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hundred foot and two hundred horse, marched towards Babylon with confidence...... Having by these means obtained a powerful army, he easily brought Media and Susa under subjection, and sent word to Ptolemy how he had succeeded, having now the full royal power and majesty in his hands" (c. 6).

7. The dominion of Seleucus was to be “a great dominion." So Dexippus: "Seleucus, going up to Babylon and conquering the barbarians, reigned thirtytwo years; wherefore he was called Nicanor. In the thirty-second year of his reign, having driven Lysimachus from Macedon, and being elated by the victory, he was slain by Ptolemy Ceraunus, when about to rule over the Macedonians." It thus appears that both the northern and eastern divisions had come under his power, and that he was on the point of obtaining the western also. Hence Appian calls him "the greatest of the kings after Alexander.”

8. "In the end of years they will join themselves together." The words imply some considerable interval. Accordingly this intermarriage took place about sixty years after the accession of Seleucus, and thirty after his death, between Antiochus Theus, his grandson, and the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the son of Ptolemy Soter. The marriage and its results are thus described by Appian: "When Seleucus was dead, the following received the kingdom of Syria in succession, the son from the father: first, Antiochus, called Soter, from his expelling the Gauls, who had invaded Asia, out of Europe; and, secondly, Antiochus, who was surnamed Theus by the Milesians, because he removed their tyrant Timarchus. But his own wife slew this god by poison; for he had two, Laodice, and Berenice the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus: and Laodice slew him, and with him both Berenice and the infant of

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Berenice; but Ptolemy, the son of Philadelphus (v. 7), avenging these things, both slew Laodice, and invaded Syria, and marched as far as Babylon."

We see, then, that Berenice, her father, her child, the women her attendants, and Antiochus her husband, all died almost at the same time; and that her brother, “a branch from her roots," came against Syria to avenge his sister's murder.

9. "He shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north." So we learn from Polybius (v. 5): “Seleucia had been possessed by an Egyptian garrison from the time of Ptolemy Evergetes. For this prince, in his anger because of the death of Berenice, had entered Syria with an army, and made himself master of this city." "It is surrounded by broken rocks and precipices. In the plain are the markets and suburbs, which are strongly fortified. The city also is enclosed with walls of uncommon strength and beauty......the capital of the kingdom, and their sacred seat of empire." How exact, in every point, was the fulfilment of these words of the prophecy !

10. "He shall carry captive into Egypt their gods and their precious vessels." So we find that Ptolemy "brought from Syria forty thousand talents of silver, and an immense number of gold and silver vessels, and two thousand five hundred statues, among which were many Egyptian idols, which Cambyses had carried into Persia. These, on his return, he placed in their ancient temples, and thereby gained from his subjects the title of Evergetes" (Univ. H., viii., p. 133).

11. "He shall continue more years than the king of the north." So we find that Seleucus Callinicus died Ol. 138. 2, or about August, B.C. 226; and Ptolemy Evergetes, by the astronomical canon, N.E. 527, or about November, B.C. 222, being rather more than four years later.


12. “But his sons shall be stirred up." Appian: "After Seleucus Callinicus, reigned his two sons, each according to his age, Seleucus and Antiochus; but Seleucus being weak and poor, and his army mutinous, his friends conspired against him with poison, and he reigned only two years."

13. "One will certainly come and overflow and pass through." Antiochus succeeded on the death of his brother; and after an unsuccessful attempt on the passes of Libanus, "advanced to the Euphrates, passed the Tigris in three bodies, and, passing beyond the Oricus, arrived at Apollonia." After defeating Molon, and recovering Media and Susiana, he "passed beyond the Zagrus," and subdued the Atropatii," a kingdom which had never been subdued by Alexander (Polyb. v. 5).

The words of the prediction appear somewhat obscure; but this arises from the strangeness of the event, that a king should first overflow in foreign conquest, and then have still to recover the fortress of his own kingdom. The event, however, solves the enigma and removes all the obscurity, while the words receive their simplest and most natural meaning.

