Scripture, to advertise, or give warning, but to give advice what best to do; and his counsel, or advice, was the prostitution of the daughters of Moab, in order to tempt the people to sin.

Ver. 16. Vide what is observed on ver. 4.

Ver. 17. This seems to foretel the Messiah ; and the children of Sheth seem to imply all the nations under Gog and Magog, Sheth being their common father; as if he was to say, the children of Adam, as he was the father of all mankind.-popis a verb, derived from 7p, a wall, meaning to break down the walls. Vide English translation, Isaiah, chap. xxii. ver. 5.

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OBSERVATIONS ON CHAP. XXX. Ver. 2. On his soul-means, on his inclination.

Ver. 3. In her youth. By traditional customs among the Jews, it is understood, that this. means after she is twelve years old; for, before that age, she is reckoned a child, and her words are not regarded; and, after that age, she is in her father's dominion, for him to approve or disapprove of what she hath bound herself to, till she shews certain signs of puberty; and that interval is the period in which this law takes place; for, after that, her words must be performed, if she will not incur God's displeasure.

Ver. 2, 3, 8c. His or her soul-means, his or her inclination; that he gives up his free-will. in regard to that point.

Ver. 5. This makes her break her promise. The Hebrew verb Xiang hath the same meaning as the moun inxian, in chap. xiv. ver. 34, rendered, my breach of promise, both deriving in the same radix,

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