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own store. Dr. Johnson does not escape, but is censured for his intolerance, and his prejudices. Though the field is extenfive, the exceptions are fo few, that we are almost ready to suspect this to be a friendly attack. Elements of English Grammar, methodically arranged. 12m0.
Is. 6d. Evans. .We have perused this little work with attention, and had designed to examine it at some length, as the early diffemination of error may have a lasting and extensive effect; but, on more mature reflection, the errors appeared unimportant, and such as the pupil would necessarily correct in the more advanced tate of his knowlege. The execution in general is entitled to our praise, for the rules are plain and simple; the examples, with a very few exceptions, accurate and well chofen.
The Preface, and the Plan of Study, is judicious; but we muft neceffarily object to the author's condemnation of the • Navith custom” of learning by heart.' The period of youth should be employed in improving the faculties of the mind : in early youth, the memory only begins to expand; the perceptions are not accurate, the reason is weak, and the judgment has scarcely dawned. To the memory then, for a time, our attention must be directed; and, if properly managed, so that it be not crowded or confused, we need not be afraid of overloading it. Many of the modern innovations in education are fanciful refinements, and no one is inore reprehensible than this very tender regard for the memory. Oixadze; or, Nutshells: being Ichnographic Distributions for fma!?
Vill s; cbiefly upon economical Principles. In Seven Classes With occasional Remarks. By Jofepb Mac Packe, a Bricklayer's Labourer. Part the Firft, containing Twelve Defigns. 8vo. 55. in Boards. Dilly,
This gentleman has put on the frock and apron with a very good design, and we are much pleased with the instructions of this honest labourer. It requires, however, no great fagacity to see through the disguise, nor to discover that the author of these Nut-hells potřefies great knowledge of architecture, with a correct, cultivated taste, and some experience in the practical part of his work. The designs are elegant and con. venient; the distribution of the several parts is well conducted ; and the whole seems to be founded on plans ftri&tly economical.
The introductory tables contain the proportional breadths of different rooms, as connected with the harmony of numbers, which the author seems to treat with the precise degree of at. tention it deserves; the proportional breadth of passages, faircases, door-ways, chimnies, heights, &c. In fact, this intelligent labourer seems fond of regularity and proportion, but is not willing to sacrifice any utility or convenience to them. The different plans then follow, which we cannot analyse ; next aa appendix, and the work concludes with some necessary notes.
The appendix contains ufeful hints to gentlemen who choose to build, which we would recommend to their serious attention ; and the author's sentiments on decorations. We were pleased with the indignation which he expresses at the ridiculous mif. placed ornaments, with which modern talte has decorated the external parts of our buildings, and the absurd irregularities which we have adopted, from a fear of falling into the opposite extreme. This fancifal mode will always be rejected by a pure classical taste ; for it is far distant from that which has pleased for ages, and will continue to please those who are not corrupted by fashion, or will not sacrifice every thing valuable to the caprice of the day.
