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Our author afterwards mentions the royal gardens at Hampton Court, Richmond, and Kenfington; and, though a lover of antiquities, his good tafte leads him to approve of the fafhion which has been introduced into gardening by Kent. The true test of perfection in a modern garden, says he, is, that a landscape painter would choose it for a compofition."

Art. XIII. A Difquifition on the Lows or Barrows in the Peak of Derbyshire, particularly that capital Monument called Arbelows. By the Rev., Mr. Pegge.-Mr. Pegge does not venture to determine to what nation, British, Roman, Saxon, or Danish, thofe Lows ought justly to be ascribed; but he is firmly of opinion that the principal monument is British, and had been intended for a place of worship.

Art. XIV. Observations on the Dundalk Ship Temple. By Thomas Pownall, Efq.-Mr. Pownall's conjecture, which he fubmitted to the antiquaries of Dublin, was, that this Ship Temple is the fymbol of the facred Skidbladner, built by the Nani; and in fupport of this opinion he mentions the interpretation of the name, which fignifies a building founded in the Nanic inftitutions. But another opinion on this fubject is fuggefted by the Rev. Mr. Ledwich, vicar of Aghaboe in Ireland.

Art. XV. Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore in Ireland, to the Rev. Dr. Lort, on fome large Foffil Horns.-The fubject of this short extract induces us to lay it before our readers.

I have lately purchased a pair of the largest foffil horns, I believe, ever found in Ireland, with fome of the bones of that enormous race of deer which are dug up in the ftrata of marle that lye beneath our bogs. I do not find that they are difcovered in the bogs themselves, but generally in the marle-pits which are opened after the peat-grafs is removed. One of thefe horns meafures from the root at its infertion in the fcull, to the tip of its remotest branch, seven feet and one inch; the other fix feet and nine inches; to which add the interval of four inches in the fcull between their roots, and the diftance from the tip of one horn to the tip of the other is fourteen feet four inches. The fcull, which is intire, meafures from the end of the vertebræ of the neck to the tip of the nofe twenty-three inches; the breadth of the forehead above the eyes is eleven inches and one-fourth.

I have the thigh-bone, which is much larger than that of an ox, as is the blade bone of the fhoulder.

I believe thefe horns differ not only in magnitude but in form from thofe of any fpecies of deer now found in the world, certainly from the moofe-deer and elk. The bishop of Clonfert, Dr. Law, tells me, he heard a gentleman from India speak of


an enormous deer, ftill found in Tartary, to the north and weft of China, which have been thought to have been the fame with ours. It is remarkable that no hiftory, no tradition, no fable, of the most ancient Irish bards, ever contains the most distant allufion or flightest mention of thefe gigantic animals.

Lord Moira tells me, that he lately fent over fome of the bones of this animal to be examined by fome gentlemen of the Royal and Antiquarian Scieties; and that the refult of the enquiry was, that it was a non-exiftent animal. All here agree that those in my poffeffion are the largest yet known, as few have ever been found that have extended beyond twelve feet. I lately got another large pair, with the fcull of the animal intire, which, from its decayed teeth, appeared to have died of old age, yet they measured, with the fcull, but eleven feet and four inches."

Art. XVI. Conjectures on the Name of the Roman Station Vinovium or Binchefter. By John Cade, Efq.-From feveral antiquities dug up at Binchefter, Mr. Cade apprehends that this place was facred to Bacchus, and that it derived its name Vinomium, from the festivals in honour of that deity.

Art. XVII. Further Obfervations on the early Irish antiquities. By Thomas Pownall, Efq.-Thefe obfervations are contained in extracts of letters from colonel Vallancy, who has employed himself much in the contemplation of Irish antiquities.

Art. XVIII. Defcription of a Second Roman Pig of Lead found in Derbyshire, now in the Poffeffion of Mr. Adam Wolley, of Matlock, in that County, with Remarks. By Samuel Pegge.-A particular circumftance accompanying this pig of lead is, that on the furface there appear a great many small particles of brafs. The infcription is Lucius Aruconius Verecundus Lundinenfis. That is, in the opinion of Mr. Pegge,

The property of Lucius Araconius Verecundus, lead-merchant of London.' The infcription certainly affords an argument that the lead-mines of Derbyshire were worked at a remote period.

Art. XIX. A further Account of fome Druidical Remains in Derbyshire. By Hayman Rooke, Efq.-Thefe remains, fituated principally on Hatherfage Moor in the high Peak, not far from the road which leads from Sheffield to Manchefter, are called Cair's work. It is about two hundred yards in length, and fixty one in width. It includes a hill precipitous all round, except at the north end, where stands a wall of finglar conftruction. It is near three feet thick, and confifts of three rows of large ftones. On the top are other large ftones, fet obliquely endways. The infide is filled with earth and ftones, which form the vallum, and flope inwards


twenty-five feet.
floping ftones, is nine feet four inches.
trance feems to have been at the east end of the wall, and a
fmaller one on the weft fide. The area of this work is full of
rocks and large ftones, fome of which are rocking-stones. On
the eaft fide of this work is a ftone measuring thirteen feet fix
inches in length. It hangs over a precipice, and is fupported
by two fmall stones.

The height of the wall to the top of the
The principal en-

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Thefe, fays Mr. Rooke, plainly appear to have been fixed by art. On the top is a large rock bafon four feet three inches diameter, clofe to which, on the fouth fide, is an hollow, cut like a chair, with a step to reft the feet upon. This, the country people fay, has always been called Cair's chair; from whence we may fuppofe this to have been a feat of justice, where the principal Druid fat, who, being contiguous to the rock-bafon, might have recourfe to appearances in the water, in doubtful cafes. It is natural, therefore, to imagine, from the many facred erections, that this place muft have been intended for holy uses, or a court of justice.'

