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His royal breast was taught to prove
An Inquiry how to prevent the -Small Pox. By John Haygarth,
M. B. F.R.S. 8vo. 35. Johnson. . THIS Inquiry is conducted with great judgment, and the
rules of prevention are dictated by an intimate acquaintance with the subject. In some respects it has confirmed our opinion where we once doubted; and, in others, we are not aihamed to own, that it has corrected our mistakes. Yet there is one view of the question, which we wish ftill to fuggeft, for farther examination. In many instances, the small pox appear without spreading, and are styled sporadic, though the disease has not for some years been epidemic. We cannot reasonably suppose that, at these times, mothers are more strict, or children mere cautious : it must depend either on the air not being capable of conveying the infection, or the body not being susceptible of it. The former reason is satisfactorily obviated, by the very careful observations of our author, since he has shewn that, except when the wind blows directly from the patient to the person liable to the infection, the contagion ceases at a very little distance. Yet this proposition must be in some degree limited by the fate of the body; and, in an epidemic fmall pox, the contagion must be supposed generally diffused, though in such a state as to be often harmless, unless other occasional causes concur. In other fevers, any cause of debility, any obstruction of perspiration, a common cold, or a surfeit, will bring on a fever of the peculiar type which distinguishes the constitution. In these cases then, the miasına muft be generally present; and we think that we have seen
the small-pox occur in the same manner. But we will allow the extreme difficulty and uncertainty of such observations ; at the same time it must be evident, from the very rapid progress of the disease, that somewhat, decidedly in the constitution itself, must contribute to render the poison efficacious, in the mott diluted itate. We mention this view of the subject with great diffidence; fince by the diligence of the infpectors at Cheiter, its progress has been very generally traced by actual infection : but this or some other reason is still want. ing to explain the different rapidity with which the disease frequently spreads.
We shall extract a few of the propositions which are re. markable for their utility, or which we think clearly and fatisfactorily demonstrated,
The period between infection and the commencement of the variolous fever is generally from the 6th to the 14th day inclusive, after inoculation : and this period is not much longer in the natural small- -pox.'
This proposition is just, and well supported. It explains too the reason why infection, received at the same time with inoculation, does little injury; but it is most precisely true, when the matter inserted is in a Auid ftate,
• Sect. 6. Persons liable to the small-pox, and infected by breathing the air, impregnated with variolous miasms : either (1) very near a patient in the distemper, from about the time that the eruption has appeared, 'till the last scab is dropt off the body, or ( II ) very near the variolous poison, in a recent ftate, or (III) that has been close fut up, ever since it was recent.'
• Sect. 7. Clothes, furniture, food, &c. exposed to the variolous miasms, never, or very rarely, become infectious."
Though the last position is well supported, yet, as the danger is often fo great, it should not occasion neglect.
The air is rendered infectious, but to a little di. ftance from the variolous poison.'
We must fubjoin a curious fact from the commentary.
• These observations may be deemed too general to determine, with sufficient exactness, to what distance from the poion the air is rendered peftilential. But, as the following fact will ascertain, with some precision, in certain circumstances, ihe limit where the variolous poison begins and ceases to be infectious, in the open air, I mall endeavour minutely to defcribe every particular that could be supposed to influence this effect. A gentleman's family, of whom eight were children, all liable to the small-pox, became inhabitants of Chester, in November 1777, having always till then lived in the country,
On the 8th of that month, in the afternoon, the weather being Ihowery, cloudy, but not windy, and of a moderate temperature for the feafon, the eldest, an intelligent young lady (miss Archer, since married to Roger Comberbach, E19.) from whom I had this information, and three of her brothers, went out, for the first time after their arrival, to view the town. Ascending the walls at the northgate, they turned westward, and soon met a child of about a year old, in the small-pox. The purtules were pretty numerous on the face ; some appeared fresh and full of matter, others were scabbed. À nurse had the child on her left arm, passed on the north side, between them and the city wall, so that its face was toward the young lady and brothers. The clothes of neither nurse nor child seemed dirty. The breadth of the path is a yard and a quarter, between the wall of a building on the south side two yards and a half high, and the city wall, on the north fide, whose top is one yard and a quarter higher than the path, and fix yards above the ground. The young lady's face was nearly on a Level with the child's; her brothers were rather lower. She is certain that the passed within half a yard of the child, and doubts whether she was not within half that distance of it. Her brothers, the believes, were all as near it. The narrowness of the path between the two walls renders this opinion very probable." They all walked exactly, or nearly, in the same line with the child, both before and after passing it. Both parties walked uniformly forward in opposite directions, at a moderate rate, except one of the brothers, who expressed a curiosity to look at the small-pox patient, stopped a little moment when opposite to it, and about a minute when some yards paft each other. The young lady is certain that he did not touch, but thinks that he approached nearer the child than herself or any of the rest. This brother was the only one of the party who was infected. He was seized with the eruptive fever on the 15th of November, that is, on the tenth day after the interview ; yet all the other three were susceptible of the distemper, being infected by him, They were attacked on the ist, 2d, and 3d of December, that is, on the 24th, 25th, and 26th day after meeting the child; a longer period than has ever been supposed to precede the fever. Another brother was seized November 25th, and another filter, December 2d, who had not been on the walls. Though the three who met the small-pox patient, passed fo'near it, yet it is highly probable that none of them, and to a much greater degree, several thousands to one, that all were not exposed to che infection. Few medical conclusions can be drawn with such a degree of probability.'