Some few words, and in a few instances the language, of this work is exceptionable ; but on the whole, it is very correct, for a' bricklayer's labourer;' and this is the standard by which the author wishes to be judged. We shall select a fhort passage, which displays both a taste and knowlege greatly superior to his assumed character,
• It seems not perfectly agreeable to the genius of architecture, to admit of decorations of the vegetable tribe, too closely copied from nature; the wildness of natural foliage, contrasted with the regular geometrical forms of buildings, produce a heterogeneous mixture by no means allowable; and it may be also observed, that the ruling lines of all curves in architectural ornaments, whether simple, waved, or spiral, Tould liow from the circle only, and be as free from intanglements and intersections as poslīble ; all considerable deviations from this principle, will produce ill effects, and, I apprehend, need only be mentioned, to guard the designer from encroaching too much upon the province of the painter, whose chief excellence is, that of being a close imitator of nature. That architecture is too artificial to admit of the natural wildness of vegetable forms into its composition, is, I apprehend, self-evident, and the effect which would be produced by such kind of decoration, may be readily guessed at, by the following inftance :-up pose a building erected in the midst of a garden, having its exterior richly ornamented with foliage, fruits, and flowers, ftrictly copied from nature; compare these decorations with the blooming originals surrounding the building, how absurd and disgusting the effect would be, upon such comparison, may be better imagined, than expressed. The truth seems to be, that a!! architectural ornaments hould be as much as possible essential parts of the design they decorate; and this is effected in fome instances, by difpofing them in such pannels and compartments, and upon such tablets, plat-bands, and facies, as are proper to the design, and which, without decoration, would leave the child of nature to enquire whether those blank frames are for the reception of paintings or glasses. It is, however, proper to remark, that the regular parts of selected vegetable torms; I mean the leaves, buds, flowers, and huiks, are not
by any means to be excluded, when properly corrected by arti though, indeed, those generally succeed belt which are wholly the produce of art. Vegetable forms, purely natural, appear to fucceed best in freezes and fascias, and other members of that character ; the reason seems to be, that the parallel or concentric lines, bounding or inclosing fuch decorations, being so near to each other, as to be seen at the same time with the ornaments between them; the irregularity of the natural forms is thereby confiderably counteracted or qualifed. It may, perhaps, be observed, that the festoon is an exception to the above reltri&tion ; certainly not ; for if the aid of art is not called in to bind the vagrant foliage together, and hang them so as to produce outlines, in general, nearly regular, whether strait or curved, they will produce a very indifferent effect.' The New and Universal Guide through the Cities of London and
Weftminster, the Borough of Soutbrvark, and Parts adjacent. By John Mazzingby, M. L. 12mo. 35. 6d. in Boards. Dilly.
This work seems to have been originally written in French; for the English is frequently incorrect, sometimes obscure : • l'ensevelerent,' is translated they're-entered it.' 'erronès,' • ignorous,' &c. We shall select a very curious derivation of a very obvious term.
• Pie Powder Court. It is a court of record, denominated pipoudres, (vulgarly pie-powder) and is incident to every fair. It is derived from pedas pulverisati, and is so called from its expeditious proceedings in the decision of all controverfies that happen in fairs; because, for the encouragement of iraders who frequent the same, justice is as quickly administered as duft can fall from the feet. Held in Cloth-Fair, Smithfield, during the time of Bartholomew-Fair.'
If the author had not been determined to look very far for a derivation, he might have deduced it from the dufty shoes' of the attendants on fairs,, the usual litigants in these courts.
In general, the accounts are taken from good authorities; for little seems to belong to the author except the trouble of compilation. We have not, however, been able to find the source of the population; but we have much reason to think it exaggerated. The stated and accidental inhabitants of London are estimated at one million two hundred and fifty thoufand ; but, if this be not too great a number, the provision is too low. 'The yearly consumption of theep and lambs is faid 10 amount to leven hundred and fourteen thousand eight hundred and thirty. We suspect the error to be in the number of inhabitants, since the author reckons eight persons to one house: perhaps five and a half, the usual calculation, exceeds the truth. This brings the fiated inhabitants to seven hundred and ten thousand four hundred and seventy-three; and perhaps the whole may be comprised within eight hundred thousand. The
consumption of meat will, in that case, be more consonant to. experinients made in a smaller circle.
In other refpects, this is an useful guide, and may be serviceable, from its being written in both languages, to visitors from the neighbouring continent. A Journey from Birmingham to London. By W. Hutton, F.S. A.
25. 6d. Baldwin. In our fifty-second volume, we gave an account of this author's History of Birmingham. That work is distinguished by a peculiar humour and good-natured pleasantry; but in this, the lively fallies are lefs natural, and the wit is often falle, • Currit in extremum ridendus :'-Pew know where to stop.
