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fixed stars. And as this latter immense starry bed is not of equal breadth or luftre in every part, nor runs on in one straight direction, but is curved and even divided into two itreams along a very considerable portion of it; we may likewise expect the greatest variety in the strata of the clusters of stars and nebulæ. One of these nebulous beds is so rich, that, in pailing through a section of it, in the time of only thirty-fix minutes, I detected no less than thirty-one nebulæ, all distinctly visible upon a fine blue sky. Their fituation and shape, as well as condition, seem to denote the greatest variety imaginable. In another stratum, or perhaps a different branch of the former, I have seen double and treble nebulæ, variously arranged ; large ones with small, seemingly attendants ; narrow but much extended, lucid nebulæ or bright dashes; some of the shape of a fan, resembling an electric brush, issuing from a lucid point; others of the cometic shape, with a seeming nucleus in the center; or like cloudy stars, surrounded with a nebulous atmosphere; a different fort again contain a nebulofity of the milky kind, like that wonderful, inexplicable phenomenon about 0 Orionis; while others shine with a fainter, mottled kind of light, which denotes their being resolvable into stars.'
There are many other curious particulars in this paper, but we have already extended our account of it far enough.
Art. XXXIV. An Account of a new Species of the BarkTree, found in the Ifland of St. Lucia. By Mr. George Da vidfon,-- In the fixty-seventh volume of the Philosophical Transactions, p. 504. we received an account of a species of cincona, found in Jamaica. This seems very much to resemble it, so far as we perceive from the imperfect description in that volume; and both are varieties of the Cincona Caribbæa of Linnæus, in the last edition of the Species Plantarum. Its properties we had occasion to describe in our review of Dr. Kentilh's pamplilet, vol. lix. p. 15.
Art. XXXV. An Account of an Observation of the Me. teor of August 18, 1783, made on Hewit Common, near York. By Nathaniel Pigott, Esq. F. R. S.- This is the same meteor observed by Meffrs. Cavallo, Aubert, Cooper, and Blagden, of which we have already given a full account.
Art. XXXVI. Observations of the Comet of 1783. By Edward Pigott, Esq.-This comet was obferved the 19th of November, 1783. It had exactly the appearance of a nebula, and its light was very faint. Mr. Mechain, at Paris, disco. vered it the 26th of November, seven days after Mr. Pigott's first obfervation.
Art. XXXVII. Experiments on mixing Gold with Tin. By Mr. Stanelby Alchorne, of his Majesty's Mint.--Dr. Lewis had observed that the smallest proportion of tin and lead, or
even their vapours, though they did not add weight enough to the gold, to be senGble in the tenderest ballance, rendered it fo brittle, that it flies in pieces under the hammer. Mr. Alchorne has examined this subject by experiment, and found that even one twenty-fourth part of tin did no very essential injury to the malleability of gold, and the fumes had no effect. The mixtures grew more hard and harsh, in proportion to the quantity of alloy ; but not one of them had the appearance of what workmen call brittle gold. Mr. Alchorne therefore thinks, with great reason, that the brittleness arose from the impurity of the tin. Twelve grains of regulus of arsenic will destroy the malleability of as many ounces of gold.
Art. XXXVIII. Sur un moyen de donner le Direction aux Machines Aëroftratiques. Par M. Le Comte De Galvez.
-On the Means of directing Areoftatic Machines. By the Count of Galvez. The count of Galvez having communicated to us his ideas on the means of directing areostatic ma. chines at pleasure, by a certain rhumb-line in the air, founded on different observations on the use which hirds make of their wings in Aying, and fishes of their fins and tail when they swim,- We the underligned certify' What? that we failed on the canal of Manzanares in a boat with very little wind, by the help of moveable fails like wings. Adieu Messrs. and, in return for your laboriouş çertificate, and the very accurate plate which accompanies it, ---may you receive a superior portion of discernment, and a little more philoso. phical accuracy!
Art. XXXIX. An extraordinary Case of a Dropsy of the Ovarium, with fome Remarks. By Mr. Philip Meadows Martineau, Surgeon.- The quantity of water drawn from this poor woman was greater than that related to have been taken from lady Page. The whole was fix thousand fix hun, dred and thirty-one pints, or upwards of thirteen hogsheads, On an average, she might collect about two-thirds of a pint each day, and sometimes probably between two and three pints. She lived, in this state, twenty-five years, and was tapped 80 times. On dissection, all the parts were much thickened by the pressure; but generally found, except the left ovarium, which was the original seat of the disease, and was enlarged into an immense pouch.'
Art. XL. Methodus inveniendi Lineas Curves ex proprietatibus Variationis Curvaturæ. Pars secunda. Auctore Nicolas Landerbeck, Matthes. Profeff. in Acad. Upsalienfi, -This is the second part of the author's Method of finde
ing Curves, from the Properties of the Variation of Curva ture, The former was inserted in the last volume of the Transactions, and we mentioned it in volume fifty.eight, page 339: it is incapable of abridgement.
The volume is, as usual, concluded with the list of presents and the names of donors; but these afford no subject of remark.
Planting and Ornamental Gardening; a practical Trearise. Svo
85. in Boards. Dodiley. We cannot agree with this intelligent author, in thinking
that the two arts, which are the subjects of his work, are so ultimately connected 'as to become an unity.' That plantations are a part of those ornaments, which modern tasie has admitted into gardens may be allowed, and consequently that they are nearly allied; but, in this way, one part of the subje&t of planting, viz. the disposal of the various trees, is only the object of the ornamental gardener. There are many others very remotely connected with it. This is not the only part where our author has expressed himself inaccurately, probably from not being accustomed to composition. There are nany professed book-makers in the metropolis, who would have avoid. ed those errors; but they would have been unable to entertain and instruct their readers with a volume fo full of useful information. • Man,' he says, 'must be employed; and how more agreeably than in conversing with nature, and seeing the works of his own hands, allified by ber, rifing into perfection.' In this sentence, we suspect the works to be those of nature, and the afisance that of art. There are some other inaccuracies of this kind ; but they are venial ones, and the merit of the work is considerable enough to obscure them.
