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deposit them in its own little granary. Whether, thought an avowed enemy to Machiavelian principles, the uniform and distinct appropriation of his sympathetic affections and antipathies ought to excite any suspicion of his fincerity, we shall not determine : but it is observable' that while he devotes all his honey to the present, he invariably aims his sting at the last administration.
The Life of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. By
William Gilpin, M. A. 8vo. 35. 6d. in Boards. Blamire. THE character of archbishop Cranmer has been equally the
subject of exaggerated praise, and undeferved censure. At the time in which he lived, party. fpirit was furious and inexorable. The Papists looked upon the Protestants with a malevolent afpe&t ; and the Protestants, on the other hand, dreaded and detested the Papists. Cranmer, as archbishop of Canterbury, occupied a station, which exposed him to every ftorm; and, in that situation, it was not in the power of human foresight or prudence to avoid the odium of contending zealots. His rigour and his lenity were to the one party or to the other equally obnoxious. And if he temporized on some occafions, as he certainly did, he was accused of a criminal flexibility. He had undoubtedly his frailties; but they were frequently caused, and more frequently aggravated, by the malignity of his opponents. If we view him with that candour, which is due to human nature, we shall not easily find a more respectable character. His virtues so far outweigh his failings that, on the whole, we may esteem him one of the firit persons of the age in which he lived.
The excellent author of these memoirs seems to have difcriminated the lights and shades of his character with gteat accuracy and judgment. He very properly cenfures his indelicacies and improprieties of conduct, and particularly his intolerant principles.
His reflections on the story of Joan Bocher and George Paris, are liberal and manly, becoming the character of an hiftorian in this more civilized and enlightened age.
Joan Bocher and George Paris were accused, though at different times, one for denying the humanity of Chrift; the other for denying his divinity. They were both tried, and condemned to the stake: and the archbishop not only consented to these acts of blood, but even periuaded the avei fion of the young king into a compliance. “ Your majesty must diftin. guilh (taid he, informing his royal pupii's conscience) betwren common opinions, and such as are the essential artic es of
faith. Thefe latter we must on no account suffer to be opposed.”
. It is true, these doctrines, especially the latter, in the opinion of the generality of Christians, are subversive of the fundamentals of Christianity. To deny the divinity of Christ seems to oppose the general idea, which the scriptures hold out of our redemption. On the other hand, many particular passages, which describe the humanity of Christ, seem to favour the doctrine : and some there are, who hold it even in this enlightened age. At-worst, therefore, we must confider it as an erroneous opinion. To call it heresy, when attended with a good life, is certainly a great breach of Christian charity. Is it not then astonishing, that a man of the archbishop's candour could not give it a little more indulgence ? If any opinions can demand the secular arm, it must be such only as lead to actions, which injure the peace of society. We are surprised also at seeing the archbihop so far depreciate his own cause, as to suppose that one man incurred guilt by acting on the famé principles which entitled another to applause : and that he who in the opinion of one church, was the greatest of schismatics himself, should not even in common justice indulge, in all the more speculative points of religion, toleration to others. Nothing even plausible can be suggeked in defence of the archbishop on this occafion ; except only that the spirit of popery was not yet wholly repressed.
• There are, however, among Protestant writers at this day, fome who have undertaken his vindication. But I spare their indiscretion. Let the horrid act be universally disclaimed. To palliate, is to participate. With indignation let it be recorded, as what above all other things has disgraced that reli. gious liberty, which our ancestors in most other respects to nobly purchased.' The execution of this celebrated reformer filled up
the measure of the enormities practised during the reign of queen Masy. His biographer gives this account of his behaviour at the stake.
Having concluded his prayer, he rose from his knees ; and taking a paper from his bofom, continued his speech to this effect.
" It is now, my brethren, no time to dissemble. I stand upon
verge of life--a vast eternity is before me. What my fears are, or what my hopes, it matters not here to unfold. For one action of my life at least I am accountable to the world-my late Thameful subscription to opinions, which are wholly opposite to my real sentiments. Before this congrega
'ion I folemnly declare, that the fear of death alone induced me to this ignominious action—that it hath cost me many bitter tears, that in my heart I totally reject the pope, and doctrines of the church of Rome and that"
• As he was continuing his speech, the whole assembly was in an uproar. Lord Williams gave the first impulse to the tumult; crying aloud, “Stop the audacious heretic."
On which several priests and friars, rushing from different parts of the church, with great eagerness seized him ; pulled him from his seat; dragged him into the street ; and with much indecent precipitation, hurried him to the stake, which was already prepared. Executioners were on the spot, who securing him with a chain, piled the faggots in order round him.
• As he stood thus, with all the horrid apparatus of death about him, midst taunts, revilings, and execrations, he alone maintained a dispassionate behaviour. Having now. discharged his conscience, his mind grew lighter; and he seemed to feel, even in these circumstances, an inward satisfaction, to which he had long been a stranger : his countenance was not fixed as before, in abject forrow, on the ground; he looked round him with eyes full of sweetness and benignity, as if at peace with all the world.
