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neous town, because the sand is rich as well as dry; for fand which is poor would soon crumble in from every side of the pit, and consequently occasion the necellity of frequently removing the incumbrance. Cole's pits are also surrounded by a molt fertile country.'

Art. XXIX. Memoir on Hokeday, By the Rey. Mr. Denne. -Hoke, Hokeday, or Hock-tyde, was formerly a season of great festivity in England, but from what cause is uncertain. By fome antiguarians this festival is confidered as the remains of a heathen cuftom, while others suppose that it was designed to celebrate the deliverance of Englishmen from the dominion of the Danes. Among those who favour the latter opinion, some have ascribed the institution to the massacre of the Danes in the reign of Etheldred II. and others to the death of Hardicanute, the last monarch of that race, at a' marriage-feaft at Lambeth, on the 8th of June 1042. The opinion lact mentioned is that which is supported by Mr. Denne.

Art. XXX. A Letter from Governor Pownall to the Rev. Michael Lort, D. D. inclosing Mr. Ledwich's Letter on the Ship Temples in Ireland. --The following is the description of a monument, supposed to be of this kind, in the county of Mayo.

“ On a conical isolé hill, about two miles from the Mullet, on the western coast of the county of Mayo, stands a very ancient and curious monument in good preservation. The walls are two feet thick, and formed of courses of well-jointed stones, but without cement, Their elevation to the roofing is seven feet; the length of the room fifteen feet; the breadth unequal, the ground plan forming a curvilineal triangle. The door placed on one side is conitituted of three large itones, two converging uprights with an impoft. The roof is made with large flag-Itones, with a graffy covering. There is no tradition respecting it. The natives call it Leabba na Fathach, or che Giant's Bed.”

Art. XXXI. Obfervations on the Alphabet of the Pagan Irish, and of the Age in which Finn and Oflin (Oflian) lived. Ry Colonel Charles Vallancey. The colonel, after laying before his readers a letter from Mr. O'Flanagan, in the county of Clare, relative to an ancient monument, observes that it elucidates two desirable facts. One is, that the ancient Irish had an alphabetical character before the arrival of St. Patrick; and the other, that the period in which the above mentioned heroes flourished, was the latter part of the third century.

Art. XXXII. erronequfly marked XXXI. An Account of fome Artificial Caverns in the Neighbourhood of Bombay. By Mr. William Hunter, Surgeon in the Eaft Indies.

Art.

Art. XXXIII, marked XXXII. A Differtation on the Refigion of the Druids. By Edward Ledwich, LL. B. Vicar of Aghaboe, Queen's County, Ireland.-This fenli ble writer op. poses, with much force of argument, the opinion maintained by some antiquaries, that the Druids were conversant with the sciences.' His opinion is, that the Druids possessed no internal or external doctrine; either veiled by symbols, or clouded in ænigmas, or any religious tenets but the characteristic of barbarian priests, and the grosseft Gentile superstition.'

Art. XXXIV. Account of a curious Pagoda near Bombay, drawn up by Captain Pyke, afterwards Governor of St. Helena, and extracted from his Journal by Alexander Dalrymple, Elg.

Art. XXXV. Extract by the late Smart Lethieulier, Esq. from the Papers of the late Charles Boon, Esq. Governor of Bombay, giving an Account of the great Pagoda on the Island of Sallet,

Art. XXXVI. Subsidy Roll of 51 Edward III. communicated by John Topham, Esq.-This roll is a transcript of a record containing some historical fa&ts, which tend to illustrate the state of the population and revenues of this kingdom at the period to which it relates.

Art. XXXVII. On the Radical Letters of the Pelasgians and their derivatives. By Thomas Alle, Esq.-The Pelaf. gians were the most ancient inhabitants of Greece, of whom we have any account; and from the monuments of their colonies which settled at Etruria and other parts of Italy at an early period, the beit information concerning their language has been derived. There is reason to conclude, that the alphabet which the Pelasgi first brought into Italy, was carried out of Phænicia before the Phenicians had augmented the Tíumber of radical letters of which it was originally composed. According to Mr. Swinton, this alphabet consisted of thirteen letters ; but father Gori contends, that the number it included was only twelve; and Mr. Altle, after much investigation, declares himself of the same opinion.

Art. XXXVIII. Observations on a Seal of Thomas, Suffragan Bishop of Philadelphia. By the Rev. Mr. Pegge.This titular bishop of Philadelphia was prebendary of Stow in Lindsey in the church of Lincoln, installed April 12, 1544, and was fuffragan to John Longiand, bishop of that see.

Art. XXXIX. Obiervations on the Remains of the Amphitheatre of Flavius. Vefpafian at Rome, as it was in the year 1777, By Mr. Thomas Hardwick.

Art. XL. Observations on an ancient Sword. By Lieuteaant-general Melvill. Though the length of this sword, from

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the cross-piece of the handle to the point, is full nineteen inches, which is rather longer than the Roman gladii appear to have been, from the greater part of balli relievi, yet general Melvill, from several circumstances, which we think wellfounded, concludes it to be a legionary gladius.

Art. XLI. A Letter from the Rev. Mr. James Douglas to General Melvill, on, the Sword mentioned in the preceding Article.

