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that people followed scrupulously the rules and proportions handed down to them by their ancestors, without adopting the variations introduced into the art by modern architects, the style of this temple marks an earlier period than the æra of the Cæsars. As roofs are generally composed of timber, lead, cop. per, tiles or flates, it is easy to conceive how such materials may have been purloined or destroyed, though the folidity of the columns have retilted all attacks of time and foes.

• 1 he pediments are much injured; the northern aspect is corroded by the weather; the stone being a porous grey marine concretion. The clear colour and majestic difpofition of so many. columns, on which light and Made are cast in various di. rections, and the insulated situation of fo grand a building on a bold eminence in the midst of a desert, have something fingularly awful and sublime in their effect.'

During Mr. Swinburne's progress in this country, he remarks, that most baronial towns are built on eminences at a distance from the shore, and out of the reach of sudden invafion; while royal burghs, having fironger fortifications, and regular garrisons or militia, stand more venturoudly on the edge of the sea.

Near Castel Vetrano, on the 27th of December, the tra. Neller rode seven miles into the south vale, a rich inclosed di. ftrict like the country round Naples. It is watered by the Madiuni, a clear romantic ftream, pafing through a long line of hills, which exhibit the most extraordinary assemblage of ruins in Europe. These are the ruins of Selinus. They lie in feveral ftupendous heaps, with many columns fill erect, and at a distance resemble a large town with a crowd of fieeples. The body of the town ttood on a ridge, west of the river, and near the sea. Its harbour was at the mouth of the Madiuni, where a part of the mole is yet exifling. The eastern hill, which seems not to have been within the walls, is not commanded by any other point of land, and falls with a rapid flope towards the fea, going off in a much more gentle declivity on the north side. The top is an extensive level, on which lie the hattered members of three Dcric temples, thirty yards afunder, in a direct line from north to south. These ruins are described by our author in the following terms.

• The most northerly temple, which was Pseudodipteros, exceeded the others very much in dimenfions and majefty, and now composes one of the most gigantic and sublime ruins imaginable. The columns of the pronaos, which fronted the rising fun, are fluted, those that supported the sides of the temple plain; one of the former and two of the latter are till standing, though not entire ; the capital and entablement are total. ly overturned. The columns measure nine feet three inches in



diameter at bottom, and fix feet three inches below the capitai. I believe their total height did not exceed five diameters or fifty feet. The capitais are of one folid block, uncommonly bulky in the femig!bular part called the ovolo. Although these noble ruins be tumbled together in great confufion, and the means of measuring their extent be difficult, I think I may pronounce, from the measures I took, that the length of the whole edifice was about three hundred and thirty feet, and its breadth thirty-nine.

• The second temple is ruined with more order, and is easily described ; it had fix columns in the fronts and eleven on each side, in all thirty-four; their diameter is five feet; they were all fluted, and most of them now remain standing as high as the second course of stones,

• The pillars of the third temple were also fluted, and have fallen down fo very entire, that the five pieces which compor. ed them lie almost close to each other, in the order they were placed in when upright; the cella does not exceed the vestibule in extent.

• All these temples are of the old Doric order, without a base, and of a much more maffive proportion than the Segeftan edifice. The two lefser tempies are more delicate in their parts and ornaments than the principal ruin; the stone, of which they are all composed, is mooth and yellowish, and was brought from the quarries of Cartel-franco, seven miles off.

• It is faid that the city was deitroyed by the Carthaginians, and that these proud fanes were levelled to the ground by the hand of man; but it is at least as probable that they were Maken and overthrown by an earthquake; their prodigious volume must have rendered it a difficult task to overset them, and the regularity, with which the columns of the smaller temples are thrown down argues the effect of some uniform general concusmon. It is hard to attribute such devastation folely to human malice; and whoever beholds these enormous masses, scattered in heaps upon the plain, muft of course accuse nature of having had some share in this victory over the pride of art.'

In the large village or burgh of Ribera, the traveller was received at the house of an old baroness, a widow, who, with her son and daughter-in-law, paid the utmost attention to a letter he had brought from their friends at Sciacca. The room they supped in was an ordinary bed-chamber, but the entertainment plentiful and good. Ceremony predominated at first to a troublesome degree.

None of the company would taste a morsel una lefs Mr. Swinburne helped both them and himself; a fashion he was not aware of. As soon as he discovered the reason of their abstinence, we might presume that he would not be remiss in making an atonement. He accordingly served each person with alertness and profusion. The ladies accepted whatever was offered, but having made their evening meal



before his arrival, left the meat on their plates untouched. In á short time they became more sociable, and conversation ran on familiarly.

The oldest language spoken in Sicily, of which any remains are left, was the Phænician, which exists on numberless coins of all inetals, and in some inscriptions. Greek, our author observes, was introduced by two sets of colonies ; in one the Doric dialect prevailed; the other spoke the Attic. Several learned antiquaries have asserted, that the former only was in use through all the settlements ; but the contrary, we are informed, is clearly demonstrated by the prince of Torremusa, from authentic documents.

The city of Girgenti ftands upon one of the highest hills on the coast, where anciently stood the citadel of Cocalus; the houses cover its summit and fides completely, and seem like terraces, with the cathedral and castle above all. The road thither is good, though hilly, and the vale delightfully planted with olive-trees, in corn-fields. Among the distant groves towards the east, the ruins of Agrigentum rise above the

The traveller informs us, that it was difficult to be more judicious and fortunate than the Agrigentines, in the choice of a situation for a large city. They were here provided with every requisite for defence, pleasure, and comfort of life, A natural wall, formed by abrupt rocks, presented a strong barrier against assailants; pleasant hills sheltered them on three sides without impeding the circulation of air; before them a broad plain, watered by the Acragas, gave admittance to the sea breeze, and to a noble prospect of that element; the port or emporium lay in view at the mouth of the river, and probably the road across the flat was lined with gay and populous fuburbs.

