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Our author afterwards mentions the royal gardens at Hampton Court, Richmond, and Kensington ; and, though a lover of antiquities, his good taste leads him to approve of the fa. shion which has been introduced into gardening by Kent. • The true teft of perfection in a modern garden, says he, is, that a landscape painter would choose it for a composition.'

Art. XIII. A Disquisition on the Lows or Barrows in the Peak of Derbyshire, particularly that capital Monument called Arbelows. By the Rev., Mr. Pegge.-Mr. Pegge does not venture to determine to what nation, British, Roman, Saxon, or Danish, those Lows ought justly to be ascribed ; but he is firmly of opinion that the principal monument is British, and had been intended for a place of worship.

Art. XIV. Observations on the Dundalk Ship Temple. By Thomas Pownall, Esq.--Mr. Pownall’s conjecture, which he submitted to the antiquaries of Dublin, was, that this Ship Temple is the symbol of the sacred Skidbladner, built by the Nani; and in support of this opinion he mentions the interpretation of the name, which fignifies a building founded in the Nanic institutions. But another opinion on this subject is suggested by the Rev. Mr. Ledwich, vicar of Aghaboe in Ireland.

Art. XV. Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore in Ireland, to the Rev. Dr. Lort, on some large. Foflil Horns.—The subject of this short extract induces us to lay it before our readers.

· I have lately purchased a pair of the largest fossil horns, I believe, ever found in Ireland, with some of the bones of that enormous race of deer which are dug up in the strata of marle that lye beneath our bogs. I do not find that they are discovered in the bogs themielves, but generally in the marle-pits which are opened after the peat-grals is removed. One of these horns measures from the root at its insertion in the scull, to the tip of its remotest branch, seven feet and one inch; the other fix feet and nine inches; to which add the interval of four inches in the scull between their roots, and the distance from the tip of one horn to the tip of the other is fourteen feet four inches. The scull, which is intire, measures from the end of the vertebræ of the neck to the tip of the nose twenty-three inches; the breadth of the forehead above the eyes is eleven inches and one-fourth.

• I have the thigh-bone, which is much larger than that of an ox, as is the blade. bone of the shoulder.

• I believe these horns differ not only in magnitude but in form from those of any species of deer now found in the world, certainly from the moose-deer and elk. The bishop of Clonfert, Dr. Law, tells me, he heard a gentleman from India Speak of


an enormous deer, it'll found in Tartary, to the north and west of China, which have been thought to have been the fame with ours. It is remarkable that no hiftory, no tradition, no fable, of the most ancient Irish bards, ever contains the moit distant allusion or slightest mention of these gigantic animals.

• Lord Moira tells me, that he lately sent over fome of the bones of this animal to be examined by some gentlemen of the Royal and Antiquarian S cieties, and that the result of the enquiry was, that it was a non-existent animal. All here agree that those in my possesion are the largest yet known, as few have ever been found that have extended beyond twelve feet. I Jately got another large pair, with the scull of the animal intire, which, from its decayed teeth, appeared to have died of old age, yet they measured, with the scull, but eleven feet and four inches.'

Art. XVI. Conjectures on the Name of the Roman Station Vinovium or Binchester. By John Cade, Esq.- From several antiquities dug up at Binchester, Mr. Cade apprehends that this place was sacred to Bacchus, and that it derived its name Vinomiam, from the fekivals in honour of that deity.

Art. XVII. Further Observations on the early Irish antiquities. By Thomas Pownall, Esq.-These observations are contained in extracts of letters from colonel Vallancy, who has employed himself much in the contemplation of Irish antiquities.

Art. XVIII. Description of a Second Roman Pig of Lead found in Derbyshire ; now in the Poffesion of Mr. Adam Wolley, of Matlock, in that County, with Remarks. By Samuel Pegge.- A particular circumstance accompanying this pig of lead is, that on the surface there appear a great many small particles of brass. The inscription is Lucius Aruconius Verecundus Lundinensis. That is, in the opinion of Mr. Pegge, • The property of Lucius Aruconius Verecundus, lead-merchant of London. The inscription certainly aifords an argument that the lead-mines of Derbyshire, were worked at a remote period.

Art. XIX. A further Account of some Druidical Remains in Derbyshire. By Hayman Rooke, Esq.--Thefe remains, fituated principally on Hathersage Moor in the high Peak, not far from the road which leads from Sheffield to Man. chester, are called Cair's work. It is about two hundred yards in length, and fixty one in width. It includes a hill precipituus all round, except at the north end, where stands a wall of finglar construcțion. It is near three feet thick, and consists of three rows of large stones. On the top are other large stones, set obliquely endways. The inside is filled with carth and ftones, which form the vallum, and lope inwards


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twenty-five feet. The height of the wall to the top of the sloping stones, is nine feet four inches. The principal entrance seems to have been at the east end of the wall, and a Smaller one on the west side. The area of this work is full of rocks and large stones, some of which are rocking-stones. On the east side of this work is a stone measuring thirteen feet six inches in length. It hangs over a precipice, and is supported by two small itones.

These, says Mr. Rooke, plainly appear to have been fixed by art. On the top is a large rock bason four feet three inches diameter, close to which, on the south side, is an hollow, cut like a chair, with a step to reft the feet upon. This, the country people say, has always been called Cair's chair ; from whence we may suppose this to have been a seat of justice, where the principal Druid fat, who, being contiguous to the rock-bason, might have recourse to appearances in the water, in doubtful cases. It is natural, therefore, to imagine, from the many facred erections, that this place must have been intended for holy uses, or a court of justice.'

