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most securely draw its materials, those materials which the fastidious arrogance of genius condescends indeed to appropriate, but without deigning to own the obligation We will add, that if a verbal index be useful in editions of classical authors in general, it is even "necessary in those of the ancient philosophers. One of the great difficulties which attends the study of the Greek philosophy arises from the necessity not only of distinguishing the force of words, as used by writers of different schools, but of ascertaining the peculiar sense which any single author has afiixed to them. It is true, that in different initances this discrimination is more or less neceffary, and perhaps the dialogues selected by Mr. Routh may afford less scope for it than some other works of Plato. However, we cannot retract our objection. On the contrary, we think it has the more weight for a reason before hinted at. We must repeat, that Mr. Routh's notes are not, in our opinion, sufo ficiently philological; the want of an index will therefore be the more severely felt by his readers, who may conceive, that what he did not think fit to do himself, he should at least have enabled them in some measure to supply.

In juitice to Mr. Routh, we deemed it incumbent on us to present the public with some specimen of his style and manner as a commentator. We have therefore selected the following 'note, which, we presume, will convey to our readers no unfavourable ideas of our author's laborious industry in collecting historical information.

· P. 154. 1. 7. 'Agzécor] Archelaus, de cajus facinoribus hic fuse agitur, haud purum putum erat scelus, five, ut loquuntur, vulla virtute redemptos. Regnum enim Macedonicum, tefte Thucydide, L. 2, c. 100, p. 104, Ed. Dukeri, ornatius atque potentius reddidit; er literas literatofque homines tanto-favore profecutus eft, ut multos viros ingenio atque doctrina ilustres liberali hospitio exciperet; in quibus ipfe erat Euripides. Vide Ælian. Var. Hist

. 2, 21. 13, 4, Schol. Ariftoph. in Ranas, y. 85, et Suid. in v. Eüporcions. imo ab Athenæo Platoni vitio datur, quod Archelauin hoc dialogo fugillaverit, quia, Speulippo tettante, qiatale Plato huic regi erat. L. II, c. 15, p. ŚC6 E. Socrates vero, cum Archelaus eum ad fe vocaret, recufaffe dicitur, ea gratia, ut mihi quidem videtur, quia vocatorem ipsum, ut ex Æliani V. H. 14, 17, conftat, parvi habe

Meae fententiæ favent Laertii verba in Vit. Socr. L. 2, Segm. 25; confer autem causas alias affcrentes Ariitor. Rhet. 1, 14, Senecam De Beneficiis 5, 6, et Antoninum imperat De Seipfo, il, § 22, qui Perdiccæ tamen nomen, non Archelai, habet. Tandem fcelerum priorum dedit penas, a cinado suo occisus. Plato in Alcib. pofteriori g. 5, Ed. Ecwall. Ariftot. L. 5, Polit. C. 10, p. 404 Ed. Duval. Ælian. V. H. 8, 9, et

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94. I. 95• I.

Diod. Sic. L. 14, €, 37, p. 671 Ed. Wesseling. qui interfectum Archelaum narrat archonte Lachete, hoc eft, anno primo Olymp. 9;, eodem, quo mortuus est Socrates. Sed ante Socratem periiffe videtur, qui de Archelao tanquam nuper vitæ defuncto loquitur tam in Theage på 124 D, quam in Alcib. 2ndo, loc. jam citat. Quot autem annos Macedoniæ regnaverit, inter auctores non convenit, cum valde incerta fit. Macedonicorum regum fucceffio. Sine igitur, ut tabella sequens, quod in hac re verisimillimum videtur, facili ratione demonstret. Ultima

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fit mentio de Perdicca, Macedonum rege et Archelai patre, pertinet ad

