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by the surface; that the regular escape of this matter depends upon fuch various circumstances, that it must be liable to occa. fional interruptions, and that in consequence of these interruptions, the surface of the skin must be sometimes overcharged with heat.
• The effect of this accumulation of heat from within, if we may be allowed to consider the fact fimply, must be precisely the same as if an extraordinary quantity of heat were to be applied to the skin from without; and which is well known to be as follows: a small degree of heat, and which is not long con: tirued, excites only an increased sensibility in the part; if a Targer quantity, or if longer continued, it occasions a sense of burning, the part becomes red, is infamed, and tumefied, perhaps, by the simple expanfive power of heat; and if ftilí more be applied, the circulation in the cutis is obftructed, and a decompofition takes place, which is attended either with the vescation or exulceration of the part.'
In this instance, which we may consider as a specimen of our author's reasoning, we fufpect a considerable mistake ; it is very doubtföl whether the heat produced on the surface is a primary or a secondary effect; or more itrictly, whether it is a mere evacuation of a superabundant principle, or the confequence of a very different evacuation. We fofpect it to be fecondary, because we can excite it by raising inflammation, without primarily increasing the heat of the system ; by the milky juice, for instance, of some very acrid plants applied in a quantity, which fo far from confining the heat of the part, contributes to lessen it by evaporation. We can lefsen it by caufes which, according to the author's fyftem, ought to increase it ; because they do confine the heat, viz. by the application of dry powders in erysipelas, by using flannel linings to breeches worn in riding. The one prevents the spread. ing, by really absorbing the cause of the eruption, viz. the acrid serum ; the other prevents excoriation, by absorbing the perspirable matter. In most of the eruptions, from artrition, the inflammation seems to be first excited ; and Mr. Rigby knows that the secretion from infamed glands is always viated, and very generally rendered highly acrid. There is one faet: which, on this system, we are unable to explain, viz. the eruptions which arise on applying a cold cabbage leaf-behindi a child's ear.
But though Mr. Rigby feemis, in our opinion, to have efred in the explanation of some phænomera, yet, in the more effential respects, his work is highly valuable and importanti By diminishing the heat of the part, if the superabundant: heat be really the cause of the eruption, we directly remove it; if it be only a concomitant symptom, all our powers eme 7
ployed in lessening heat are also sedatives, and oppose inflammation. It is a pleasing reflection, therefore, that we can ultimately agree ; and we think his condemnation of poultices, ointments, and other bad conductors of heat, perfectly juit ; for coolers are not only sedatives, but to prevent the diffipaition of heat, if we do not by the same means obviate its other effects, increases the inflammation.
Yet, in some of the cutaneous eruptions of children, which have been preceded by fickness, head-ach, &c. coolers are certainly precarious remedies; and we with that our intelligent author had added some cautions respecting them. With regard to the small-pox, and miliary fevers, we fully agree with him. Free cold air, in tke meazles, is of more doubtful authority, and our author feems to hesitate in recommending it; but we fully agree with him in the propriety of using a tepid bath, the heat of which is somewhat below the heat of
he skin: we fappose about ninety-two or ninety-four degrees of Fahrenheit.
In erysipelas and scarlatina, we believe cold to be highly useful ; but when either disease is violent, and attended with putrid fever, we should suspect the propriety of cold applications in any very great extent, left we bring on gangrene. In smaller degreeș, cold will be one of the most powerful means of preventing it; and we presume it will be always necessary to use free cold air.
In the elephantiasis, the application of cold is probably more doubtful, because it is never attended with any very great heat, and its caufe seems to lie beyond the power of external medicine. Of its use in the scald-head, we think more,fa. yourably, and fall insert a case in which it fucceeded completely. After describing the disease, Mr. Rigby.ebserves,
• The fubject of heat, at this time, particularly engaging smy attention, it occurred to me, that this complaint might, poflbly, be in fome nieasure produced by an accamulation of it; at least, whatever was the caufe of it, it appeared very probable that the large and increasing scab which covered the diseafed surface, retarded, the cure, on the principle of its preventing the natural.escape of heat, it being, evidently, of such a loose texture, as to be a very flow conductor of it. I resolved, therefore, immediately to try whether keeping the part conftantly moist with wet rags would not relieve it, by favouring
the escape of heat from it; but as whilst the thick crust was interposed between the surface of the head and the wet rag, its in Auence could but be felt in a very small degree; I previously removed the scab, by an ointment flightly impregnated with a decoction of cantharides, it being composed of the unguentum epispalticum of the Edinburgh difpenfatosy, and two
parts of axungia ; and the surface being now perfectly exposed, and in a ftate of digestion, I immediately applied a piece of linen cloth, soaked in water, not quite so cold as the air was: the disagreeable smell was immediately removed by this, and the child appeared more comfortable. I recommended the rags to be constantly wetted as they became dry, but to be removed very feldom, that the air mighi not be brought too often in contact with it. For a while che part looked much better, and seemed disposed to heal, but it not being kept so constantly wet as I could have wilhed, from an apprehension that the plan was attended with some danger of giving the child cold, the fcabs again formed, and I was a second time under the necessity of removing them by means of the stimulating ointment; after which I prevailed upon the mother to consent to its being more frequently wetted, and which being accordingly done, the good effects of it became manifest in a few days, as the discharge of matter was totally suppressed ; and though there was something like a cruft formed by the thickening of that which exuded the first two or three days after the ointment was used, yet it was perfectly dry, and scaled off by degrees, though slowly, leave ing the surface of the head, in the course of some weeks, perfectly cicatrized; after which I fill thought it right to continue the wet rags ; and when the skin appeared to be whole, l even made the water, in which the linen was mojstened, more volatile, hy the addition of a little rectiñed spirit of wine.'
in all instances of spreading ulcers with fætid discharges, Mr. Rigby advises the practitioner to prevent frequent exposure to the air. $calds and burns produce inflammation of the fame kind as erysipelas, and the serous discharge is always highly acrid : perhaps the water, besides sepressing inflammation from its coldness, may also dilute the discharge. The bladders are directed only to be punctured, that the skin may unite by the first intention.