In fact, though this is called a Journey, the greater part of the volume conilts of a description of London, and the more remarkable objects in this metropolis.. We shall select a favourable specimen of our author's reflections: they arise from a fight of the Foundling Hospital.
. One cannot furvey this vast collection of neglected fruits of unlawful love, without feeling for them, more than they can feel for themselves. Cut off from past generations, they stand the firit of their line. They are founders of families. Each depends upon his own merit. They give initruction to their children, who have received none from their parents. They cannot, by ill-conduci, disgrace thein. The deeds of their fathers are shut out from the ears of their offspring. No family action is rehearsed by their sober fire. The son rises, not up in judgment against his father. They are strangers to a mother's tender clasp ; they know not a brother's love. We view the little urchins with pity, because they have no friends to pity them. They long for no man's death; they expect no man's wealth ; they have no estate in reversion, no sable clothes to wear, no funeral tears to fall. It is as difficult to keep mo, ney in this place, as to acquire it in others,
It is here alone the pride of family never enters; one general level reigns through the whole. They seem as happy as those who are surrounded by relations. Having only themselves to depend on, they, perhaps, will be more fortunate than those who depend upon others.
Self is the safest prop. • Had not this excellent institution been adopted, some of this infant race, who may become future benefits, perhaps would not now have existed ; it is, therefore, che preventer of guilt.
We must also, in our own justification, add another speci. men, but it shall not be of the worst kind.
· The (churches) may. be said to be closely attended; for whenever we find one, we find it pent up by the houses, as if with design to squeeze it into a narrower compass. In some parts of London, particularly at the welt end of the town, they are thinly scattered; but, perhaps, they are as numerous as
necessary. Within, they are not quite so much attended as in Birmingham. A bishop, with us, would draw an innumerable multitude after him ; but in Londou, I attended divine service, at St. Mary Aldermary, where the bishop of L preached, almost to an empty church. However, it should be remembered, he preached a charity sermon.' Proposals for establishing, at Sea, a Marine School; of Seminary
for Seamen. 8vo. 15. Dilly. These Proposals are founded on Mr. Hanway's report, and are dictated by found policy and good senfe. If carried into execution with judgment, they may tend to lessen the number of street-robbers and house-breakers, while thefe depredators will form a strong national bulwark, and contribute to defend their country, instead of living by rapine on its spoils. Universal Stenograpby; or a new compleat System of Short Writing.
By the Rev. W.F. Mavor. Second Edit. 8vo. 55. Harrison.
In our fifty-second volume, page 239, we gave our opinion, in general, on the nature and use of hort-hand. We need not now repeat it, but shall confine ourselves to the System before us, which we have examined with some care.
We cannot, however, commend it very warmly. It has advantages over some other plans, of being written with neatness, and looking fair to the eye; but we think these are more than compensated by particular inconveniencies. A rapid writer, for instance, cannot, without trouble, form a circle very different from an oval, since the circles can never be true: it will be more dif. ficult to make a blotted circle, unless it be re-touched with the pen. The management of the vowels is neither convenient or İkilful, and will tend to introduce no little obscurity in read. ing; we need scarcely repeat, that to read easily, is of ag least of equal importance with rapid writing.
These reflections our duty has drawn from us; for we have no particular system to prefer. From the same motive we ought to add, that the introduction, fometimes perhaps too much infated, contains judicious reflections on the fubject; and these led us to form very fanguine expectations of the author's fuccess: we might have been better satisfied if we had expected
A General Dictionary of the English Language. To which are
added, an alphabetical Account of the Heathen Deities; and a List of the Cities, Towns, Boroughs, and remarkable Villages in England and Wales. Small 8vo. 35. Peacock.
This work is very neatly and clearly printed ; and, from its size, deserves the title affixed to it. We have looked over it, and fee no very particular reason to impeach its accuracy. In a few instances, the author has omitted fome necessary diftinctions; and in others, the accent is not fixed with proper atten- · tion or at lealt; without an explanations may millead; but