• A torch being put to the pile, he was presently involved in a burst of smoke, and crackling flame: but on the side next the wind, he was distinctly seen, before the fire reached him, to thrust his right hand into it, and to hold it there with astonishing firmness; crying out, “ this hand hath offended! this hand hath offended!"-When we see human nature ftruggling so nobly with such uncommon sufferings, it is a pleasing reflection that, through the assistance of God, there is a firmness in the mind of man, which will support him under trials, in appearance beyond his strength.
• His sufferings were soon over. The fire rising intensely around him, and a thick smoke involving him, it was supposed he was presently dead.
• The story of his heart's remaining unconsumed in the midst of the fire, seems to be an instance of that credulous zeal, which we have often seen lighted at the fi'ames of dying martyrs.'
The word seems, in the last fentence, is too great a conces: fion to vulgar superstition.
The author informs us, that the works of Mr. Strype, an historian of great integrity, have been his principal guide. As there are some points which are taken from other writers, we must confess we should have been better pleased, if he had constantly referred us to original authorities. This appears to
be absolutely necessary in all historical and biographical narratives, and is generally expected by every learned and inquisitive reader.
The Mystery bid from Ages and Generations, made manifeft by the
Gospel-Revelation : or, the Salvation of all Men the grand Thing aimed at in the Scheme of God, as opened in the NewTeftament Writings, and entrusted with Jefus Christ to bring
into Effect. 8vo. 55. in Boards. ' Dilly. AS
S the Creator of all things is infinitely benevolent, it is
not easy to conceive, that he should bring mankind into existence, unless he intended to make them finally happy. And if this was his intention, it cannot be supposed, as he is infinitely wise and powerful, that he should be unable to project, or carry into execution, a scheme, which would be effectual to secure, sooner or later, its full accomplishment. From such principles' as these it seems natural to infer, that all men will be finally happy. This is the great point, which the author of the treatise now before us labours to establish, on the authority of Scripture. He supposes, however, that this benevolent purpose may not be speedily fulfilled; that there may be other fates of being besides the next, before the scheme of God will be perfected, and mankind universally cured of their moral disorders, and, in this way, qualified for his favour, and admitted into eternal happiness.
The several texts, which are supposed to contain this important doctrine, our author brings into view under the following propositions :
Prop. I. From the time that fin entered into the world by the first man Adam, Jesus Christ is the person through whom, and
upon whose account, happiness is attainable by any of the
• II. The obedience of Christ, and eminently his obedience to death, when he had assumed our flesh, in the fulness of time, is the ground or reafon upon which it hath pleafed God to make happiness attainable by any of the race of Adam.
* III. Christ died, not for a select number of men only, but for mankind universally, and without exception or limitation.
• IV. It is the purpose of God, according to his good pleasure, that mankind universally, in consequence of the death of his son Jesus Christ, fall certainly and finally be saved.
• V. As a mean in order to men's being made meet for salvation, God, by Jesus Christ, will, sooner or later, in this state or another, reduce them all under a willing and obedient fubjection to his moral government.
• VI. The
• VI. The Scripture language, concerning the reduced or restored, in consequence of the mediatory interpofition of Jesus Christ, is such, as to lead us into the thought, that they are comprehensive of mankind universally.'
It would carry us beyond our limits to mention those passages of Scripture, by which he endeavours to prove thefe propositions, and he himself desires, that they may be considered not singly, but in connection. We must therefore refer the inquisitive reader to his work at large.
However, notwithstanding all that he has offered, in proof that the final salvation of all men is a doctrine of the Bible, it ought not to be received as such, unless the contrary evidence can be fairly invalidated. He has therefore examined and answered all the objections which lie against the truth of the foregoing scheme.
The first and principal objection is derived from the words everlasting, eternal, and other similar terms, which are used in Scripture to point out the duration of future torments. This our author easily removes by demonstrating, that these words are often used by the facred writers to denote a duration which is longer or Morter, definite or indefinite, accord. ing to the nature of the subject to which they are applied.
The Scriptures, as our author observes, expressly declare, that the wicked Mall reap corruption ; that they shall be destroyed; that they shall perish; that they shall undergo death ; and that this death which they shall suffer, is said to be the second death. • And it is remarkable that this second death is spoken of as that which shall be effected by the fire of hell.'
His notion of the second death is this: "The souls of wicked men will, at the resurrection, be again related or unit: ed to particular systems of matter, adapted by the wisdom of God, to render them capable of communication with the world, in which they shall then be placed. They will become fitted for sensations of pain, more various in kind, and greater in degree, than at present; which yet they will be able to endure for a much longer continuance. But in time, the tor; ments they must suffer will end in their death ; that is, the diffolution of union between their souls and bodies ; upon which they will have no more concern with that world, than they have with this, upon the coming on of the first death, Afterwards their souls, in God's time, shall be united again to their respective bodies, and thus be put into another state of discipline, till they are prepared for final and everlasting happiness,