In a spreading ulcer, attended with extraordinary heat, cold water was highly useful; and Mr. Rigby entertains sanguine expectations of its future utility. He remarks, that it could not act by cleaning the wound, because the fore was covered, and the cloth continually wetted by a spunge ; but, as in scalds, it nay have diluted the discharge, and lessened its acri. mony. in the hernia humoralis and intestinalis, the use of cold is better established. We fully agree with Mr. Rigby in wishing to make it more general. In the other diseases we are happy to coincide in opinion with our author, viz, the ophthalmia, local eruptions, excoriations and mortifications of the extremities. We have pasied over the anthrax, merely to make some particular remarks on it. We are persuaded that it is less local than is generally supposed; and seems to confift in a general stagnation of the mucus in the mucous follicles of
the surface. Where these are more numerous, or where the fluids are fubject to any particular interruption, the swelling and inflammation increases; and, as this obstruction occurs in old people, and those who are fat and have led indolent lives, the inflammation soon proceeds to gangrene. We are well convinced, therefore, that in the early stages, cold must be a powerful remedy ; in the later ones, it is doubtful. We shall not at present enlarge on the foundation of our opinion ; but would only recommend an examination of the mucous glands, in those affected with the true anthrax.
The author concludes with some remarks on the scurvy and obesity. The former is, he thinks, owing to a deficiency in the heat, the latter to its excess. In the scurvy, he has clearly hown that some of the causes are those which either prevent the production of heat, or accelerate its escape ; but he has not shown that either is the prinary or only effect. The theory of obesity would lead us too far. In the neighbourhood of Blackfriars, we were once present at a considerable contest relating to the width of the bridge ; many arguments were used by the different opponents, and the dispute might have been long protracted, if one of the company had not stepped out and measured it. We shall not, therefore, extend our ar, ticle on this subject, but recommend only the actual application of the thermometer. The highest healthy heat that we have ever observed was 999; but the person was remark. ably thin. This, however, might have been from a peculiar conftitution.
Mr. Rigby will excuse our particular and free examination of his work. It is not always that we proceed so far ; but it is not always that we meet with works so deserving of our attention.
An Historical and Chronological View of Roman Law. With
Notes and Illustrations. By Alexander C. Schomberg, M. A. 8υο.
, 35. 6. in Boards. Rivington. HAT the Roman Law, escaping from the fury of the Goths,
and the commotions which afterwards destroyed the Eastern empire, thould become the guide of the victors, and the foundation of the jurisprudence of many modern nations, has been attributed to the blind admiration which we usually enterIain for every thing related to that yait empire. That the Goths, when rule was necessary, should have assumed laws already formed, or altered only in compliance with their most favoured customs, is easily understood : a fierce untutored nation could
more easily coquer, tban govern an enipire; and perhaps ? less complete syfem might have received the fame distinction. In more modern periods, a blind admiration may have contributed to recommend these laws to the nations of Europe; but the examination of fucceffive ages would have removed the veil, and we should have no longer admired, what we had found remarkably defective. The continuance of the regard, therefore, which the Roman Law has enjoyed, must be considered as a debt due to its intrinsic merit; and, while the cultoms and polity of Rome continue objects of attention, while its language and its authors contribute to our instruction and entertainment, so long its laws will be remembered, were they not the foundation of our civil code.
It may be reasonably asked, from what fources the Roman law drew its numerous advantages : we must answer in the words of our very learned and able author.
• What was figuratively faid in praise of the Socratịc fchool, that its venerable founder "had brought Philosophy down from heaven and introduced her into humán fociety," may perhaps with stricter truth be pronounced of those who first thought of applying the speculative wisdom of ancient Greece to political and forenfic purpofes. This was in the happiest manner effected by the Roman lawyers. For by constantly recurring to this source for principles of equity, to regulate the morals and direct ihe actions of their fellow-citizens, they laid the foun. dation of that intimate union, which in process of time took place between philosophy and legislation. They conducted her from the porch to the forum, delivered into her hands the sword of justice, and gradually reconciled her to the bufiness and bule of public life.'
are well aware that some sceptics in modern times have endeavoured to show, that no formal embassy was ever sent to Greece for the purpose of obtaining those laws, which were afterwards styled the laws of the Twelve Tables. Mr. Schomberg ha's reserved this subject for his notes, and we think enough has been said to confuse the subject, not to elucidate it. The author of the three essays in the twelfth volume of Me moirs of the Academy of Inscriptions, Mr. Bonamy, has cere tainly rendered the embafiy doubtful; but there are many authorities which incontestibly irace the Roman law to its origin in Greece, that country which, in the words of Pliny, did not receive laws from their victors, but granted them, at their șequest.”. There are indeed many circumstances in the original history of this event, which may be styled legendary; and the whole seems to have been in a great degree obscured, by the Cànceits of subsequent civilians.