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the church at Thessalonica, (ch. i. 1.), and thanking God for their faith, love, and patient hope, (ch. i. 2-4.), shews the Divine origin of the Gospel by its happy effects among them, highly commending their faith and constancy, (ch. i. 5—10.); reminds them of his affectionate, faithful labours, and holy life, among them, (ch. ii. 1—12.); expresses his satisfaction at the manner in which they received the Gospel, and their constancy amidst persecution, (ch. ii. 13, 14.) shews the guilt and ruin of the unbelieving Jews, especially for opposing the preaching the Gospel to the Gentiles, (ch. ii. 15, 16.); evinces his joy on their account, his desire of seeing them again, and his hope of a joyful meeting at the coming of Christ, (ch. ii. 17—20.); declares that his care for them had induced him to send Timothy to establish and encourage them, (ch. iii. 1—-5.), whose good report respecting them had greatly comforted him in his distresses, (ch. iii. 6—8.); again thanks God on their behalf, and shews how earnestly he desires to see them, (ch. iii. 9, 10.); prays that he may be enabled to visit them, and further their growth in holiness and love, and perseverance to the end, (ch. iii. 11-13.); exhorts them to increasing diligence in obeying Christ, to chastity and integrity in all things, to abound in love to one another, to industry in their respective callings, and for moderate sorrow for deceased brethren, from the assured expectation of the coming of Christ to raise the dead, to change the living, and to receive all his people to himself, (ch. iv.); and, as this advent of Christ will be sudden, and bring inevitable destruction on the wicked, he shews that the children of light are especially called on to prepare for it, in vigilance and sobriety, with faith, love, and hope, and to comfort and edify one another, (ch. v. 1–11.); and then, after various exhortations, instructions, admonitions, and encouragements, (ch. v. 12—25.); he concludes with affectionate prayers and salutations, (ch. v. 26--28.)*
In the Second EPISTLE to the THESSALONIANS, after saluting the church of Thessalonica, (ch. i. 1, 2.), the Apostle thanks God for their growth in faith and love, and their patience and perseverance under persecution, in which he encourages them by the glorious coming of Christ, as universal Judge, for the destruction of unbelievers, and the complete salvation of his people, (ch. i. 3—10.); prays for their perfect sanctification and meetness for the heavenly felicity, (ch. i. 11, 12.); warns them against groundlessly supposing that the day of the Lord' was at hand, which he shews must be preceded by a great apostasy, in which the man of sin' would cause the destruction of numbers, and then sink himself into perdition, (ch. ii. 1—12.); thanks God for his grace in choosing and calling the Thessalonians “unto salvation and glory,' exhorts them to stedfastness, praying that they may be comforted and established in every good word and work,' (ch. ii. 13—17.); requests their prayers for himself and his coadjutors, especially for the success of their ministry, at the same time expressing his confidence in them, and praying for them, (ch. iii. 145.); charges them to censure and withdraw from disorderly walkers, who neglected their own business and intermeddled with that of others, interspersing suitable arguments, directions, and exhortations, (ch. iii. 6—15.); and concludes with solemn benedictions, (ch. iii. 16—18.)*
* Comprehensive Bible, Introd. to 1 Thessalonians.
In the First EPISTLE to Timothy, the Apostle having saluted Timothy, (ch. i. 1, 2.); reminds him of the purpose for which he was left at Ephesus, (ch. i. 3, 4.); shews that the end of the commandment is love, from a pure heart, and unfeigned faith,' from which some having swerved, in attempting to preach the law had perverted it, and that the law is good, but intended to condemn transgressors, which accords also with the gospel, (ch.i. 5—11.); expresses his gratitude to God for his own conversion, by which encouragement was given to sinners in every age, (ch. i. 12– 17.); charges Timothy to maintain faith and a good conscience, and mentions some who had renounced the truth, and whom he had delivered to Satan, (ch. i. 18—20.); gives particular directions concerning the performance of public worship in the Ephesian church, enjoining prayers and thanksgivings for all men, and especially for kings and rulers, the modest dress of women, &c. (ch. ii.); delivers instructions respecting the qualifications of the persons whom Timothy was to ordain as bishops and deacons of that church, (ch. iii.); foretells a great apostacy, and corruption of Christianity, in after times, (ch. iv. 145.); directs Timothy in respect of his doctrine and personal conduct, (ch. iv. 6—16.); how to admonish elders, and younger persons, men and women, (ch. v. 1, 2.); how to treat widows, (ch. v. 3—16.); diligent rulers and teachers, (ch. v. 17,18.); accused elders and offenders, (ch. v. 19, 20.); delivers a solemn charge to faithfulness and impartiality in ordaining pastors, (ch. v. 21, 22.); advises Timothy concerning his health, &c. (ch. v. 23—25.); shews the duty of servants, (ch. vi. 1, 2.); teaches Timothy to shun, as corrupters of the gospel, those who preach things contrary to the Apostle's doctrine, (ch. vi. 3—5.); declares the advantages of godliness with contentment, (ch. vi. 6—8.); shews the mischiefs arising from the love of money, (ch. vi. 9, 10.); exhorts Timothy to flee from these evils, to follow after righteousness,' “to fight the good fight of faith,' and to be faithful till the coming of Christ, (ch. vi. 11—14.); ascribes glory to the eternal God, (ch. vi. 15, 16.); teaches him to charge the rich to avoid pride and confidence in wealth, and to abound in liberality, as seeking a treasure in heaven, (ch. vi. 17—19.); exhorts him to adhere to the faith, avoiding profane and vain controversies, and concludes, (ch. vi. 19, 20.)?