We need not copy the methods which were taken to prevent the contagion, or the transactions of the Society. Those who wish to follow their example will undoubtedly refer to the work itself. We can only add our entire approbation of the
plan, plan, and a wish to see it more generally adopted, and more liberally supported.
In the Appendix is a curious letter from Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse, of Rhode Island, describing the means by which they have prevented the small-pox from ever becoming epidemic in the island.---Though the object is meritorious, the method is certainly objectionable : it has had, however, so much success, as to deserve attention in its more important outlines.
Transactions of the Society, instituted at London, for Encourage
ment of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. Vol. III. 8vo. 45. in Boards,
Cadell. T" HE progress of the Society's labours is an additional
proof of the strength of their judgment, and the propri. ety of their views. The premiums are directed to important objects, and the several designs are pursued with steadiness and perseverance.
The first subject, as usual, is that of agriculture, and we, with pleasure, perceive the progress of plantations; but we with that the useful oak was more often chosen to enrich the forest with its foliage, and the nation in future with its timber: its extenfive employment requires immense supplies. We have a short account of dibbling or dropping wheat; a mode of fowing practised in Norfolk. But, as a premium has been offered, in order to obtain a more exact account of its utility, when compared with broad-cast and drilling, we shall not en large on it.
The Howard or clustered potatoe is the next object; but the experiments are probably not fo favourable as we may expect to find them in better foils; yet they are sufficiently fo, to induce us to continue the cultivation. On this subject we are promised some farther satisfaction.
In the clafs of polite arts are inserted very particular de. scriptions of the pictures, painted by Mr. Barry, for the great room of the Society. These are now very generally known.
In the year 1760, premiums were offered for cloth made from the stalks of hops; but no proper claims have been made. As this defect was supposed to be owing to the want of some farther information, a short account is now published of what has been already done in this way.
For the same reason we fhall transcribe it. The observations chiefly to be attended to in this experiment are,
First, That the said specimens (viz. those left with the register of the Society) are sufficient to evince that hop-binds will afford a material for making cloth.
• Secondly, That the species of cloth intended to be made from the material produced, would very well answer the purpose of fine sacking, and coarse bagging for hops.
- Thirdly, that the sole caule of my not producing a stronger material, and a fufficient quantity to have entitled me to the premium proposed, was, that the material was too long immersed under water, and its texture was thereby destroyed.
Fourthly, That such binds as I took occasionally from the large quantity I had put to foak, at the end of about fix weeks or two months, afforded filaments fufficiently fine and ftrong, for any purpose,
· Fifthly, That the time neceffary to reduce the inner sub, stance of the hop-binds to a fitness for use, by maceration, will absolutely decay the outer coat, as appears from those which have continued under water above a year.'
In mechanics, the floating-light, for the preservation of failors falling overboard in the night, at sea; the gun-harpoon (formerly mentioned, of whose utility we have additional evidence); a new and very convenient crane, by Mr. Braithwait; a new invented secret escutcheon, and some im. provements on common locks, are described.
These we cannot examine without the aslistance of the plates; but they appear generally useful. We shall transcribe, however, an account of the properties of the escutcheon.
• The marquis of Worcester, in his Century of Inventions, N° 72, after having spoken of three kinds of locks invented by him, says an escutcheon to be placed before any
of these locks with thefe properties.
“ The owner, though a woman, may, with her delicate hand, vary the ways of coming to open the lock, ten millions of times beyond the knowledge of the smith that made it, or of me who invented it."
Many attempts have been made to form a machine equal in its properties to the description here given, and from thence it is probable, arose the kind of padlock which have been long made in this country in great numbers, which having several letters on different rings, can only be opened when a certain set of those letters are arranged in one order, but this was in no degree equal to the end proposed, for besides the workman who made it being at all tịmes informed of the position the letters must be in, and consequently enabled to open it; the letters and rings admitting of no variation of place, at the will of the owner, reserving at the same time a power of opening the locks, whenever the proper arrangement became