The introductory discourses contain the elements of planting, víz, concise directions for propagating, in the various ways usually employed, planting, training, and transplanting, These are new and judicious. The outline of the Linnaan fyftem, taken from the English translation, follows; and we entirely agree with the author in thinking, that if Linnæus had founded his distinction of the classes and orders on the antheræ and pistils, as parts of the flower, and not as sexual organs, he would have • saved himself from a host of enemies.' We do not perceive how be would have rendered his ' system infinitely more simple and scientific, and consequently more useful than it really is.? The same distinctions would have remained, though under different titles; not to add, that the distinction of the orders of the class fyogenesia, are better re
membered when once learned in this (perhaps fanciful) language, than they probably would have been in a more Aoral fyftem.
The vegetables employed in planting and ornamental gare dening are next arranged in an alphabetical order. thor tells us, and, on examination, we find his information just, that, so far as it relates to timber trees and other native plants, as well as to some of the more useful exotics, the remarks are either his own, or contain such additions as have resulted from his own observation and experience. The description and management of ornamental exotics is, in fubstance, taken from Hanbury, with some additions from other authors.
After this extended catalogue, the rest of the subject is explained in detached articles. Those on timber, hedges, and woodlands, are new and valuable. Those on grounds are new in form; the substance is sometimes taken from Wheatly and Mason, and their ideas are often corrected and limited by a careful examination of the effects, from actual observation. In this
part the author displays a correct and cultivated taste. In the catalogue of plants, the author, under each genus, describes the different species, with their uses, and the method of propagating them. There are various paffages which have excited our attention ; but we fhail select the following account of the Tortworth chestnut-tree, to correct a very general er.
• The largest (chestnut tree) we know of in this country fands at Tortworth, near Berkley, in Gloucestershire. Sir Robert Atkins, in his History of Gloucettershire, says, “ By tradition, this tree was growing in king John's reign;" and Mr. Marsham calculates it to be “ not less than eleven hundred years old.” Sir Robert makes it nineteen yards, and Mr. Marmam forty-six feet fix inches in circumference. With great deference however to the authority and veracity of these gentlemen, we have every reason to believe that what is called the Tortworth chestnut is not one, but two trees: fupposing them to be only one, its dimensions are by no means equal to what are given above. We have the higheit opinion of Mr. MarTham's ingenuousness and accuracy; and fortunately, in this cafe, he has furnished us with a proof of his candour, in saying, “ As I took the measure in a heavy rain, and did not measure the string till after I returned to the inn, I cannot so well answer for this as the other measures." We will venture to add, that had the day been fine, and Mr. Marsham had viewed the field fide as well as the garden side of this venerable ruin; had he climbed upon the wall, and seen the gable of the old build. ing, adjoining, clasped in between the two ftems; and had further ascended to the top of the old stump, which is not more
than twelve feet high, and, looking down its hollowness; seçn its cavity tending not to the centre of the congeries, but to the centre of the old tree, we are convinced he would not have suffered so inaccurate an account to have been published with his fignature, as that which appears in page 81 of the first volume of Papers of the Bath Agriculture Society.'
The article on' the oak is particularly entertaining and valuable. Under that of firs, the author mentions that Mr. Marsham saw several firs, in the dock-yard at Venice, forty yards long, and that they came from Switzerland. . Perhaps it is not generally known, that the main-yard of the late Royal George consisted of a single tree, and was a hundred and twenty feet in length. Those will be moft astonished at this surprising height, who will compare it with that of any known building; and we have reason to believe that this stupendous tree may now be equalled. While we are on this subject, we shall also select the account of the “ Boddington oak,' as we believe, with our author, that it does not appear any where on record.
• This oak' grows in a piece of rich grass land, called the Old Orchard Ground, belonging to Boddington manor-farm, lying near the turnpike road between Cheltenham and Tewksbury, in the yale of Glocefter. The ftem is remarkably collected and snug at the root, the sides of its trunk being more upright than those of large trees in general; nevertheless its circumfe, rence at the ground, as near to it as one can walk, is twenty paces: measuring with a two-foot rule, it is somewhat more than eighteen yards. At three feet high it measures forty-two feet, and at its smallest dimensions, namely, from five to fix feet high, it is thirty-fix feet. At about fix feet it begins to swell out larger ; forming an enormous head, which heretofore has been furnished with huge, and in all probability extensive arms, But age and ruffian winds have robbed it of a principal part of its grandeur; and the greatest extent of arm at present (1783) is eight yards, from the stem. From the ground to the top of the crown of the trunk is about twelve feet; and the greatest height of the branches, by estimation, forty-five feet. The Item is quite hollow; being, near the ground, a perfect hell ; forming a capacious well-sized room ; which at the floor mea fures, one way, more than fixteen feet in diameter, The hol. lowness, however, contracts upwards, and forms itself into a patural dome, so that no light is admitted except at the door, and at an aperture or window in the side. It is still perfectly alive and fruitful, having this year a fine crop of acorns upon it. It is observable in this (as we believe it is in most old trees), that its leaves are remarkably small; not larger, in general, than the leaves of the hawthorn,