The gratification which the traveller here enjoyed, in examining the vestiges of old magnificence, was increased by the fweet temperature of the atmosphere. He began his circuit at the north-east angle, with some foundations of large regular ftones, upon which a church has been erected. pears hewn in the solid rock, for the convenience of the votaries that visited this temple in ancient times. It was then dedicated to Ceres and Proserpine, the peculiar patronesses of Sicily.

Towards the fouth-east corner the ground, rising gradually, terminates in a bold eminence, which is crowned with majestic columns, the ruins of a temple said to have been confecrated to Juno. It was raised upon a lofty base of regular stonework, in the heart of which was contrived a gallery, either for apartments or store-houses. On the west front, a grand fight


A road ap

of steps leads up to the pronaos or vestibule.

The fronts cono fifted of fix fluted Doric columns, the flanks of eleven plain ones; of these, few are now standing, many having been thrown down by earthquakes in the memory of man ; and what remains is in a tottering condition.

Moving from this temple, along the brow of the hill to. wards the west, the traveller reached the building commonly called the Temple of Concord.

• The reason given, says our author, for supposing it was sacred to Concord is, that Fazzello, and subsequent writers, have ascribed to this building the infeription now fixed in a wall at Girgenti. It runs thus : “ Concordiæ Agrigentinorum facrum Respublica Lilybitanorum dedicantibus M. Atterio Candido Procos. et L. Cornelio Marcello D. Pr. Pr.” and, as D’Orville very juftly concludes from many unanswerable argu. ments, is supposititious. Upon this fight foundation, and an expression in Strabo, who says, that all the public edifices of Agrigentum had been burnt or destroyed before the time of Auguftus, Fazzello has formed his opinion that this temple was built after that period, and at the joint expence of the two cities mentioned in the inscription. If it was, it must be deemed impossible to ascertain the age of a building by the ilyle of its architecture; for the ruins of Agrigentum seem to belong to an earlier period.'

This Doric Temple has all its columns, entablature, pediments, and walls entire ; only part of the roof is wanting, It owes its preservation to the piciy of fome Christians, who have covered half the nave, and converted it into a church. Six columns in ront, and eleven on the sides, exclusive of the angular ones, form the colonade. The cella has a door at each end, between two columns and two pilasters, and in each side-wall fix small doors, with a stair-case that led up to the rooms in the roof. This majestic edifice stands in the most striking point of view, on the brink of a precipice; which formed the defence of the city along the whole southern exposure.

The traveller and his company proceeded thence in the same direction, between rows of fepulchres cut in the rock. Some parts are hewn into the shape of coffins, others drilled full of small square holes, employed in a different mode of interment, and serving as receptacles of urns. One ponderous piece of the rock, by the failure of its foundation, or the fhock of an earthquake, has been loosened from the quarry, and rolled down the declivity, where it now lies supine with the cavities turned upwards.

The next station of the travellers was at a single column that marks the confused heap of moss-grown ruins belonging

to the Temple of Hercules. It ftood on a projecting rock above a chasm in the ridge, which was cut through for a paf. fage to the emporium. They followed this road over fome hills to the building usually called the Tomb of Thero. It is furrounded by aged olive-trees, which cast a wild irregular fhade over the ruid.

This edifice inclines to the pyramidical Mape, and confifts, at present, of a triple plinth, and a base fupporting å square pedestal. Upon this foundation is raifed a second order, haying a window in each front, and two Ionic pilasters at each angle. They are crowned with an entablature of the Doric order, of which the triglyphs and metopes remain, but the cornice is fallen. The inside of this building is divided into a vault, a ground room, and one in the Ionic story, communi. cating with each other by means of a small internal fair-case.

On the plain below are fome fragments of the Temple of Esculapius. Part of two columns and two pilasters, with an intermediate wall, support the end of a farm-house, and were, our author imagines, the front of the cella.

Returning from the plain to Agrigentuin by the fame road, and pursuing the track of the walls towards the west, the dra. veller arrived at a spot which is covered with the colossal remains of the Temple of Jupiter the Olympian, minutely defcribed by Diodorus Siculus. It is now barely poffible, with the help of much conjecture, to discover the traces of its plan and dimensions.

The next ruin belongs to the temple of Castor and Pollux ; - but it is so covered with vegetation that only a few fragments of columns appear between the vinės. This was the point of the hill where the wall stopt on the brink of a large fish-pond, spoken of by Diodorus. It was cut in the solid rock thirty feet deep, and water was conveyed to it from the hills. In it was bred a great quantity of filh, for the use of public entertainments. Swans and various other kinds of wild-fowl swam along its surface, for the amusement of the citizens; and the great depth of water prevented an enemy from surprising the town on that fide, It is now dry, and used as a garden.

As nothing affords the mind greater pleasure than contemplating icenes which excite the remembrance of ancient grandeur, we have, for the satisfaction of our readers, been more particular than usual, in tracing the progress of this agreeable and well-informed traveller, whose descriptions are every where diftinct, and his observations invariably founded in juftnefs of sentiment. In a subsequent Number we hall finish our account of the work.

A Letter

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