Olympiadis

91. To Prima Archelai regis mentio,

92. 3. Disputatio hæc Socratis cum Gorgia, 93. 4. Alcibiadis interritus,

Archelai et Socratis mortes, Ex hac temporum notatione in primis patet, fibi inconstantem esle Didorum Siculum, septem tantum annos Archelai regno alignantem, quem ipfe Pydnam occupaffe fcribit Olympiadis 92. anno tertio, atque obiiffe. Olymp. 95 anno primo, quod annosum decem intervallum eft. Confer L. 13, c. 49, P: 579, et L. 14, C. 37, p. 671. Hic autem alter Diodori locus corruptus videtur, etii nonnullis viris do&tiffimis fucum fecerit, ut Cafaubono & Baylio.- Deinde hinc verifimilis videtur Syncelli computatio in Chronograph. pagg. 262 et 263 annos quatuordecim Archelaio tribuens ; quod placuille video Dionysio Petavio De Doct. Temp. Parte 2, p. 849, et Hen. Dodwello in Apparatu ad annales Thucydidæos p. 18, et in Annalibus p. 49; quodque, fi verum fit, initium regni Archelai ad Olymp: 91 annum çertium refert. Non enim cum quibusdam regnum ejus ad multo plures annos dilatandum esse, ex eo patet, quod Perdiccæ regis nomen in anno primo Olymp. 91 apud Thucydidem, fcilicer L. 6, c.7, p. 382, occurrat-Tertio hinc conftat, xforoxă apaprópulo- teneri Platonem, qui in Alcib. pofteriori, $. 5Socratem cum Alcibiade de Archelai cæde loquentem induxit, cám ipse Alcibiades quatuor ante annos occisus esset-Poitremo col. ligendun est, annorum plus minus novem intervalluin fuisse inter initium segni Archelai, quando facinora hoc dialogo me. morata ab eo patrata funt, et ten pus, quo habitam fuiffe hanc cum Gorgia disputationem jam supra oftendi ad p. 361. Itaque verba illa Platonis, ixlès xai aguur yegovóta, in latiorem solito fenSum accipienda sunt. “Voces illæ, nuper, vasi, ac fimiles, nullius certi temporis" ut notat Casaubonus ad Athenæum "discriminationem habent; sunt enim rãy wpės Ti, et ad aliquid femper referuntur. Itaque modo brevias, modo longius tempus designant.” Animadv. 1.384. Respectu igirurauatur epaqualar (hæc Platonis verba proxime antecedunt) heri et nuper accidifle res iftæ dici poterant.'

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The Elements of Euclid, with Dissertations, intended to ali and

encourage a critical Examination of these Elements, as the most effe&ual Means of establishing a juster Taste upon Mathematical Subjects than that which at present prevails. By James Williamson, M. A. Fellow of Hertford College. Vol. I. '410.

165. in Boards. Elmsly. THE *HE Elements of Euclid have received the united appro

bation of mathematicians for more than two thousand years; and, notwithftanding all the improvements of the moderns, in other branches of science, this excellent old Gre. cian still maintains his ground, and is yet without a rival. In all human productions, however, there must be some blemishes, and even Euclid himself is not without them. His theory of parallel lines, the doctrine of proportion, and many other things in the Elements, particularly in the twelfth book, are capable of confiderable amendments. Professor Simfon, with the partiality of a professed admirer, places all the inaccuracy and false reasoning which he finds in this work to the account of unskilful editors; but we are inclined to think, from many circumstances which might be adduced, that the proofs he brings in support of this opinion are frequently groundless. Euclid was not infallible; and therefore, whether the faults belong to him, or to his commentators, is but of little im. portance; they are still faults, and, for that reason, ought to be removed from a work, which in other respects, is the standard of perfection.

Simfon, by his critical attention, and intimate knowlege of the subjeå, has, it is true, done more towards establishing the Elements upon a solid foundation, than all the rest of the commentators. But, in our opinion, there is still room for much useful emendation; and had the present editor pursued this plan, he would have rendered essential service to the science he professes to elucidate. This object, however, has en. gaged but little of Mr. Williamson's attention. His defer ence for Euclid is so great, that he has even preserved all his buts and therefores with the most fcrupulous exactness. The garb in which he has dressed him is of the fifteenth century, and his commentaries are frequently as unprofitable, quaint, and endless as old John Dee's mathematical preface. 'I could, says he, have improved my ftile very much; but it feems to answer my purpose better in its present form; for I write not to make people read, but to make them think.' What the advantages may be that arise from the thinking up, on a subject without reading, we will not pretend to determine; 3some attention to language and perspicuity is generally

7

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confidered as a very necessary article in most books of instruction.