Art. XLII. Account of some Antiquities found in Gloucestershire. By the Rev. Mr. Mutlow.

Art. XLIII. Obfervations on the Language of the People commonly called Gypfies. By Mr. Marsden.-The author of these Observations informs us that, after much accurate enquiry, there is found to be a great fimilarity between the Hindoftanic language and that of the Gypsies in this kingdom. He institutes a comparison in a number of words, which seem to justify the remark; but how far such a coincidence, observable likewise in some other languages, can evince, with any degree of certainty, that the Hindoitanic and Gypfey tribes have formerly been one people, we are not such affertors, of etymological or verbal authority to pronounce in the affirmative.

Art. XLIV. Collections on the Zingara, or Gypsey language. By Jacob Bryant, Esq.- This article, which seems to be intended as a supplement to the preceding, contains five pages of a vocabulary of the Zingara, or Gypsey language; leveral of which words accord with others in the native Perfic, or in the Persic of Indoftan. Some instances are likewise produced of a remarkable similarity between words of the Zingara and other languages, among which are the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.

Art. XLV. A Description and Plan of the aacient Timber Bridge at Rochester, collected from two manuscripts, published in Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent.

In an Appendix to the volume are contained extracts of such communications as the Council of the Antiquarian Society has not thought proper to publish entire. The principal subjects are some Account of a brass Image of Roman workmanship, found at Cirencester ; Account of Discoveries at Allington in Kent; and of a Roman Pavement found at Caerwent, in 1778.

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The Increase of Manufaêtures, Commerce, and Finance, with the

Extenfion of Civil Liberty, proposed in Regulations for the

Interest of Money. 470. Os. in Boards. Robinson. THE HE subject, of which this author treats, is of great na.

tional importance ; and we have the pleasure to find, both from his narrative and observations, that he has inveftigated it with particular attention. He endeavours to prove, that the present laws relative to the lending of money, by confining all interest, whether for large or small fams, and upon certain or uncertain security, to the fame standard, and without any regard to the necessities or circumstances of the borrower, are by no means fuficiently comprehenfive of liberal to answer the lawful purposes of trade. To remedy this inconvenience the author gives the sketch of a plan for {upplying individuals with sums of money, upon principles which would conduce greatly to the extension of commerce. The outlines of the proposed plan are as follow.

• The first regulation, in an institution of this fort, would require to be,

That no loan fhould ever be granted which did not ap. pear to be for the advantage of the torrower, whatever other circumftances might warrant the expediency of granting it.

· That, as the minds of men are often too apt to be biaflid by circumstances, there should be a limit fet to the highest rate of interest that may be taken, which must be regulated by the extent of the loan; that is to say, the power of granting afurious loans not to be left to the directors of such a bank.

« The extent of the loan fhould be estimated by the inter. eft which it produces during the whole time of the existence of the loan. Thus, sool. for two years, mould be reckoned the fame as 1oool. for one year.

· That the principal management be in the hands of men who have no interest in exacting too high a premium of infurance, nor of increasing the expence of the negociation.

« That men of character should be employed to inquire into the particular circumstances of borrowers, under the best regulations that can be devised for coming to the true state of their affairs.

That a certain time elapse between the asking a loan and the granting of it, unless it be under such particular circumftances as may be excepted from the general regulations.

• That, in order to avoid making any kind of monopoly of the lending of money, where security is so good as not to require much premium of insurance, this bank be never al

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lowed to lend money without a premium, nor unless that premium amounts to two-fifths of the interest.

• That, in order also to render the institution quite competent to the equalizing the monied affairs of the kingdom, and without refpect, in this instance, to public revenue, any person may be allowed to take, for the loan of money on uncertain security, two-fifths premium of insurance more than what, at the time of such loan being granted, is given for the loan of money on mortgage. This laft general licence for taking premia not to extend to loans above a certain amount.

Registers of all transactions to be so kept, that the cir. cumstances attending them may be known at any time afterwards.

• Probably the regulation of the institution might with ad. vantage be subjected, in fome degree, to the yearly inspection of a committee of the house of commons; and, at all events, as there would be a good deal of discretionary power vested in the managers, it ought to have every possible check, which frequent and minute inspection into the exercise of such an office might afford.'

It is a preliminary article in this plan, that upon any application for money, the circumstances of the borrower should be made known with the utmost fidelity. The proposal is undoubtedly reasonable and necessary; and when the result of the enquiry, should be such as strongly favoured the probability of re-payment, to obtain a loan even at high interest, and at such a rate as at present comes under the denomination of usury, might not only extricate the borrower from embarassment, but prove the means of both improving his private fortune, and of benefiting the public. These are the important considerations on which the author founds the utility of his plan ; and we must acknowlege, that however the proposal may be received by those who could carry it into execution, it does honour to his benevolence and his regard to the interests of the public.

A Treatise on the Influence of the Moon in Feverse By Francis Balfour, M.D. 8vo.

Is. 6d.

Robinfon. THIS little work, originally printed at Calcutta, is reprinted very respectable profeffor has led us to examine the Treatise with particular care, and it seems designed to induce practitioners to observe the periods of fevers, as connected with the changes of the moon, with greater attention. Dr. Balfour feems to have clearly established its influence at Bengal, and Dr. J. Lind had

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