Art. XX. Remarks on the preceding Article. By Mr. Bray.

[To be continued.]

Elays on the Origin of Society, Language, Property, Government,

Jurisdiction, Contracts, and Marriage. Interspersed with Illuftrations from the Greek and Galic Languages. By James Grant, Eja Advocate.

4to. 75i 6d.

Robinson. T HE subjects of these Efsays have often exercised the talents

of speculative writers, and, in point of chronological order, have a claim to the earliest investigations that present themselves to philofophical enquiry. In tracing the Origin of Society, the author of the work before us very properly commences with exhibiting the primitive state of the first parents of mankind. But this happy period proving of fhort duration, there arose a necessity of calling into action those faculties with which the human race was endowed.

To guard against ravenous animals, and to secure a defence from the inclemencies of the weather, were objects which would soon excite the ingenuity of the late inhabitants of Paradise. Man muft therefore have very early employed his art in building himself a cottage, or have taken the benefit of receptacles already prepared by nature for his nightly habitation. The fpontaneous productions of the earth, our author observes, long furnished the inhabitants of the middle regions of the globe with food in abundance, while the natives of climates


more remote were early forced to roam over forests and deserts, in pursuit of the means of subsistence. Such diversity of occupations must necessarily have produced a variety in the man. ners and customs of different races of men, and have early stamped, on different tribes and societies, perceptible diftinca tions of character.

The account given by our author of the natural dispositions of man, in the following paffage, are, in our opinion, perfe&ly just.

• The discoveries which have been inade in modern ages, have led us into an acquaintance with varieties of condition in which the human species are found to exist. Mankind appear in all fituations divided into tribes, herding together, fubfifting in diftinct communities, who understand separate interests, They have a sense of common danger : wars and diffenfions prevail among them : they appear armed for each other's destruction: their breasts are, in times of contention, filled with the most implacable animofities, which produce the most rancorous cruelties.

• This mode of life could not have been the original and natural state of man. There must have existed a period whea the whole human race lived in amity together; when as yet no distinction of warlike tribes was known ; when no idea of separate interests had found place in the human mind. While nature, without the exestion of art or induttry, had furnithed food sufficient to supply the wants of the whole human species, the means of fubfiftence were enjoyed by all in common: no tions of separate intereits could not have had existence, Man. kind must have lived in a state of general concord, until pressed by wants which they found not ready means to supply. The exiftcnce of all the members of the community living in a body became then incompatible. Branches naturally issued from the main stock. Thus colonies were fent forth, and ihe earth was peopled. Mankind associated from a principle of natural af. fection towards the species. Their union was rendered firm and ftable, from a principle of fear and self-preservation.'

Mr. Grant is inclined to think, in opposition to Dr. Ro. bertson, that a promiscuous commerce among the fexes was one of the distinguishing marks of primeval tociety. But with respect to this controversy, sa ported on one hand by the fupposition of an exclusive mutual attachment between two individuals of different sexes; and on the other, by the probability of unreitrained gratification, in a state of nature, it is impossible to determine with certainty. in the second Etlay, Mr. Grant does not engage in


ela, borate disquisition on the origin of language, but contents himself with taking notice of some roots, combinations, and derivations of wors in a primative and still living language, which tend to throw some light upon the original condition of man, and to mark the train of his ideas in his primeval state of existence. The language here alluded to is the Galic, a dialect of the Celtic, which, it is contended, was anciently spoken by the inhabitants of a great part of the globe. That the Galic is not derived from any other language, our author considers as demonftrable, because it is obviously reducible to its own roots. Its combinations, he tells us, are formed of fimple words of known fignification ; and those words are resolvable into the fimplest combinations of vowels and confonants, and even into fimple sound. He observes, that in such a language, fome traces, it may be expected, will be found, of the ideas and notions of mankind living in a state of primeval fimplicity; and that this being admitted, a monument is still preserved of the primitive manners of the hu. man race, while entirely under the guidance of nature.


Mr. Grant has pursued this curious subject with so much ingenuity, that our readers will not think it superfluous when we lay before them the following extract.

The vowels A, E, I, O, U, pronounced in Scotland in the same manner as they are in Italy, are all significant founds with the descendants of the Caledonians. A is a found, uttered with loud vociferation, to caufe terror. E is an exclamation of joy; I, of dislike; 0, of admiration; and U, of fear; also of grief, modified by a graver tone of voice.

• Sudden sensations of heat, cold, and bodily pain, are expressed by articulate founds, which, however, are not used in the language to denote heat, cold, or bodily pain. Sudden sensation of heat is denoted by an articulate exclamation, Hoit; of cold, by. Id; of bodily pain, by Oich. The simple cries are generally, if not always, followed by articulate sounds; as A, Ab; E, Ed; I, 1bh; 0, Obb; U, Uhh. The letters bh sound like v. All these founds, both fimple and articulate, may be called interjections, being parts of speech which discover the mind to be seized with some passion. We doubt if any of the modern improved languages of Europe present so great a variety of interjections, or founds, which in utterance inftantaneously convey notice of a particular passion, bodily or mental feeling, Although the sounds, simple and articulate, enumerated above, have not all been adopted or preserved as significant words, some of them still remain as words or sounds of marked fignification.

The pronouns He and She are expressed by the simple founds, or vowels, E and I; and there Terve as regular marks of the masculine and feminine genders. A neuter gender being unknown, every object is in a manner personified in the application of these pronouns.

Distinctly varied sounds having been once employed by primitive man to denote the genders of living objects, he natuFally applies them to inanimate things. Language advances


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