This work appears to be a literal tran:lation from the Greek of Grynæus's edition 1533 ; and Mr. Williamson's determined resolution of expressing every ana, apa, on, de, &c. in the original, has led him into many needless repetitions, and a harsh disagreeable prolixity. The continual occurrence of but, wherefore, therefore, certainly, &c. and the various figni. fications which must be appropriated to them, together with the confused order in which the several parts of the demonftrations are placed, to which may be added the carelessness of his punctuation, render many of the propositions extremely confused, and scarcely intelligible. Conciseness may admit of fome palliation for obfcurity, but prolixity of none. • Brevis effe laboro, obscurus fio,' says the poet ; but our editor may fay, “Longus esfe laboro, valde obscurus fio.'

As a proof that this censure is not illiberal, or without foundation, we shall present our readers with the following {pecimen, indiscriminately taken from the first book. The figure may be seen in any edition of the Elements.

• Prop. XXIV. If two triangles have the two fides equal to the two sides, each to each, but have the angle greater than the angle, the angle contained by the equal ftraight lines:: also they will have the base greater than the base.

• Let there be two triangles the triangles ABC, DEF hava' ing the two fides AB, AC equal to the two sides DE, DF, each to each; AB to DE, and AC to DF; but let an angle the angle contained by BAC be greater than the angle contained by EDF; I say that the base BC is greater than the base EP.

• For because the angle BAC is greater than the angle EDF; let there be made, with the straight line DE and at the point Din it, the angle EDG equal to the angle BAC; and let DG be made equal (by prop. 3.) to either of the lines AC, DF; and det GE, GF be joined.

• Since therefore AB is equal to DE and AB to DG;'certainly the two BA, AC are equal to the two ED, DG, each to each; and the angle BAC is equal.(by conft.) to EDG therefore the base BC is equal to the base EG. Again because DG is equal to DF, the angle DFG is equal (by prop. 5.) to the angle DGF; therefore the angle DFG is greater than the angle EGF; therefore the angle EPG is greater by much than the angle EGF; and because there is a triangle, the triangle EFG, having the angle EFG greater than the angle EGF; but (by prop. 19.) the greater fide is extended under the greater angle: therefore the fide EG is greater than EF : and EG is equal to BC (by part. 1. of this propo); wherefore also BC is greater than FF.

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Where.

• Wherefore if two triangles have the two fides equal to the two sides, each to each, and have the angle greater than the angle, the angle contained by the equal itraight lines; they will also have the base greater than the base. Which was to be demonstrated.'

About a hundred and twenty pages of this performance are filled with directions to the student, and observations upon various parts of his author, which are frequently fo little to the purpose, that a particular account of them would be unnecessary; especially as Mr. Williamson himself • afirms that an author who writes upon subjects of science 'may find it often by no means convenient to deliver himself in such a man nér as to be always intelligible even to those whom he would wish to have for readers,'

ners.

The Progress of Romance, through Times, Countries, and Man.

Two Volumes. 8vo. 55. Jered. Robinson. THI

HIS subject has been frequently examined, when it has oc

curred in larger works; but, as a part only of a whole, it has not probably been considered with the attention which it deseryes, The romances of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries have been so often the objects of ridicule, that authors have commonly decided without reading, and rejected without examination ; and almost every work, under the same

title, has funk into equal contempt. It was in vain to lead the reader to these forgotten fables, by telling them that they were onçe the sources of entertainment to the gay, the witty, and even to the learned ; that from this fire Milton frequently kindled his torch, and scattered light and Aame into metaphysical difquifitions, or austere complaints; that from this source he frequently threw an additional luftre on even his own splendid imagery. These and all other arguments will fail, for the torrent which has changed its source will pursue it in spite of human efforts,

The author of the two little volumes before us seems to be bet, ter acquainted with these antiquated histories, than her predecessors in the same department. Her views are more general and extensive: fhe pursues the whole train of ideal adventurers, col. lects them into groupes, and examines their pretensions. In this tract the sometimes seems to trespass on what the classical enthusiast will call holy ground; for the dares, the boldly dares, to infinuate, that the Iliad and the Odyssey are only

Let us examine this subject. romances.

Dr. Johnson calls a romance " a military fable of the middle ages; 4 tale of wild adventures of war and love.". This is

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