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from fterility to copiousness by now degrees. The invention of a word to denote a neuter gender, belongs to an improved understanding. It is probable that the To of the Greeks was not coeval with their o and H, which, like the Galic E and I, were fimple sounds used to denote the male and female of every species.
• Rude man is incapable of forming abstract ideas : his in. telle&ual powers are extremely limited: his reasoning faculty is applied to few objects : the rare impressions made upon his mind are therefore strong: inanimate things pass unnoticed : objects of motion and life catch his attention. Disposed to taciturnity, he feldom communicates his thoughts; but when his mind is agitated by matters of important concern, desirous to paint forcibly, he expresses himself in bold and figurative language, accompanied with bodily signs and gestures : his manner and style naturally, if not necessarily, assume the tone of animation. He delights in imagery and personification. Hence it is, that the compositions of rude and barbarous ages, transmitted to pofterity, are universally found to approach to the style and numbers of poetry. The distinction of two genders sufficiently satisfies the mind of primeval man: the invenrion of a third gender is reserved to that ttage of society when the understanding is much exercised, and the imagination and genius are not suffered to wanton in extravagance, but are reduced within the limits of precision, correctnels, method, and rule.
· The distinction of male and female naturally claimed the earliest attention. The difference of sex was denoted by two fimple sounds, which formed two distinct words in primitive language.
The vowel 1, with an aspiration, fignifies to eat. The aspiration being the termination of the found, it had in the mouths of many acquired the guttural pronunciation Ich. Both I and Ich are in common use. From Ich came Ichc, wbich fignifies compassion; importing, that the most common relief from distress flowed from provision of food.
. It has been obterved, that E is an exclamation of joy. The fame found, with an aspiration, is used as a word, fignifying a cry. The same found, terminating in the consonant D, formed the primitive word Ed, which fignifies food. Hence Edw, Edo, of the Greeks and Latins.
• The more we trace mankind to their primeval state, we find them the more thoughtless and improvident. Their subfistence, like that of the greater part of other animals, depends upon the acquisitions of the day. When the means of fubfiftence are precarious, and not commanded with certainty, the passion of joy and the poflellion of food are closely allied. Hence a found or cry expressive of joy, came naturally to give a name to the cause that produced it.
• An exclamation of Ed or Eid is used upon discovery of an animal of prey or game : it is meant to give notice to the hunt.
ing companion to be in readiness, and prepare the means of conquest and poffeffion.
• Ed is used in Ireland to fignify cattle. In Scotland it is preserved in many compound words. Edal, cattle, literally fignifies the offspring or generation of cattle. Edich, clothes, literally the hide or skin of cattle. Coed or Cued, inare or portion of any subject of property; literally common food. Faoed, hunting ; literally gathering of food, Edra, the time of the morning when cattle are brought home from their pasture to give milk; literally, meal-time. These words tend to thew, that an etymological analysis of the words of a primitive language may be of use in throwing light upon the situation and circumstances of primeval man; and may serve to mark the progress of the human mind from its fimpleft to its molt enlarged conceptions in increasing society,'
Mr. Grant obferves, that traces of the imitation of sound are discoverable in all languages; and of this he produces fome instances from the Galic and Greek. We are told that in the former, the word used for cow is Bo, which the author remarks, is plainly an imitation of the lowing of that animal. He endeavours to support his observation, likewise, by the striking fimilitude between the cries of other animals, and the words by which they are denoted in the Galic. In particular he informs us, that the bleating of a fheep is expressed by the word Melich, in which the vowel e is pronounced as a flender in English, or as the Greek H, according to its pronunciation in Scotland. The following remark deduced from this fubject is worthy of notice.
• BH, in Greek, fignifies vox ovium balantium, the voice of bleating Meep. Hence that species of animal got the name of Byxa, and hence to cry aloud was expressed by Briśw. The word BH, as denoting the bleating of a sheep, affords a conclusive proof, that the found of Eta is not that of the English E, bus ihat of the English pronunciation of A slender, which is the proper English A ; consequently that the Scottish pronunciation of that vowel is juft. Hence we may also infer, that the Greek pronunciation of Alpha was that of the English open A, or the proper A of the Scots.
The sound of the Epsilon, as pronounced in Scotland, is different from any found with which an English ear is acquainted.
• Boow, boo, clamo, hgnifying to low or bellow like an ox or cow, also to cry, furnishes an another proof of the proper found of the Greek Alpha. The word being formed from an imitation of the lowing of a cow, deternines the found of that vowel to have been that of the open English A. The cow and sheep being deemed among a pastoral people the molt vaiuable animals, to whose safety and pretervation their chief care was directed, imitation of the voices of both was naturally employed as expresive of a cry.'
Amidst a variety of observations contained in this Essay, thie author elucidates, by several examples, an affinity between the Greek and Galic languages. Some of them, it must be confessed, appear so extraordinary as to justify the conjecture that one of these tongues has really been indebted for no few of its formatives to the other. We fhall content ourfelves with selecting the subsequent instance.
• BE, in the Galic language, fignifies life : but it is used to denote the means of subastence; which bearing obviously the most intimate relation to life, acquires, in a figurative sense, the appellation proper, in its primitive acceptation, to life fimply. When a stranger happens to enter the house of a modern Caledonian at meal-time, the landlord addresses him with the words 'Se do bbe, which literally signify, It is thy life, but import an invitation to come and partake of the family. fare, or victuals, as the support of life.