Art. XX. Remarks on the preceding Article. By Mr. Bray.

[To be continued.]

Efays on the Origin of Society, Language, Property, Government, Jurifdiction, Contracts, and Marriage. Interfperfed with Illuftrations from the Greek and Galic Languages. By James Grant, Efq Advocate. 4to. 75: 6d. Robinfon.


'HE subjects of these Effays have often exercised the talents of fpeculative writers, and, in point of chronological order, have a claim to the earlieft inveftigations that prefent themselves to philofophical enquiry. In tracing the Origin of Society, the author of the work before us very properly commences with exhibiting the primitive ftate of the first parents of mankind. But this happy period proving of fhort duration, there arofe a neceffity of calling into action thofe faculties with which the human race was endowed. To guard against ravenous animals, and to fecure a defence from the inclemencies of the weather, were objects which would foon excite the ingenuity of the late inhabitants of Paradife. Man must therefore have very early employed his art in building himfelf a cottage, or have taken the benefit of receptacles already prepared by nature for his nightly habitation. fpontaneous productions of the earth, our author observes, long furnished the inhabitants of the middle regions of the globe with food in abundance, while the natives of climates.



more remote were early forced to roam over forefts and deferts, in pursuit of the means of fubfiftence. Such diversity of occupations must neceffarily have produced a variety in the manners and cuftoms of different races of men, and have early ftamped, on different tribes and focieties, perceptible diftinctions of character.

The account given by our author of the natural difpofitions of man, in the following paffage, are, in our opinion, perfectly juft.

The difcoveries which have been inade in modern ages, have led us into an acquaintance with varieties of condition in which the human fpecies are found to exist. Mankind appear in all fituations divided into tribes, herding together, fubfifting in diftinct communities, who understand feparate interefts. They have a fenfe of common danger: wars and diffenfions prevail among them: they appear armed for each other's deftruction their breafts are, in times of contention, filled with the most implacable animofities, which produce the most rancorous cruelties.


This mode of life could not have been the original and natural state of man. There must have exifted a period when the whole human race lived in amity together; when as yet no diftinction of warlike tribes was known; when no idea of feparate interefts had found place in the human mind. While nature, without the exertion of art or induftry, had furnished food fufficient to fupply the wants of the whole human fpecies, the means of fubfiftence were enjoyed by all in common: notions of feparate interefts could not have had existence. Mankind must have lived in a ftate of general concord, until preffed by wants which they found not ready means to fupply. The existence of all the members of the community living in a body became then incompatible. Branches naturally iffued from the main ftock. Thus colonies were fent forth, and the earth was peopled. Mankind affociated from a principle of natural affection towards the fpecies. Their union was rendered firm and ftable, from a principle of fear and felf-prefervation.'

Mr. Grant is inclined to think, in oppofition to Dr. Ro. bertson, that a promifcuous commerce among the fexes was one of the diftinguishing marks of primeval fociety. But with respect to this controverfy, fu ported on one hand by the fuppofition of an exclufive mutual attachment between two individuals of different fexes; and on the other, by the probability of unrefrained gratification, in a state of nature, it is impoffible to determine with certainty.

In the fecond Ellay, Mr. Grant does not engage in any elaborate difquifition on the origin of language, but contents himself with taking notice of fome roots, combinations, and derivations of wors in a primative and ftill living language, which tend to throw fome light upon the original condition of


man, and to mark the train of his ideas in his primeval state of existence. The language here alluded to is the Galic, a dialect of the Celtic, which, it is contended, was anciently fpoken by the inhabitants of a great part of the globe. That the Galic is not derived from any other language, our author confiders as demonftrable, because it is obviously reducible to its own roots. Its combinations, he tells us, are formed of fimple words of known fignification; and those words are refolvable into the fimpleft combinations of vowels and confonants, and even into fimple found. He obferves, that in fuch a language, fome traces, it may be expected, will be found, of the ideas and notions of mankind living in a state of primeval fimplicity; and that this being admitted, a monument is ftill preferved of the primitive manners of the human race, while entirely under the guidance of nature.

Mr. Grant has purfued this curious fubject with fo much ingenuity, that our readers will not think it fuperfluous when we lay before them the following extract.

The vowels A, E, I, O, U, pronounced in Scotland in the fame manner as they are in Italy, are all fignificant founds with the defcendants of the Caledonians. A is a found, uttered with loud vociferation, to caufe terror. E is an exclamation of joy; I, of diflike; O, of admiration; and U, of fear; alfo of grief, modified by a graver tone of voice.

• Sudden fenfations of heat, cold, and bodily pain, are expreffed by articulate founds, which, however, are not used in the language to denote heat, cold, or bodily pain. Sudden fenfation of heat is denoted by an articulate exclamation, Hoit; of cold, by Id; of bodily pain, by Oich. The fimple cries are generally, if not always, followed by articulate founds; as A, Ab; E, Ed; I, lbh ; O, Obb; U, Uhh. The letters bb found like v. All these founds, both fimple and articulate, may be called interjections, being parts of fpeech which discover the mind to be feized with fome paffion. We doubt if any of the modern improved languages of Europe prefent fo great a variety of interjections, or founds, which in utterance inftantaneously convey notice of a particular paffion, bodily or mental feeling. Although the founds, fimple and articulate, enumerated above, have not all been adopted or preferved as fignificant words, fome of them still remain as words or founds of marked fignification.

The pronouns He and She are expreffed by the fimple founds, or vowels, E and I; and thefe ferve as regular marks of the mafculine and feminine genders. A neuter gender being unknown, every object is in a manner perfonified in the application of thefe pronouns.

Diftinctly varied founds having been once employed by primitive man to denote the genders of living objects, he naturally applies them to inanimate things. Language advances


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