In the Second EPISTLE to Timothy, the Apostle having affectionately saluted Timothy, with thanksgiving and prayer, (ch. i. 1–3.); he expresses a great desire to see him, remembering his faith, and that of his grandmother and mother, (ch. i. 4, 5.); exhorts him to stir up the gift of God which is in him, (ch. i. 6.); charges him not to be ashamed of the Divine testimony, or of him the Lord's er, but to prepare for suffering, as having been saved, and called by the grace of God, according to the gospel, which fully reveals life and immortality, (ch. i. 7—10.); and of which he, Paul, had been made an Apostle, for which cause he suffered, without either being ashamed or afraid, as he knew the power of him in whom he trusted, (ch. i. 11, 12.); exhorts Timothy to stedfastness and faithfulness, (ch. i. 13, 14.); shews that those of Asia had turned from him, (ch. i. 15.); commends the diligent and courageous kindness of Onesiphorus, praying fervently that he and his family may find mercy from God at the last day, (ch. i. 16—18.); exhorts Timothy to appoint faithful ministers, and to courage, fidelity, and patience, as the good soldier of Christ,' in remembrance of Christ as risen from the dead, in imitation of the Apostle's example, and in assured faith and hope, (ch. ii. 1– 13.); charges him to warn the flock against false teachers, and vain controversies, studying, as an approved workman, “rightly to divide the word of truth,' (ch. ii. 14—16.); shews the pernicious effects of the error of Hymeneus and Philetus, though the foundation of God stands sure,' (ch. ii. 17–21.); teaches him what to flee and what to follow, to shun disputatious questions, and to instruct opposers with meekness, (ch. ii. 22 —26.); foretells grievous times in the last days, through the devices and opposition of false teachers, (ch. iii. 1—9.); proposes to him his own example, exhorting him to continue in the faith, (ch. iii. 10–14.); shews the excellency, authority, and sufficiency of the Sacred Scriptures, which Timothy had known from his youth, (ch. iii. 15—17.); charges him to be diligent and faithful in his ministry, especially as he had nearly finished his work, (ch. iv. 148.); presses him to come to him, and bring Mark with him, (ch. iv. 9—15.); shews how his brethren had forsaken him, and how the Lord had supported him, (ch. iv. 16—18.): and concludes with salutations and benedictions, (ch. iv. 19—22.)*
In the EPISTLE to Titus, the Apostle, after shewing the nature and importance of his own office, and saluting Titus, (ch. i. 1—4.); states for what purpose
he had left him in Crete, and what manner of persons he should ordain as elders, (ch. i. 5—9.); exposes the dangerous principles and selfishness of false teachers, and the bad national character of the Cretans, which he must sharply rebuke' and instruct, that they may be sound in the faith,' (ch. i. 10–16.); directs him to teach the people in their several relative duties, for the honour of the Gospel, to exemplify them in his own conduct, and to take heed to his doctrine, (ch. ii. 1–10.); enforces his exhortations by shewing the holy tendency and efficacy of the Gospel, and charges him to act with authority and firmness, (ch. ii. 11– 15.); directs him to inculcate subjection to rulers, and good behaviour to all men, from a consideration of their own sinfulness, and their salvation by the mercy of God, (ch. iii. 148.); cautions him to avoid foolish questions, and shews him how to deal with heretics, (ch. iii. 9—11.); and, directing him to come to him at Nicopolis, and giving instructions about other matters, he concludes with salutations, (ch. iii. 12—15).*
* Comprehensive Bible, Introd. to 2nd Timothy.
