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a fecond time in your way) is fufficiently compensated, by the immediate benefit which you proposé by the talihood.'
The next part of this book is on · Relative Duties' that are indeterminate.' These are charity, including the treatment of our domeftics, dependents, and flaves. The subject of flavery is diftin&tly considered; but it is no imputation to the ingenious author, that he has advanced little that is new on it: we have had so many treatises, full of reason and argument, as well as of declamation, that almost every topic seems o have been exhausted, and every person must have been long since convinced, except those for whom the arguments were intended, who are unfortunately too much blinded by interest and necessity. But what is that necessity of which so much has been said ? Merely, says our author, that of buying for fix pence, which, if the work were done by voluntary hired servants, would cost one halfpenny more. Trifling as this difference is, and distant from the forcible plea of real necesfity, we are not certain that even this would be the result; perhaps many circumstances would compensate for the different prices. The other subjects are, refentment, anger, revenge, duelling, litigation, gratitude, and flander. They are examined in the most clear and candid manner.
There is another class of relative duties which deserves a feparate confideration, viz. those which result from the conftitution of the fexes, There is no subject, in which the moralift can
more properly interfere, and none in which the ' voice of the charmer' will be less heard, charm he never so wisely.' Pallions of this kind are firmly rooted, and usually violent, so that perhaps the best arguments against the irregular indulgence of them, would be the misery which usually attends it. We praised our author's chapter on Human Happiness with more freedom, because we perceived its application to this before us; and, in some parts, Mr. Paley has followed the train of argument which we have mentioned. The several duties which belong to this head are particularly considered, and deserve attention. But on that of polygamy, though we wish to oppose it with zeal, we must be so far the friend of truth, as to diminish the force of one argument against it. We have been told, that Providence has designed the present institution, by the proportioning the number of females to the males so nearly that, making allowance for the chances of war and other hazardous professions, the numbers may be considered as equal. But this is the effect of, rather than an argument for monogamy. Where polygamy prevails, the number of females is greater than that of the males; and if such arguments were allowed, they may be retorted
with at least equal force. It has been supposed a fact, that the sex of the child is determined by the superior strength of either of the parents ; and, perhaps with particular limitations, it may be true, and account for this variety under different institutions. But, independent of the cause, polygamy certainly increases the number of females, and this fact deserves consideration. There is one view of the subject which we think has not been so fully insisted on as it deserves. If woman was designed as the friend and the assistant of man, polygamy is unnatural and absurd ; for two such friends are incompatible ; and that the human mind revolts at the idea, appears from the jealousies excited by the most diftant competition. This is an argument interwoven with the nature of mankind, and connected with our existence; it cannot be controverted, it cannot be eluded, but by degrading woman to a rank, which every man of delicacy and feeling would at once oppose. It is with these that we can only contend; for the libertine who is funk below humanity, and the philosopher who has reasoned himself out of, though not above it, may fafely continue in their opinions. To convince them would not be a victory ; to reason with them would be labour misapplied.
This book is concluded with reflections on the duty and rights of parents, and the duty of children. We have been led fo far, that we can only extract a small portion of our author's remarks ; but these we cannot omít.
• The most serious contentions between parents and their children, are those commonly, which relate to marriage, or the choice of professions.
• A parent has, in no cafe, a right to destroy his child's happiness. If it be true, therefore, that there exist such personal and exclusive attachments between individuals of different sexes, that the possession of a particular man or woman in marriage be really necessary to the child's happiness; or if it be true, that an aversion to a particular profeflion may be involuntary and unconquerable; then it will follow, that parents, when this is the case, ought not to urge their authority, and that the child is not bound to obey it.
• The point is, to discover how far, in any particular inftance, this is the case. Whether the fondness of lovers ever continues with such intensity, and so long, that the success of their desires constitutes, or the disappointinent affects, any confiderable portion of their happiness, compared with that of their whole life, it is difficult to say ; but there can be no difficalty in saying, that not one half of those attachments, which young people conceive with so much hatte and passion, are of this fort. I believe it also to be true, that there are few avere
fions to a profession, which resolution, perseverance, activity in going about the duty of it, and above all, despair of changing, will not subdue: yet there are some such. Wherefore, a child who respects his parent's judgment, and is tender, as he ought to be, of his happiness, owes, at least, so much deference to his will, as to try fairly and faithfully, in one case, whether time and absence will not quench his affection and in the other, whether a longer continuance in his profession may not reconcile him to it? The whole depends upon the experiment being made on the child's part with fincerity ; and not merely with a design of compassing his purpofe at last, by means of a simulated and temporary compliance. It is the nature of love and hatred, and of all violent affections, to delude the mind with a persuasion that we shall always continue to feel them, as we feel them at present. We cannot conceive that they will either change or cease. Experience of similar or greater changes in ourselves, or a habit of giving credit to what our parents, or tutors, or books teach us, may controul this persuasion ; otherwise it renders youth very untractable: for they see clearly and truly, that it is impoffible they thould be happy under the circumstances proposed to them in their present state of mind. After a fincere, but ineffectual endeavour, by the child, to accommodate his inclination to his parent's pleasure, he ought not to suffer in his.parent's affection, or in his fortunes. The parent, when he has reasonable proof of this, should acquiesce : at all events, the child is then at liberty to provide for his own happiness.
