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nish their children and families with an antidote to errors, to which they are daily exposed, & also, if possible, to awaken the secure sinner from the dreams of delusive hope, will receive the blessing of Heaven. Let christians pray, and pray fervently, for this result. And let all read with candor, earnest desire to know what the truth is, careful attention to the Holy Scriptures, and much prayer.

Though this Work is more especially devoted to a consideration of Universalism, it is hoped it may serve to increase a general know!edge of the Scriptures, and of Revealed Truth. J. W.

Paris, April, 1828.



On the Use of the words All, Every, &c. in the holy Scriptures.

We are often told by the advocates of Universal Salvation, that the word all does not mean a part. However true this assertion may be, in one sense, it is, in another, and the sense intended, demonstrably inaccurate. What saith "the law and the testi


Eccl. vii. 2.3, 20: "It is better to go to the house of mourning than to the house of feasting; for that is the end of all men." "All turn to dust." But it is not the end of all men, without exception, to sleep in temporal death, and turn to dust. Enoch 66 was translated, that he should not see death," Heb. xi. 5. So also was Elijah; instead of dying, and turning to dust, he "went up by a whirlwind into heaven,” 2 Kings, ii. 11.

In Matt. iii. 5, 6, we are informed that there went out to John, " Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all

the region round about Jordan, and were baptized of him." Yet there is reason to believe, that many in those places never received the baptism of John. At all events, so much is certain; "The Pharisees and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against themselves, not being baptized of him,” Luke vii. 30.

The apostle requires wives to be "subject to their husbands in every thing ;" and "children to obey their parents in all things." Eph. v. 24. Col. iii. 20. But every thing, and all things, here designate only what is consistent with duty to God. Wives and children are not required, by either the law or the gospel, to lie, or steal, or murder, to please their ungodly husbands and parents, who have no fear of God before their eyes. They are required to obey them, only, "in the Lord," Eph. vi. 1. Matt. x. 37. Luke xiv. 26.

St. John says to Christians, "We know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness, 1 Ep. v. 19. That by the whole world, is not here intended all mankind, without exception, it is superfluous to remark; for in this sense of the word, John and his Christian brethren, were a part of the world. Nor does the phrase, the whole world, in this and many other passages, include the then past, and the then future, generations of mankind. And this remark is equally true, in application to many of the passages, in which are the words, all, every, and the like terms of universality. This is a faet which Uni

versalists seem to have an unaccountable propensity to forget, when expounding their favorite portions of scripture. And no wonder; for their arguments would take wings and fly away, if they did not keep out of sight a part of the truth, pervert language, and envelope themselves in darkness.

If any one would see more examples of the use of the words, all, every, &c. in a restricted sense, he may consult the following Scriptures.-All people : Deut. xxviii. 10. Josh. xxiv. 18. Acts ii. 47. Luke xix. 48; xx. 6.—All nations: Jer. xlvi. 26. Isa. xxxvii. 18. Mal. xxiv. 9. Luke xxi. 24. Rom. xvi. 26.-All the earth: Josh. xxiii. 14. Zeph. iii. 8. 1 Kings, x. 24. Jer. li. 49.-All Israel: 1 Sam. xviii. 16. 1 Kings, i. 20; ii. 15. 2 Chron. xxviii. 23.All the Jews: Jer. xl. 12. Acts xxvi. 4.-All the world: Luke ii. 1. Rev. iii. 10; xiii. 3.-All things: Rom. viii. 32. 1 Cor. iii. 21. Matt. xvii. 11. Zeph.

Heb. ii. 17. 1 Pet.

i. 2. Eph. vi. 21. Phil, iv. 13. iv. 7. 1 Johm ii. 20.-All men: 2 Cor. iii. 2. 1 Thes. ii. 15. Zech. viii. 10. Luke xxi. 17. Mark v. 20.-Every city, place, thing, &c. Acts xv. 21. Mark xvi. 20. Luke iv. 37. Rev. vii. 12 Gen. vi. 17; ix. 3. 1 Cor. i. 5. Isa. ix. 20. Mark viii. 25. Luke xvi. 16.

Will any one now say, that the scriptures assert what is not true? This does by no means follow. Words are merely arbitrary signs, which have no meaning aside from the use they obtain among man

kind. Neither their letters, nor their sounds, have any natural connexion with the idea they are used to express. This may be made plain by a single example. The words, white in English, blanc in French, leukos in Greek, and candidus in Latin, different as they are in their letters and sounds, are all used to express the same color. And had those words only been so used, they would just as naturally have denoted the color of red, or green, or blue, as the color we now designate by them. It is not nature, but use, that gives words all their meaning. Independent of their use, no word has in fact any meaning. Every word, therefore, expresses just what it means according to the use it has obtained among mankind. Ignorant of this use of any word, it conveys to us no correct idea. This is the reason, why we cannot understand the discourse of a Hindoo, as 'well as that of an American.

It is not necessary to my present purpose, to enter into any consideration of the different classes of propositions which logicians denoniinate universal. One thing is certain. In no age, have mankind confined the use of the words, all, every, &c. to such propositions, as are absolutely universal. Those words have ever been used as the sign of universality in propositions, which are known to have exceptions. When Solomon said, "All turn to dust," he knew, that Enoch and Elijah were exceptions. And Matthew knew, when he said, that "All Judea and

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