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It is well known what Success this Council had in the East, by the great Zeal and powerful Endeavours of the Empress Irene ; but in a great part of the West, its Decrees met not with the like Entertainment, particularly in the Kingdom of the Franks, under Charles the Gréat. For after the Legates of Pope Adrian brought the Aes of that Council into the West, that learned King (for as yet he was not Emperor) called a Synod of all the Bishops of Italy, France, and his other Dominions at Franckfort on the Main, in the Year 794. but seven Years after that second Council of Nice, with the consent of Pope Adrian, who sent his Legates thither. In this Council, the second Council of Nice and its Decrees for worshipping Images, were condemned, as our Writers have Thewed you again and again out of the † Opus Capitulare of that Prince ; and particularly Dr. John Forbes in the XIth Chapter of the VIIth Book of his learned Work entituled, Instructiones Historica Theologice, printed at Amsterdam MDCXLV.
It was also condemned and anathematized by a Council at Constantinople, under the Eniperor Leo Armenius, which called it a Pseudo-Synod, and damned the Adoration of Images in the IXth Century, viz. in the Year 814. It was condem
+ See a Book in 8vo Entituled, Opus illuftrifsimi do excellentiffimi, Seu Spe&tabilis viri Caroli Magni nutu Dei Regis Francorum, contra Synodum, que in partibus Grecia pro adorandis imaginibus stolidè, seu arroganter gesta est.
Item Pauli Aquilienfis aduerfus Felicem Urgelitanum, O Eliphandum Toletanum Episcopos Libellus. Anno salu-tis MDXLIX.
ThisBook and the Synodus Parisiensis cited in the next Page have a Preface written before them withothis Title : Caroli M. Imp. & Synodi Parisiensis sub Ludovico Pio Caroli M. F. Scripta de Imaginibus edita ad fidem vetus). exemplarium Johan. Tilii Episcopi Meldenfis & P. Pithæi furisconsulti Parifienfis.
ed again in the Year 825 by a f Synod at Paris, in the time of Ludovicus Pius Emperor of the West, and Michael Balbus Emperor of the East, who sent fome Divines about that Controversy to Ludovicus; and not only this second Synod of Nice, and its Doctrines of worshipping Images, were rejected by them, but two Epistles of Pope Adrian" the First were condemned by them, as Erroneous, viz. the Epistle which he wrote to Constantinus and Irene for the Adoration of Images, and that which he wrote in defence of the second Nicene Council to Charles the Great. And how the Church of England agreed then with the German and Gallican Churches against the Adoration of Images, may be seen from our own Historians, as Arch-Bishop Usher hath observed, whose Words I shall * here transcribe: “Sy'nodus illa ansesxn, quæ septimæ Nomen usurpa
vit pro imaginum Cultu Itabiliendo Nicea Coacta, de quâ quid Ecclesiæ Britannicæ senserint,
Anglorum Historici Simon Dunelmensis, Rogerus • Hovedenus, Matheus Florilegus, & Roffensis Hi• ftoriæ Author hunc in modum referunt. In anno • ab Incarnatione Dom. 792. Carolus Rex Franco'rum misit Synodalem librum ad Britanniam (fibi à Constantinopoli directum) in quo (libro proh
dolor!) multa inconvenientia & verè fidei Confraria reperta sunt: Meaimè quod pene omnium * Orientalium Do&orum (non minùs quàm trecentorum, vel eo ampliùs Episcoporum) unanima
+ Apud Melchiorem Goldaftum in Colle&t. Constit. Imperialium. Tom. I. And in a Book entituled, Synodus Parifienfis de Imaginibus habita Anny. Chr. DCCCXXIV. de vetustissimo codice descripta, Francofurti, MDXCVI. in 8vo.
* De Christianâ Ecclesiarum Successione lo Statu. Cap. 11. 4. See also Hen. Spelman, Concilia. Vol. 1. in Anno 792. p. 395, doc.