• Parents have, on no account, a right to urge their children upon marriages, to which they are averse ; nor ought, in any hape, to resent the children's disobedience of such commands. This is a different case from oppofing a match of inclination, because the child's misery is a much more probable conse
quence; it being easier to live without a person that we love, than with one whom we hate. Add to this, that compulsion in marriage leads to prevarication ; as the reluctant party promises an affection, which neither exists, nor is expected to take place : and parental, like all human, authority ceases at the point, where obedience becomes criminal.'
Though we wished to have concluded our account of this valuable work in one article , yet we find that much still remains; fo that we shall resume it at another opportunity.
Elays Historical and Moral. By G. Gregory. 8vo.
5$• Johnson. WE
E have received much pleasure from the perusal of these
Essays. The author, if not always exact or original, is generally entertaining and instructive: if he does not penetrate the depth of his subject, and strike us with astonishment
ar the novelty and comprehension of his ideas, we ought to remember that he writes only lighter essays; and we foon pesceive, that he aims rather at an elegant conciseness, than at the more diffuse mode of composition, which would leave nothing farther to add.
He attempts to investigate the principles of moral action, through the medium of historical evidence,' and to discriminate causes' instead of accumulating facts. Yet he sometimes speculates, and sometimes errs: his knowlege and learning are confiderable ; the chief errors, and they are far from numerous, are in the deductions from facts. We mean not to blame the author even for his mistakes ; to think with able men of different ages, may be no fault; though authority, on the other hand, cannot sanction errors. penetration will detect them, and a happy boldness expose them in their native colours; but many, who perceive the fault, are afraid of contradicting the concurrent opinion of ages, and it will require somewhat more than discernment to oppose, with success, the most rooted prejudices, Our author too often creeps with the croud, and, too cautious of a storm, seems afraid to foar above them.
The first Essay is on the Progress of Manners and Society. We are taught, he says, that the human race is derived from one original stock; this opinion, our author thinks, is most agreeable to the great fimplicity observable in the works of Providence, and supported by the most ancient tradition of all na. tions, A more intimate acquaintance, however, with nature, seems to have raised doubts on this subject; and Mr. Gregory's reasoning, though designed to remove, has rather strengthened them. He thinks, there is no evidence that the power
of climate is incapable of producing a difference in the external appearance, answerable to that which characterises the inhabitants of the different regions of the earth. We do not sure pect our author of having artfully increased the difficulty, by veiling it in a negative proportion. His usual candour forbids it; but we shall add, that we have no reason to suppofe a cli
mate capable of producing this change; no instance has yet : been adduced, and different races of men, of different colours,
Mapes, and manners, have been found in situations very similar. The author again recurs to the subject, in a future effay; and then alleges a strong argument in its favour, viz, the fertility of children, born from a mixed race; the contrary is, we know, observed in animals of different species. This fact of natural history is not, however, fo general as has been afprehended; but fince we are not now contending on the subject, and only expressing some difficulties to direct future enquirers, we shall pursue our author's reasoning. Mr. Gre
gory traces the different stages of society with accuracy, from the relation of different voyagers; but we strongly mistrust those observers, who tell us of nations without any trace of religion. It is remarkable that this hafty decision very generally occurs, where the acquaintance is flight, and the opinion has been often retracted after frequent visits.
The fact is only of importance in the history of the human mind : religion or infidelity would gain little by its establishment. thor seems to have little respect for the patriarchal form of government; and, in his opinion, a strong argument against it is, that a state of anarchy generally preceded the feudal fystem.
But this mistake seems to have arisen from his not tracing the subject to its source. We shall have another occasion to resume it; and it will appear probable that, if the patriarchal scheme is to be considered as the first form of government, it must have preceded the state of anarchy. It is peculiar to this scheme, that, in the earlier stages of population, it was the most obvious and most immediate preservation againit confufion. The practical improvement to be deduced from our author's reasoning is of great consequence, and is worth transcribing.
• As a corollary from the preceding Effay, it seems to follow, that improper means have usually been employed for the civi. lization of barbarous nations. Missionaries have been sent among them, and schools have been erected for their instruction, without effect. They are found incapable of receiving abstract ideas, or attending to any chain of reasoning on moral or religious topics. It is of little purpose to give a literary education to a few of the children of lavages, fince it only serves to render them different from the rest of the community, and unfit for that stage of society in which they are engaged. A nation, it appears, muft arrive at knowledge and civilization by proper gradations. The first application of which the mind seems capable, in a rude state, is to the mechanic arts. The introduc, tion of these among uncivilized people will excite their curiofity and their emulation ; and the conveniencies procured by means of these arts will always be a sufficient recommendation of them. If, therefore, it be the object of any government, or public institution, to civilize and instruct a barbarous nation, let it not attempt to make divines and philosophers of the younger savages; let them be made carpenters, îmiths, boatbuilders, wheel-wrights, &c. and let the females be taught to spin and to weave, The introduction of these arts will render the society stationary, and an applicacion to agriculture will succeed.
It is a fact now generally allowed, that Christianity can only be received by people whose minds are disciplined, and capable of more continued attention than savages generally aree
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