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There are several circumstances in this preface, which though they do not absolutely prove that it is a forgery, have at least a suspicious appearance. We fall mention one or two. The preference, which is ascribed so carefully and officicusly to St. Peter, Jeems as if it came from the pen of an advocate for the fupremacy of the Roman pontifi.--The author of the preface vehemently exclaims against the infideles translatores, and says, that by the verse in question, maxime fides catholica robora. tur.' Yet'the pious Jerome' never fully or explicitly appeals to this important text, in any part of his works! This, we will venture to say, is unaccountable. It may also be prefumed, that if St. Jerome thought this passage the ftrongest confirmation of the Catholic faith, it would have been con. ftantly cited by the Trinitarians. But it is not.
The earliest testimony which our author produces, and in. deed the earliest which can be produced, is that of Tertullian.
• In those days, says Mr. Travis, arose in Asia, the heretic Praxeas, who maintained, that there was no plurality of persons in the godhead; but that the Father suffered on the cross, Against the opinions of this man Tertullian wrote a treatise, in the twenty-fifth chapter of which, he thus alleges this parsage of St. John. " The connection of the Father in the Son, and of the Son in the Holy Ghost, makes a unity of these three, one with another, which three are one." The Latin is, “ qui tres unum sunt:" a literal quotation of the verse in question. And the testimony of Tertullian, seems to carry irresistible conviction with it to every unprejudiced mind, not only from its proximity to the age of the apostles, but because he testifies, that in those times, their authentic epistles were actually read to the churches, not through the medium of the Latin, or of any other translation, but in the original Greek, to which criginals Tertullian himself directly appeals *.'
This testimony of Tertullian, when viewed in the original, does not seem to carry that irresistible conviction with it which our author apprehends. Ita connexus, says that father, Patris in Filio, & Filii in Paracleto, tres efficet cohærentes, alterum ex altero, qui tres unum fint, non unus. Quamodò dictum est, ego & Pater unum fumus ti' The passage to which he here very manifestly refers, is John X. 30, eyw nai ο Πατηρ εν εσμεν, , I and my father are one.' This, he observes, is asserted in Scripture, 'dictum est.' If the former words, ' qui tres unum fint,' had been in St. John's Epistle, Tertullian would undoubtedly have appealed to his authority. But he does not; nay, so far from it, he uses very different
* Tertull. de Præscript. Hæret. c. 36. Monog. c. 11. ↑
Edit. Rigaltii, 1675. p. 515.
terms, namely, 'filius and paracletus.' We are therefore ine clined to think, that Tertullian took his form of expression
unu i fint,' frm sy gol!v, in the verse above cited ; and that he night have expresied himself as he has done, if the controverted paliage in St. John's Epiftle had never exifted.
It is very certain, that both the Greek and Latin writers. interpreted the eighth verte, in a mystical sense, of the Trinity, understanding by the spirit, God the Father; by the blood, the Son ; and by water, the Holy Ghost. It is, therefore, most probable, that the passages in St. Cyprian, St. Austin, and others, which by some are thought to be quotations from the seventh verse, are, in reality, nothing more than glosles on the eighth.
Our author having alleged and enforced all the foregoing testimonies, proceeds to examine the most material objections which have been urged against the originality of this verse, and to his examination superadds some reflections, which seem to arise from an attentive consideration of the whole subject.
Sandius, M. Simon, and Mr. Emlyn, among the more early opponents of this verse; and Dr. Benfon, fir Isaac Newton, Mr. Griesbach, and Mr. Bowyer, among its more modern adversaries, seem to have been the most diffuse in the va, riety of their remarks, and the nioft determined in their opposition. But as the four last mentioned writers have collected, into one point of view, all, or nearly all, the objections that have at any time been urged against the originality of the verse in question ; and as their works are more generally known than those of Sandius, Simon, or Emlyn, this learned writer confiders them as speaking the sense of their fellow-advocates, and states their objections in their own words.
In this part of his work, and indeed in every other, our author displays indefatigable industry, extenfive reading, and uncommon acuteness, in maintaining his hypothesis.,
Yet, notwithstanding all that he has advanced, when it is considered that this verfe does not exist in the best and moft ancient manuscripts; and that it does not appear to have been fairly and expressly quoted by any Greek or Latin writer in the four first centuries of the church, in their warm disputes with the Arians and other ancient Antitrinitarians, the difcerning reader will still perhaps entertain his doubts, and be rather pleased with the learning and ingenuity of this able writer, than convinced by his arguments.
Travels in the Two Sicilies, by Henry Swinburne, Esq. ( Core
tinued, from Page 87.) DURING a respite from rain, Mr. Swinburne made some
excursions from Palermo into the neighbouring country ; and the sanctuary of St. Rofalia, the peculiar patroness of the city, was the firit place he visited. It stands on Monte Pellegrino, anciently Erca, which, about a mile from the gates, rises abruptiy, quite detached from all other mountains. Towards the close of the frit Punic war, to preserve a free communication with the sea, this mountain was fortified by Hainilcar Barcas, who maintained the post for five years, notwithstanding the success of his enemies against all the other Carthaginian generals.
To facilitate the approach to the saint's grotto, a road has been made up the side of the mountains for defraying the execution of which work, a tax was levicd upon meat by the senate of Palermo. The sanctuary is a spacious cavern, having its entrance clofed with a convent and portico. It is so full of springs, that leaden pipes are laid along the roof to catch the drops and convey them into a cistern. A rich altar is erected over the marble effigy of the saint, which, lying at full length, is covered with a filver veft, the gift of his present Catholic majesty.