14. “ And he will return and be stirred up, even to his fortress." "Antiochus directed his course back again to Syria......It was resolved to begin the war by attempting to take Seleucia, which had been possessed by an Egyptian garrison from the time of Ptolemy Evergetes." The fortress was taken, and Antiochus "secured by a sufficient garrison the port and the citadel." He then took several towns of Syria; and, after a short truce, renewed the war, and invaded Egypt" (B.C. 217. Polyb. v. 6).

15. The battle of Raphia is the one designed in the eleventh verse. The great multitude of Antiochus is fully described by Polybius: "His army was composed


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of five thousand light-armed troops-Daians, Carmanians, and Cilicians; twenty thousand men selected from all parts of the kingdom; a phalanx of twenty thousand men, commanded by Nicarchus and Theodotus the Hermionian; two thousand Agrianians and Persians, with bows and slings; a thousand Thracians; five thousand Medes, Cissians, Cadusians, and Carmanians; ten thousand from Arabia and the neighbouring countries; five thousand Greek mercenaries; fifteen hundred Cretans; a thousand Neocretans; a thousand Cardacians; and five hundred Lydian archers. The number of the cavalry was about six thousand. Thus the whole army of Antiochus consisted of seventy-two thousand foot and six thousand horse, with one hundred and two elephants" (v. 8).

16. "But the multitude shall be given into his hand." "Antiochus saw what had happened, and ran back in haste to the place of battle; but, as the troops were now completely routed, he was forced to retreat to Raphia......He had lost in the action scarce fewer than ten thousand infantry, with more than three hundred horse; above four thousand also were taken prisoners" (Polyb. v.8).

17. "His heart (the king of the south) will be lifted up, and he will cast down many ten thousands."

On Philopator's return from conquest, "puffed up with pride and insolence," he resolved to enter into the holy place; and being hindered, returned to Egypt with bitter threats" (3 Mac. i.) "Being grievously incensed against the Jews, he commanded that they should be collected with all haste, and put to a bitter death.” The "Chronicon" of Eusebius states that forty thousand were put to death in this persecution.

18. "But he shall not be strengthened by it."
So Justin writes: "Factâ pace, avide materiam quietis

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arripuit, inque luxuriam revolutus, occisâ Eurydice uxore eademque sorore suâ, Agathocleæ meretricis illecetris capitur. Atque ita, omnem magnitudimem nominis ae majestatis oblitus, noctes in stupris, dies in conviviis consumsit, nec quisquam in regno suo minus quam rex ipse poterat." And Polybius, to the same effect: "He embraced peace with immoderate haste, and fled again to that repose to which his indolence and habitual vices forcibly inclined him......Not long after, he was engaged in war against the people of his own kingdom. In arming the Egyptians against Antiochus he acted wisely for the present; but the measure was attended with most pernicious consequences: for the people, elated with the victory at Raphia, began to reject with haughtiness the orders of the king, and only waited for a chief to their revolt, which not long after was carried into execution" (v. 8, 9).


19. “The king of the north will return after certain years."

After the battle of Raphia (B.C. 217), Antiochus was long employed in reducing Achæus, and subduing Media, Parthia, Hyrcania, and Bactria. But at the decease of Philopator, and the accession of Ptolemy Epiphanes, at the age of five years (B.c. 205), he resumed his designs against Egypt. Thus Justin informs us: "On the death of Philopator, king of Egypt, despising the weakness of his infant son, who, though left to the expectation of the kingdom, was a prey even to his own domestics, Antiochus, king of Syria determined to seize on Egypt" (xxxi. 1).

20. "He shall come with a great army and much riches."

Polybius, in an imperfect fragment, tells us that he returned from Upper Asia with one hundred and fifty elephants; and "the expedition secured to him the obedience of those provinces, and of all the maritime

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