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AE •N28

THE

NATIONAL CYCLOPÆDIA

OP

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.

BAVARIA, KINGDOM OF.

BAVARIA, KINGDOM OF. BAVARIA, KINGDOM OF, derives its The territorial subdivisions of Bavaria, and the origin from one of the most ancient duchies in population, in 1843, were as follow :modern Europe. The name appears to come from the Boii or Boioarii, its early inhabitants, and the appellation is retained in the modern German Provinces or Circles.

Square Population.

Miles. name of Baiera. It is composed of the greater part of the former circles of Bavaria and Fran- Isar, 31 districts ..

6050 694,344 conia, of certain districts of Swabia, the princi- Lower Danube, 23 districts 3279 535,499 palities of Ansbach and Bairenth, the bishoprics Regen, 27 districts

3618 463,187 of Bamberg, Würzburg, Augsburg, Eichstädt, and Upper Danube, 46 districts 3850 548,956 Freisingen, and some parts of those of Mainz, Rezat, 42 districts

3153 518,478 Fulda, and Speier (Spires). Above seven-eighths Upper Main, 44 districts 3406 496,783 of the territories which now compose it lie in the Lower Main, 51 districts... 3507

587,887 south of Germany, east of the Rhine, and form a Rheinkreis

2137 595,193 compact state, commonly designated the 'Territory of the Danube and Main,' which extends

29000 4,440,327 from 47° 19' to 50° 41' N. lat., and from 8' 51" to 13° 44' E. long. Its circuit, taken in straight lines, is estimated at nearly 1130 miles, but fol- Physical Description.-- The highlands of Bavalowed out in all its curvatures, at upwards of ria are offsets from two great masses, the Alps and 1530. This portion of the Bavarian dominions, the Sudete-Hercynian chain. To the former bein which seven out of the eight provinces are longs that portion of the Noric Alps which stretches comprised, is bounded on the south by the Tyrol, along the south-east of the circle of the Isar, and south-east by Austria, north-east by Bohemia and throws out its arms into that province; the ArlSaxony, north and north-west by the principalities berg mountains, which enter the circle of the of Reuss, the states of ducal Saxony, and the do- Upper Danube from the Tyrol, and subside in minions of Electoral Hesse, Hesse-Darmstadt, and this province; the Allgau-Alps, which commence Baden, until its borders reach the Tauber at Mer- near Kempten, in the south of the same province, gentheim, whence the whole boundary to its south- and extending north-eastward, terminate near western point on Lake Constanz is formed by the Mindelheim. The highlands on the north side of kingdom of Würtemberg. The other portion of the Danube, beginning at the northern part of the the Bavarian dominions, the Territory of the kingdom, contain the Spessart mountains, a finely Rhine,' which is situated on the west bank of that wooded chain, separated from the Odenwald by river, and is completely disjoined from the pre- the Main. The Steigerwald, a forest range of inceding by the interposition of the Baden and ferior altitude, extends south of the Main, along Hesse-Darmstadt possessions, extends from 48° the borders of the circles of the Lower and Upper 57' to 49° 50' N. lat., and from 7° 6' to 8° 31' Main and the Rezat, and affords a picturesque E. long. The French departments of the Lower alternation of woods and fruitful valleys. The Rhine and Moselle bound it on the south, and the Rhöngebirge, a bleak and desolate chain of mounRhine separates it from the grand duchy of Baden tains, with flattened summits covered almost half on the east; on the north-west it is bounded by the year with snow, lie in the circle of the Lower Hesse-Darmstadt; on the north-west and west by Main, to the north of the river Main. They are the Prussian province of the Lower Rhine, Hesse- attached on the east to the Fichtelgebirge, and on Homburg, and Saxe-Coburg.

the west border on the Spessart; they attain their The entire area of Bavaria is 29,000 English highest elevation in the Kreuzberg, which is 4162 square miles, of which there are about 13,000 of feet above the level of the sea. The Fichtelgearable land, 6,250 of pasture land, 578 of vine- birge, which is connected with the Bohemian yards, 8,500 of woods and forests, and 672 of forest chain, lies in the north-eastern circle of the lakes and rivers.

Upper Main. Of the Thüringerwald, or forest of VOL. III.

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