• It may occur to the learned in the Greek language, that the Galic word Be is the root of the Greek noun Bios, which fignifies life, and also sustenance. It will be remarked also, that Boos is used to signify a bow, which was the chief instrument used by the primitive societies of temperate climes in procuring the means of supporting life. The Greek word Buse, which fignifies firength, is used by the Caledonians to denote vieluals. Thus the word Bic, which with the original inventors of the Celtic or Galic language denoted villuals, was by the Greeks used to signify strength; a quality depending upon the possession of the means of subsistence.'
In the comparative investigation of the two languages, Mr. Grant makes no scruple to aflign to the Galic the honour of superior antiquity. He contends, as some other writers have done, that both the Greek and Latin languages are of Celtic criginal; and that to find the true etymon in many words of each, the Galic or Celtic roots must be consulted, and their combinations analysed. As we have not the pleasure of being acquainted with this ancient language, it is impoffible for us to trace the alleged fimilitude any farther than we find it confirmed by Mr. Grant's observations. But we must acknowlege, from the number of instances which he has produced, that his opinion seems to be strongly supported.
Through the several remaining Efsays contained in this vos lume Mr. Grant pursues his inveitigation with much ingenuity. He adheres to nature in developing the gradual progress of institutions refpecting property, government, jurisdiction, and civil contracts; and he strengthens his own observations with the remarks of other writers on those subjects.
A Review of Part of Risdon's Survey of Devon ; containing the
General Description of that County; with Corrections, Annetations, and Additions. By the late William Chapple, of Ex
eter. 410. 6s. in Boards. Thorn, Exeter. FROM a neat, well-written Life of Mr. Chapple, prefixed
to this volume, we perceive that he was a man whose industry and attention were fully equal to the work which he had undertaken ; and we have little doubt but that he would have produced a valuable edition of a book at present almost obsolete, and scarcely to be purchased. At the same time, with all our regard for attentive and accurate enquiry, we do not approve of his specimen : his labour is misapplied, and his attention has been misdirected. He is so careful and exact to render Risdon intelligible, and so anxious left his additions hould be confounded with the original work, that his language is read with difficulty :- he is even obscure from his eagerness to explain. But to those who can forget an ungraceful manner when they receive instruction, this Review will be an useful companion. The text is collated with the most valuable manufcripts; omissions are restored, and errors, amended. We need not fay that the notes are full, for iMr. Chapple seems not to have been sparing of his pains in any thing he undertook; and indeed if he was as earnest to procure information, as we find him to be in conveying it, with the moli minute precision, no life could have been long enough for his work; for, like Sterne, he must have lived faster than he could posfibly have written.
Devonshire, though rich and fertile in many respects, has not yet produced a natural historian, whose affection to his native soil has led him to examine and describe its productions. The little which Mr. Chapple mentions in his general account is so unsatisfactory, that curiosity is rather raised than gratified. The following note, however, on the load-stone, we shall extract, for its utility.
• Our author's words here are, “ for it directs the needle of the sailor's compass to the North, being but touched therewith;" and indeed when he wrote, it had little deviation from it, and that little was then rather easterly, than westerly as at present: but it is now well known that the very variation (at tis called) of the magnetic needle, is itself continually varying, both with respect to time and place; being different in different places at the same time, and at different times in the same place, and though it was formerly eafterly, the needle has long since passed the north point, and in this part of the world now declines many degrees to the west thereof. The vaVol. LX. Sept. 1785.
riation here at Exeter and in its neighbourhood is at presents (viz. in November, 1772,) no less than 22 degrees and 3 quarters westerly, as I have found by accurate observations ; so that here, the needle, at this time, points nearly north-north-west, and this its variation or declination is continually increasing, (perhaps more regularly than is generally supposed) at the rate of about one degree, or a very trifle more, in 6 years ; as is evident from a comparison of the present with the former observations made at Exeter for more than 50 years paft: for in 1718, a judicious observer found it to be here 13° 20' westerly; on the 20th of May 1762, I found it increased to 21 degrees; and now to at least 224 as above ; fo that in 1780, we may expect it to become full 24 degrees.—This hint, 'tis prefumed, will not be deemed impertinent in a work of this kind; and may not be unacceptable to some readers, whofe bufiness may occasionally require the use of the magnetic needle, in these western parts; or whose curiosity may prompt them to compare these with future observations of their own.
The account of Cornwall is almost wholly the work of Mr. Chapple ; but we find little in it which is very useful or interesting, as the greater part relates to its ancient history, in which there is much uncertainty, and fome fable. We shall select Mr. Chapple’s Philippic against China,, as a specimen of his very peculiar inanner.
• This mimic silver was much esteemed by the ancients, who properly judged of its value from its uses and its beauty : whence we may infer, they were strangers to the capricious taste of some moderns, who fancy their tables and beaufeatsmore elegantly adorned by the far-fetched and dear-bought manufactures of the Chinese, than by the more useful and convenient, but much less expensive utensils that might be had for the same purposes nearer home. There, howevet conducive their purchase to the support of their poor neighbours, can expect no quarter with those, who prefer a collection of China even to the most fuperb services of well-wrought plate : defpifing the curious workmanship of the latter, which superadds new beauties to its native luitre; but admiring the moist and soapy gloss of the former, and charmed with its deformities and blemishes; especially if it be (as it commonly is,) stained and disfiguied by the clumsy drawings of unnatural monsters and pagods, whose uglineffes the more forcibly strike the offended eye by the vividity of their colours, and the reflection of a sort of horrible glare from the eyes and scales of ferpents and dragons depicted on the vitrified surface. But fashion gives a sanction to the greatest absurdities, and progressively communicates its infection from the great vulgar to the little. Hence our yeomanry aukwardly aping the gentry, no longer, like their frugal ancestors, confine their solicitude to satisfy the demands of necessity and conveniency; but lavish the advanced income