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nild Street, mentioned by old historians, but which has long been lost in the uncertainty of topographical description.

Art. VII. A Letter from the Rev. Dr. Sharp, Archdeacon of Northumberland, tending to confirm Mr. Cade's opinion.

Art. VIII. Mr. Bray on the Leicester Roman Military Stone.-Though Leicester is generally supposed to be the Ratæ Coritanorum of the Romans, it has been doubted by some antiquaries; but, by a stone lately discovered near that town, and described by Mr. Bray, the common opinion is confirmed.

Art. IX. Observations on the present Aldbrough Church at Holderness, proving that it was not a Saxon building, as' Ms. Somerset contends. By the Rev. Mr. Pegge.--We ihall Jay these observations before our readers.

• The infcription Mr. Somerset has produced is not of great antiquity, as he states, for Ulf, who first put it up, flourished but in the reign of king Edward the Confessor. However, it is a Saxon inscription, and fufficiently both ancient and cusious to merit the attention of our Society, But the inference drawn from this concession, viz. that Aldbrough church, as now existing, is a fabric erected in the Saxon times, or before the Norman conquest, appears to me to be liable to two very specious, not to say formidable objections.

• First, there was no church at Aldbrough when Domesday survey was made, the record being entirely filent as to that particular; and yet, I presume, all the churches then in being are there very punctually recited. It may be said, perhaps, in reply to this, that the church at Kirkdale, where a Saxon inscription also occurs, is not mentioned in Domesday Book. I answer, that the fabric at Kirkdale cannot be expected to appear there, as it was not properly a church, i.e. a rectory endowed with tythes, but only a chapel of ease.

• The second objection is, that this structure does not present us with any resemblance of Saxon architecture, but on the contrary, every thing there favours of a post-normannic æra. Ms. Brooke himself confesses, “ it now has a more modern appearance ;" but this he endeavours to account for “ from the suce cession of repairs it has undergone, and the addition of wiodows very different from the original lights." A suggestion which may be admitted in regard to this or that part of a church ; but surely, fir, can by no means suffice for a whole and entire building. The arches within, which can never be thought to have been altered or repaired, those of the windows, and that of the door-way into the chancel, are all elliptic, a mode of building never seen, I believe, in any Saxon erection whatsoever. There is, it seems, some hewn itone-work in the lower part of the south wall of the chancel, such, says Mr. Brooke, as was generally used in our most ancient catliedral 4



churches." A circumstance which, in my opinion, militates very strongly in favour of the recent erection of this church, our cathedrals of this style of building being all posterior to the Conqueft. It is observed, again, that there is some zigzag work in the door of the chancel, and upon this fome brass is laid, Mr. Brooke remarking, in regard to this particular, " that this was a style peculiar to the Saxon architecture.” This now appears to be plausible; but it should be remembered on the other hand, that though our Saxon ancestors often applied this fpecies of ornament, as here stated and alledged, yet we find the succeeding architects did not fo totally forfake it, but that they sometimes retained it; witness the zigzac mouldings, noticed by Mr. Denne, as occurring in poft-normannic ttructures.

• But now you will alk, how then do you reconcile this Saxon inscription, so positive and express, with the supposed recency, or poit-normannic erection of this church? This, sir, I acknowledge, is a difficulty not easily to be removed ; and I, for my part, can only do it by a supposition, which you will think but barely possible; to wit, that Ulf built a church, which in a few years, and by some means now unknown, was destroyed and lay in ruins, A. 1080, when Domesday Book was made: that when the present fabric was erected, the old stone with its infcription, which had happily been preserved, was put up in the new structure, apd in the place it now occupies : and laitly, that in all probability, Odo earl of Champaigne, Albemarle and Holderness, or his son Stephen, was the person who founded the prelent church; if at lait it was built so early.'

Art. X. Particulars relative to a Human Skeleton, and the Garments that were found thereon, when dug out of a Bog at the Foot of Drumkeragh, a Mountain in the County of Down, and barony of Kinalearty, on Lord Moira's Eftate, in the Autumn of 1780.

By the Countess of Moira.–The partie culars concerning this skeleton, so far as they could be collected from the imperfect evidence procured by lady Moira, are related with great precision, and accompanied with such obtervations on antiquities as do the highest honour to her ladyship’s literary accomplishments. Amidst our fincere regret at the failure of all the endeavours which were exerted by this illuftrious lady for obtaining more explicit information, we have the satisfaction to find that the perfeveres in the hope of yer surmounting the obstacles which have hitherto frustrated her enquiry. When a lady of tụch eminence contributes her efforts towards the cultivation of antiquarian researches, her example cannot fail of producing the most advantageous effects.

Art. XI. A further Account of Discoveries in the Turf Bogs of Ireland. By Richard Lovell Edgeworth.--This argicle mentions a coat found ten years ago fifteen feet under

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ground, ground, in a turf bog or peat moss. With it were many hundred iron heads of arrows, some bowls of beech and alder, and other wooden utensils, many of which were unfinished, and two or three facks full of nuts. In the fame place were the remains of a work-shop, &c. which favour the author's conjecture that this spot had probably been a large wood, where turners had been employed ; to one of whom the uncouth habit is supposed to have belonged. The texture of the coat was such as the knitters and weavers of Ireland, we are told, are unable to imitate.

Art. XII. On the Progress of Gardening. By the Hon. . Daines Barrington.-- This well-informed writer, with his usual learning, traces the progress of horticulture from the earliest accounts of it in the ancient historians and poets. The gardens first mentioned are those of Solomon, Babylon, Alcinous, and Laertes, with the gardens of Lucullus and Augustus Cæsar; but it should seem, our author observes, that the two last were walks, with regular plantations of trees, as Virgil, in his Georgics, recommends the form of a quincunx.

