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author was guided : if he designed his work ' to keep the most important effects of the most important articles in the Materia Medica in the memory of the practitioner, he has been too redundant; and this charge will even apply to his own limitation of the articles received into practice. The arnica, the anchufa, the bezoar, the buxus sempervirens, the corsuta, the skink, imperatoria, hypociilidis fuccus, the quallia, rad. Indic. Lopez, with a great variety of others, cannot be faid to form any part of the practitioner's fock, because they are very seldom to be procured. If he wilhed to include those which have been ever mentioned, the defects are too numerous to be noticed. The arsenic, aparine, ol. jecoris aselli, avenæ farina, the betonici rad. borage, barbery, the ol. caijeput, capillus Veneris, and many others, for we have omitted the triling and the superstitious ones, are in vain fought for in this work, which contains remedies less ufed and less efficacious.

If we look to the execution, in those articles which Ds. Aikin has noticed, we shall find it equally exceptionable. He has indeed inserted the Linnæan names, and the sensible properties. These are highly useful ; but on the principal fubject, the medical virtues, he is very deficient. Almost every remedy is a tonic or a stimulant; but the manner, or the degree in which it is so, is not mentioned ; and the practitioner, who wishes to be reminded of the virtues of the several remedies, will not, from the author's Manual, be enabled to diftinguish between bark, cafcarilla, spear-mint, yarrow, myrrh, the hypericum, the juice of the hypocystis, the camel's hay, and many others. This undistinguishing mode of enumerating virtues is more likely to mislead than to inform. If we wish to cure an intermittent, we may, without other information, use the ipear-mint, ar myrsh, instead of the bark; if we are applied to for a dropsy, the Manual will refer us to the parsley, as well as to the fquill. This leads us to a very important omission, viz. the diseases, in which each remedy is to be employed.

Under the third head, of Medical Virtues, the general and primary operations of the subject alone, for the most part, have been noticed, and not their application to the cure of particular disorders, which it is the business of medical fcience to deduce from the former. In some iritances, indeed, specific medicinal properties, not to be in ferred from the general ones, are found, or are supposed, to exift; and there are enumerated.'

This method would be undoubtedly joit, if the practice of phyfic was raised entirely above empiricism ; bus many me.

bude

thods of cure itill remain, which depend on unknown properties of medicines, or at least such as are not easily defcribed : we need not adduce instances of this kind.

We have told Dr. Aikin very freely his faults, because reputation like his may mislead the unexperienced : we may be allowed to add, that reputation like his should not be trified with, and frittered away by unconsidered publications. It may be alleged, that it is not easy to be more particular in so small a coinpass; but, if he does not chuse, with Vogel, to make three classes, the ' ufitata,' the 'minus ufitata,' and • inusitata,' he might, at least, have added, like Linnæus, • heroica,' exoleta,' dubia,' ' superilua,' • frequens,' &c. or with Tefiari, notes of interrogation, &c. At present we fee many

doors open to error, with little chance of advantage.

We shall not enlarge on the sensible properties or the virtues here asigned.“ The latter are few; and, though we are by no means fond of the conduct of those who load every medicine with virtues, yet sometimes there seems a defećt. The ammoniacum is certainly an expectorant, independently of its stimulant properties; the columba leffens feverish heats, and the cascarilla deserves to be more pointedly diftinguished from the Peruvian bark than by calling the latter an antiseptic. We ought, in juttice, to add, that the account of the different officinals is very particular, and commonly exact. This is a very valuable part of the manual.

We shall select one article as a specimen. We opened by accident at the bark : the practitioner will judge how far he will be reminded of its properties and use by this little work.

Peruvianus Cortex, P. L. & E. Peruvian bark: tha: of the Cinchona officinalis, Linn. a tree growing in Peru.

Senf. Prop. Smell, peculiar, not agreeable. Taffe, strongly bitter and astringent.

-- Mid. Virt. Tonic, antiseptic.
M. Exhib. Powder, electuary, infusion, decoction,
Tinctura Corticis Peruviani, P. E.

fimplex, P. L. in proof spirit. Tintura Corticis Peruviani volatilis, P. L. in spirit of sal ammoniac.

Tinlura Corticis Peruviani Huxhami : bark, orange-peel, Virginian snake root, faffron, and cochineal, in Brandy.

Extractum Corricis Peruviani molle et durum, P. L. che de. coction evaporated to different consistences.

Extraëtum Corticis Peruviani, P. E. the spirituous cinco ture, and watery decoction of the refiduum, both evaporated, and the products mixed.'

Travels 270

MR.

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Travels in ile Two Sicilies, by Henry Swinburne, El Corte

cluded, from Page 174.)
R. Suvinburne informs us, that the whole space, compre-

hended within the walls of the ancient city, abounds with traces of antiquity, foundatioas, brick arches, and little channels for the conveyance of water ; but in no part are any, ruins which can be presumed to have belonged to the places of public entertainment. This he juilly thinks the more extraordinary, as the Agrigentines were a sensual people, fond of shews and dramatic performances, and the Romans never dwelt in any place long without introducing their favourite games. Theatres and amphitheatres, our author observes, feem better calculated than most buildings to resist the out. rages of time ; and it is surprising that not even the vestiges of their form should remain on the ground.

On quitting Girgenti, the travellers had to encounter the werít roads in Sicily. The clay was fo tenacious, and the solid bottom lay so deep, that the horses and mules were scarce able to draw their legs out of the mud. The hills on each fide abound with sulphur, which is dug out by means of grooves driven into the heart of them. The mineral is brought up in small green lumps, and laid in large troughs, lined with plaifter. When the fire has heated them to a proper degree, the brimitone exudes throughi holes in the bottom into wooden bowls placed under them.