affertione Canfirmatum eft Imagines adorari debere : quod omnino Ecclefia Dei execratur. Contra quod Jeripfit Alcuinus, & Epistolam ex autoritate divinarum Scripturarum mirabiliter affirmatam, il
lámque cum eodem libro ex perfona Episcoporum, ' & Principum nostrorum Regi Franciæ attulit
. From which Words, Sir, it is plain, First, That the Judgment of the English Church or Churches at that time was against the Adoration of Images, which they counted Execrable, Secondly, "That Alcuin our Countryman wrote an Epistle, in which he proved from the Holy Scriptures, that it was unlawful. Thirdly, That the Kings and Bishops of England approved that Epistle, and authorized bim to offer it in their Names to Charles the Great, King of the Franks, who called the Council of Franckfort, and entertained Alcuin to affist him in that Council. Sir, I have shewed you all this to prove my Allertion above, that the Church of England kept the ancient Faith pure and entire, without [foreign] additions or additional Confessions to the end of the VIIIth Century, and particularly from the additional Confession of the second Council of Nice, especially as to the Adoration of Images; and by consequence that the Faith and the Religion of the Church of England now is the same it was then, or that the Bishops, Kings, and Writers (particularly Alcuin, who was Bede's Scholar) and Churches of England then professed our Religion; and I Challenge you to shew, that they then professed yours, that is, the
Papal part of your Religion, from which we have reformed.
IV. You must give me leave also to observe from the Authorities cited above out of ArchBishop Usher, that the English Church rejected *
* In quo libro (proh dolor !) multa inconvenientia & vera Fidei contraria reperta sunt
the other new Do£trines of the second Council of Nice, as the Intercefsion and Invocation of Saints, particularly of the blefled Virgin, and adoring their Relicks ; and accordingly the reading of the XLIId. Canon of the Council of Franckfort, in the † MS of Claudius Puteanus's Library is not as in Labbe's and Coffartius's Edition, ut nulli novi San&ti colantur, aut invocentur, &c. but ut nulli nobis San&ti colantur, aur invocentur ; after which it follows, nec memoriæ eorum per vias erigantur. Sed hi foli sunt venerandi (not colendi aut invocandi ) aut memoriæ eorum per vias erigenda, qui ele&ti funt ex authoritate paffionum, & vita merito. The Canon thus read plainly distinguishes Veneratio from Cultus and Invocatio, and accordingly the Title of the Canon, which is the XLIIId. in the Putean MS. is Quinam Saniti in Ecclefia vënerandi funt. For there is a Veneration due to Martyrs and pious Confessors, which consists in commemorating their Courage, Constancy, and Sufferings; in always speaking with respect and reverence of them ; in declaring to the World their noble aĉts of Patience, Charity, and Humility, and Love and Beneficence to their Enemies ; and in ereeting publick Statues and Monuments, as of other Heroes, in remembrance of them. In this chafte Sense you know, Sit, Cicero faith, habet venerationem juftam quicquid excellit, and that this is a common Latin Phrase, memoriam alicujus venerari. This is all the Veneration to this time and some time longer, that our Ancestors of the English Chutch shew'd to Saints, without any Cult, or Invocation, or Adoration of their Images. For in all their rude Pitures we find in their MSS that re
+ Vita, do Operd Alcuint ex edit. Andrea Quercetani Parifiis, 1617. p. 1890.
main among us, there are none that I ever observed, made for Adoration, except one of our Lord with St. Dunstan prostrate at his Feet, which I have printed in my Saxon Grammar, p. 145; and which the hand of the Inscription proves to have been made about the time of the Conqueft
. Had they embraced the Adoration of Images, they would in probability have had better Pictures. But they us'd' at least to the Xth Century to speak chaftly of their Saints. Accordingly, in a Harmony of the four Gospels, or rather a History of FeJus Christ made out of them all, written about the time of Charles the Great in the Francick Tongue, and extant in the Cottonian Library, Caligula A., VII. I. There are no Appellations or Titles given to the Virgin Mary, but what any Protestant will allow may be given her, especially in a Poetical Writing, as that Book is. “And in a Poetical Calendar written in the Dano-Saxonick Tongue, which I have published in the XXIIId. Chapter of my Anglo-Saxonick Grammar, she is plainly called Mary; from whence I think it not unreasonable to infer, that in the Ages in which those Books were written, the Invocation of Saints and Adoration of their Images were either in none, or very little use among the Francs or English-Saxons, and by conSequence not yet eftablished by Ecclefiaftical or Regal Authority among either of them. But, Sir, to conclude my Answer to your Challenge, I assert that we have the same Faith and Religion, that Pope Gregory the Great sent to our Ancestors without Addition or Alteration ; for what he professed was his Faith, we profess now. I shall faithfully translate his Confeffion, as I find it in Garnerius's Notes upon the nith Chapter of Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum, published by him at Paris, M. DC. LXX.