The traveller's second day's route lay along the shore, towards the East, through a rich well-inclosed plain, bounded by very high mountains. The little river Ammiraglio, anciently Orethus, on the banks of which Metellus defeated the Carthaginians, has worn its way deep into the ftony ftratum under the vegetable covering. This stream flows through pastures and orchards, which, even in December, display a lively prospect of young corn, pulse, and the rich foliage of a variety of ever-green fruit.trees.
Conținuing his route, Mr. Swinburne rode about ten miles by the edge of the bay, between hedges of aloe and Indian fig. On the waste, asparagus, oleander, palma Christi, and palmetto, or dwarf-palm, over-run the surface of the ground. The road rises gradually to La Bagaria, a hill covered with yillas belonging to the nobility. Those houses are built with a coarse porous breccia, of a dusky yellow cast, which is extreniely unfit for the purposes of ornamental architecture, as it moalders away by being exposed to wind and rain. The first of the villas is built in an agreeable taite, and the ornaments are chalte and light; but the second, or that of Palagonia, is represented as extremely diffimilar.
• To this extraordinary place, says Mr. Swinburne, the traveller is admitted through a huge gate, on the plinth of which are fixed six colossal white-washed ftatues of huslards or halberdiers, to dispute the entrance of an avenue three hundred yards long, not of cypresses, elins, or orange trees, but of monilers.
On each hand is a parapet wall loaded with more horrible figures than were ever raised by Armida and all the enchanters of Ariofo. Bufts of punchinellos and harlequins, with fnakes twisted round them; the heads of dwarfs with huge perriwigs, of aftes and horses with laced cravats and ruffs, compose the lower rarge of this gallery, and at intervals of ten yards are: clustered pillars, supporting curious groups of figures; fome are musicians, other piç mies, opera herces, old women grinning, lions and other beasts, feated at tables with napkins under their chins, eating oyiters; prioceles with feathers and furbelows, otriches in hoofs, and cats in boots. In short, more unaccountable niixtures of company, and unnatural represen. tations of creatures than I had patience to note, or memory to record. They are luckily all made of fo foft and perishable a ftone, that we need be under no apprehensions of this collection passing to poßerity as a monument of the taste of the eighteenth century. Many enormous noses and preposterous limbs have already crumbled to duit. The itene-cuiters that made these figures, though they could barely trace out a resemblance of the human form, have fewn great dexteriiy in Carving curls, foliage, and flounces out of fuch coarse materials.
• This avenue of Pandæmonium brought me to a circular court before the house, crowded with store and marble beings, riut to be found in any books of zoology. Men, monsters, and animals line the battlements of the mantion, and stard fo thick, and in such menacing actitudes, that it would not be fafe to approach in a windy day. The walls are cased with basso re. lievos, masks, medallions, fcriptural subjects, heathen gods, emperors, and posture-mafiers : fome of the sculpture is in a good lłyle, copied from the antique, but the greatest part conlists of such figures as we meet with in Dutch fairs representing the seasons and elements.
• Within doors the same fort of company presents itself, but the proprietor has for fome years pait abandoned this wonderful abode, and many of its beauties feel the fatal efieits of his absence. The cielings of the rooms are of looking glass; the wails lined with china and Delf baubles, monkies hold up the curtains, borses n:ount guard, and devils wait at the foot of the stairs. The ball room remains imperfect, though intended for the chef d'oeuvre ; round it runs a marble bench, which y pon examination I found to contain a great number of night tables,'
In a subsequent route our author visited the spot where formerly stood the city of Egefa or Segefta, founded by the Tra.
jans. He informs us, that nothing could be more judiciously chosen than the situation of this place.
• It lay, says he, upon a ridge of hills gently noping towards the northern aspect, sheltered on the touchern and eastern quarters by high rocky eminences, at the foot of which two roaring brooks winded their course and embraced the city. While Segeita was in a flourishing state, its environs populous, and well cultivated, the aspect of the country must have been delightful; the peltilential fuffocating blasts, that rush over the scas from the hot sands of Africa, could not reach this protected vale, while the wholsome north wind had free admittance to refresh and purify the atmofphere.
• The walis appear in many places, The emporium was at the mouth of the river, near the spot where Caitelamare now ftands. Segetta had the advantage of hot mineral waters within its diitrict, which are still used for medical purposes. The form of its theatre is discernible, some cisterns and foundations of houses occur along the declivity. On the brow of a lofty rock impending perpendicularly over the river, and at the eastern extremity of the city, is to be feen a molt noble well-preserved monument of ancient magnificence; on this bold cliff rises a Doric temple of thirty six columns, all, except one, perfectly entire; the damaged column suffered with part of the pediment by a stroke of lightningTbis edifice is a parallelogram, of 162 feet by 66. The colonnade fianus upon one common plinth, or range of Itone, which is cut through, as for an entrance, at the lait intercolumniations of each flank. In the fronts it is so be. tween all the pillars; within, at every intercolumniation a recess of half a diameter is left as a niche for a statue, or an altar; the columns are of a longer proportion than those of fæstum, and therefore I suppose this temple is of a later date ; they taper very much, being fix feet in diameter below, and four only at top, without any swell in the middle; they have no base, but there is a groove near their bottom, in which it appears that there has been a metal rim fixed with nails; it is probable that the architects of ages subsequent to its foundation, being desirous of accommodating this old Doric fiyle to their customary rules for expressing that order, had faltened a brass base round each column. The capitals are simple, but the denticules and drops of the entablature have a more modern 'appearance than those of the Pæstan ruins. The architrave is built with one larg'e upright stone over the center of the column between two very long flat ones that reach from one capital or the other. The frize and architrave are entire all round, and, except in the pediments, fo is the cornice. There is no inner wall or cella, nor any vestige of a roof; hence, some observers have concluded that this building was never fiDithed, and was, perhaps, the very temple which the Segeftans obtained leave from Tiberius Cælar to erect; but unless