After labouring nine miles in those intolerable roads, they came to a sandy foil, fine orange gardens, and rocky defiles, that brought them to Palma, a small town situated in a most agreeable valley not far from the sea. Mr. Swinburne in forms us, that in his whole tour, he never met with a spot that pofsefed so many points of rural elegance as this vale of Palma.

From Palma the road stretched some miles through a pleafant plain, part of which is planted with vines, the rest fown with corn, and inclosed with rows of almond-trees. The traveller then passed over a high ledge of rocks, whence he had a view of the spacious plain, supposed to be the Campi Geloi, - seen by Æneas, as he coasted along this island.

At the town of Alicata, we are informed that the populace carry their refpect for the facerdotal character to a great height; for as the traveller walked through the streets, the old women and children cast themselves on their knees before the clergyman who accompanied him ; touching his garments with their finger, and then kisling their hand with great veneration. Here are fome curious Greek infcriptions relative to the ancient city of Gela. The moft remarkable is a prephifma, or decree of the

fenate,

fenate, for crowning Heraclides director of the public academy.

At Terranova the traveller quitted the southern coast, and directed his course north-ealt; but the low roads being impracticable on account of late rains, he was obliged to pass. over the high country, which is almost an entire fandy forest of cork-trees. The prospects on every fide were grand; and he now, for the first time, discovered Etna, towering above all the intermediate mountains, white with snow, and discharging from its summit a constant but feeble stream of smoke.' We must not omit to present our readers with the author's in. teresting account of Calatagerone.

• Calatagerone, a royal city, containing about seventeen thousand inhabitants, living, by agriculture, and the making of potter's ware, is twenty miles from the sea, and situated on the fummit of a very high insulated hill, embofomed in thick. groves of cypreffes; the road to it, though paved, is very steep, difficult, and dangerous for any thing but a mule or an afs. I was conducted to the college of the late Jesuits; and as the house was completely stripped of furniture, full of dirt and cobwebs, I apprehended my night's lodgings would be but indifferent. The servant belonging to the gentleman who has the management of this forfeited estate, and to whom I had brought a letter requesting a lodging in the college, perceiving the difficulties we lay under in making our settlement, ran home, and returned in a short time, with a polite invitation ta his master's house. There was no refusing such an offer, though I was far from expecting any thing beyond a comfortable apariment, and homely fare, in a family settied among the inland mountains of Sicily ; but, to my great surprize, I found tre house of the baron of Rofabia, large and convenient, fitted up in a modern taste, with furniture that would be deemed elegant in any capital city in Europe. Every thing suited this outward fhew ; attendance, table, plate, and equipage. The baron and his lady having both travelied, and feen a great deal of the world, had returned to settle in their native city, where they affured me I might find many families equally improved by an acquaintance with the manners of foreign countries, or, at least a frequentation of the best company in their own metropolis. Nothing could be more easy and polite than their address and conversation, and

my aftonishment was hourly increasing during my whole stay. After I had refreshed myself with a short but excellent meal, they took me out in a very handsome coach. It was a singular circumstance to meet a ftring of carriages full of well-dressed ladies and gentlemen on the fummit of a mountain, which no vehicle can ascend, unless it be previously taken to pieces, and placed upon the backs of mules. We seemed to be seated among the clouds. As the vast expanse of the hills and vales grew dim with the evening vapours, ou

parading resembled the amusements of the heathen gods, in some poems and pictures, driving about Olympus, and looking down at the mortals below.

• The hour of airing being expired, which consisted of fix turns of about half a mile each, a numerous affembly was formed at the baron's bouse; the manners of the company were extremely polished, and the French language fainiliar to the greatelt part of it. When the card.tables were removed, a handlome supper, dressed by a French cook, was served up, with excellent foreign and Sicilian wines ; the converfation took a lively turn, and was well supported till midnight, when we all retired to reit. Calatagerone has several houses that live. in the same elegant style, and its inhabitants have the reputation of being the politest people in the ifland. The climate in, this elevated region is extremely different from that of the tepid shores I had lately frequented; the night air was sharp and frotty, and a cloth coat very neceffary. Every person in the assembly carried a finall silver vase full of hot embers hanging at the wrist.'

Leaving Calatagerone, Mr. Swinburne traversed a plain of arable land, surrounded by bare hills, in tillage. The ancient city of Mineo crowns a mountain on the right; opposite to which the view opening discovers a prodigious extent of flat country, that runs up to the foot of Etna. He now distinguished this gigantic mountain from its snowy summit down to the corn-fields in the plain. The middle region is dark with lavas and forelis; below them the vineyards form a zone of a reddish brown colour. At this point the traveller entered volcanic ground; the hillocks on each side of the road are mere heaps of lava, in various degrees of hardness and colour. The lands are tilled with a species of plough that seems to have been invented in the earliest attempts at cultivation, and itill found of sufficient powers for this triturated prolific foil.

It consists of one handle and a wooden coulter, and is drawn by mules, horses, or oxen.

Lentini, once a city of note, is now a poor ill-built foli. tary town.

The hills that inclosc it on the east are hollowed into many large cavities, where (alt.petre is produced in great quantities; people are constantly employed in scraping it off the walls, and carrying it to a boiler. The ftuation of Lentini is very unwholesome during summer and autumn, on ac. count of its vicinity to the lake of Biveri, and a great space of country covered with fens and ponds, which in all ages have infected its atmosphere.

The traveller chence descended to the beach, near an an. cient monument called L'Agulia, or Needle, fuppofed to have been ere&ed by Marcellus, in commemoration of his conquest

of

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