“ Non animum modo uti pascat prospectus inanem."

In the private gardens of the Romans he remarks, that there were commonly sweet smelling shrubs and flowers ; in support of which opinion he produces a passage from Horace. But he evinces, by the authority of Martial, that towards the end of the first century, the prevailing tafte was to have clipt box amongst myrtles and planes. About the same period, likewise, the Romans appear to have found out the method of forcing roses, which it had formerly been the custom to obtain from Egypt, at great expence.

Our author juftly observes, that upon the fall of the Roman empire, little attention can be supposed to have been paid to gardening. Since that period, therefore, the earliest defcription of any such inclosure which he hạs found, is that belonge ing to the Hotel de St. Paul, at Paris, made by Charles the Fifth of France, about the year 1364. In this garden were apples, pears, cherries, and vines, beside peas and beans, beds of rofemary and lavender, with very large arbours.

Mr. Barrington observes, that in the beginning of the fixe teenth century there were green-houses in England, as appears from one of Leland's poems entitled, · Horti Gulielmi Guntheri, hyeme vernantes.' In the Itinerary of the same author, mention is made of the gardens at Morle in Derbyshire, at Wrexhill, on the Ouse in Yorkshire, and at the Castle of Thornbury.

· These three instances, fays Mr. Barrington, feem to hew, what were the gardens commonly which belonged to confider



able houses in the time of Henry the Eighth, but in the fifth volume of the Archäologia we have several other particulars relative to that king's garden, at his favourite and magnificent palace of Nonfuch.

i hese circumstances appear in a furvey taken in the year 1650, when it probably continued in exactly the fame state as it was at the death of Henry the Eighth.

• It is herein stated to have been cut out and divided into feveral allies, quarters, and rounds, fet about with thorn hedges. On the north side was a kitchen garden, very commodious, and surrounded with a brick wall of tourteen feet high. On the west was a wilderness, severed from the little park by the hedge, the whole containing ten acres.

In the privy gar.. den were pyramids, fountains, and balons of marble, one of which is let round with fix lelack trees, which trees bear no fruite, but only a very plealaunte flower.

* In the privy garden were also one hundred and forty fruit trees, two yews, one juniper, and fix leiacks. In the kitchen garden were feventy-two fruit trees, and one time tree. Lattiy, before this palace, was a neate and haundsome bowling-green, surrounded with a balluftrade of free ftone.

• In this garden, therefore, at Nonsuch, we find many such ornaments of old English gardening, as prevailed till the mo. dern taite was introduced by Kent.

. During the reign of queen Elizabeth, there was an Italian who visited England, and published, in 15€6, a thick volume of Latin poems, divided into several books. This poet Ityles himself Melissus.

• In this collection there is a poem on the royal garden, one stanza of which describes a labyrinth, and it should seem from the following lines, that her majesty was curious in flowers, and perhaps a botanist.

• Cultor herbarum, memor atque florum,
Atque radicum sub huno latentum, et
Stirpium prifca, et nova fingularum

Nomina fignet.'
And again,

• Non opis noftræ frutices ad unguem

Persequi cunctos, variasque plantas.' • During the reign of this queen, Hentzner informs us, that there was in the privy garden a jet d'eau, which by turning of the cock, wetted all the spectators who were standing near it.

' Liberneau, who wrote his Maison Rustique about the same time, advises arbours of jessamine or roses, box, juniper, and cypress, to be introduced into gardens, and gives some wooden plates of forms for parterres, and labyrinths. The fame taste prevailed in Spain and Italy. N 4

. James • James the First built, or at least improved, the palace of Theobalds, to which he likewise added a garden, thus described by Mandello, a traveller who visited England in 1640.

It is large and square, having all its walls covered with fillery, and a beautiful jet d'eau in the centre.

The parterre hath many pleasant walks, many of which are planted on the lides with espaliers, and others arched over. Some of the trees are limes and elms, and at the end is a sınall mount called the Mount of Venus, which is placed in the midst of a labyrinth, and is upon the whole, one of the inoit beautiful spots in the world.”

• This fame traveller describes also the garden at Greenwich (much improved by James the First), in which he mencions a statue pouring water from a corru copiæ, and a grotto.

• About the same time Mandelso visited Brussels, and in forms us that in the inidit of a lake acjoining to the palace, there is a square house built upon pillars, which , perhaps was one of the first summer-houses in such a situation,

Charles the First is well known to have been in the earlier part of his reign an encourager of the elegant arts; but I havę not happened to meet with any proofs of attention to the gar. dens of his palaces, if the appointing Parkinson to be his here barist be excepted, which ofhce, it is believed, was firft created by this king.

• Improvements of the same kind were little to be expected from the commonwealth, or Cromwell; but Charles the Second being fond both of playing at mall, and walking in St. James's . Park, planted some rows of limes, and dug the canal, both which fill remain, He also covered the central walk with cockle-shells, and instituted the office of cockle-strewer. It was so well kept during this reign that Waller calls it " the polished mall." Fie also mentions that Charles the Second (probably from this circumstance) was able to frike the ball more than half the length of the walk.

• Lord Capel seems to have been the first perfon of consequence in England, who was at much expence in his gardens, and having brought over with him many new fruits from France, he planted them at Kew,

• Lord Essex had the same taste, and sent his gardener Rose to study the then much celebrated beauties of Versailles. Upon Rose's return, Charles the Second appointed him royal gardener, when he planted such famous dwarfs at Hampton Court, Carlton, and Mariborough Gardens, that London (who was Rose's apprentice) challenges all Europe to produce the like.

. I hould rather conceive that this king had the first hot and ice-house (which generally accompany each other) ever built in England, as at the installation dinner given at Windsor, on the twenty-third of April 1667, there were cherries, strawberries, and icecreams.


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