The EPISTLE to PHILEMON was written by St. Paul to reunite Philemon to his once unfaithful servant Onesimus, who had been converted by his instrumentality while confined at Rome.t
In the EPISTLE to the HEBREWS, the Apostle sets forth the personal and mediatorial dignity and glory of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, by whom the Father speaks to men under the Gospel dispensation, (ch. i. 1 —4.); proves from the Old Testament Scriptures, that the Messiah is far greater than the angels, and worshipped by them as their Creator and Lord, (ch. i. 5--14.); exhorts them to attend to the Gospel, from the consideration of the danger of neglecting so great salvation,' thus revealed and confirmed, (ch. ii. 144.); advances further proofs of the superiority of Christ to angels, notwithstanding his temporary humiliation in our nature, (ch. ii. 5—9.); shews the motives, reasons, condescension, and benefits, of his incarnation, temptations, sufferings, and death, as connected with his being the great High Priest and Saviour of his people, (ch. ii. 10 —18.); demonstrates and illustrates the vast superiority of Christ above Moses, (ch. iii. 146.); solemnly warns the Hebrews not to copy the example of their unbelieving ancestors who perished in the wilderness, (ch. iii. 7—19. iv. 1, 2.); exhibits the certainty and excellency of the heavenly rest, of which that of the Sabbath, and of Canaan, were types, (ch. iv. 3—11.); urges the energy of the word of God, the omniscience of our Judge, the compassion of our great High Priest, as powerful motives to stedfastness, and earnestness in coming to the throne of grace, (ch. iv. 12—16.); demonstrates the superiority of Christ to the Aaronic priesthood, as a “High Priest after the order of Melchisedek,' (ch. v. 110.); reproves the Hebrews for their small proficiency in Christianity, (ch. v. 11--14.); purposes, therefore, to lead them forward in the knowledge of Christ, (ch. vi. 1—3.); shews the desperate state of apostates, which he illustrates by the simile of barren land which no culture improves, (ch. vi. 4—8.); declares, however, his favourable opinion of them, and his desire of their fruitfulness and diligence, in order to their assured hope to the end, (ch. vi. 9—12.); expatiates on the security of the covenant of grace, as confirmed to Abraham by the promise and oath of God, for the strong consolation of all believers, (ch. vi. 12—20.); proves and illustrates the superiority of Melchisedek's typical priesthood above that of Aaron, (ch. vii. 1–10.): shews it was intended, that the priesthood should be changed, and consequently the ritual law disannulled, at the coming of the Messiah, that a better covenant and priesthood might take place, which was needful for the perfect state of the Church, and for the salvation of all who come to God by Jesus Christ, to the uttermost, and for ever, (ch. vii. 11–28.); produces further evidence of the superiority of the Messiah's priesthood to that of Aaron, and shews that it was pre
dicted, that the Sinai covenant would be abrogated, to make way for a new and better covenant, through a superior Mediator, (ch. viii.); exhibits the typical nature of the tabernacle, its furniture and ordinances, applying it to the priesthood, sacrifice, and covenant of Christ, (ch, ix.); proves the inefficiency of the legal sacrifices, and their abolition by the substitution of the sacrifice of Christ, by which believers obtain eternal remission, (ch. x. 1—18.); exhorts the believing Hebrews to faith, prayer, and constancy in the Gospel, and to love and good works, shewing the danger of wilfully renouncing Christ, after having received the knowledge of the truth, (ch. x. 19—39.); illustrates the nature, excellency, efficacy, and fruits of faith by the examples of the most eminent saints, from Abel to the close of the Old Testament dispensation, (ch. xi.); exhorts them to constancy, patience, and diligence, (ch. xii. 1—13.); to peace and holiness, and to jealous watchfulness over themselves and each other, (ch. xii. 14–17.); to an obedient reception of the Gospel, and a reverential worship of God, (ch. xii. 18—29.); to brotherly love, hospitality, compassion, chastity, contentment, and trust in God, (ch. xiji. 1—3.); to recollect the faith, examples, and happy end of their deceased pastors, (ch. xiii. 4–8.); to watchfulness against false doctrines, regard to the sacrifice of Christ, willingness to bear reproach for him, thanksgiving to God, liberality to men, subjection to vigilant and faithful teachers, and
for himself, (ch. xiii. 9-19,); and concludes with an earnest prayer to the 'God of peace,' through the Great Shepherd, and the blood of his covenant, for the Hebrews, and with apostolic salutations, (ch. xiii. 20—25.)
In the GENERAL EPISTLE of JAMES, the Apostle addressing the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad,' exhorts them to joyful patience under trials, (ch. i. 1—4.); and to ask wisdom of God, in faith, with an unwavering mind, (ch. i. 5—8.); counsels the poor and rich, and shews the happiness of those who endure, (ch. i. 9—12.); shews that God tempts no man to sin, but is the author of every good and perfect gift, (ch. i. 13 -18.); cautions them against pride, loquacity, anger, and malice, and admonishes them to receive the word of God with meekness, and to reduce it to practice, (ch. i. 19_27.); cautions them against partiality to the rich, and contempt of the poor, especially in places of Worship, as contrary to the law of love, (ch. ii. 1—9.); shews that the transgression of one commandment violates the whole law, (ch. ii. 10–12.); proves that faith without works is dead and unprofitable, which he illustrates by the examples of Rahab and Abraham, (ch. ii. 13--26.); cautions them against assuming and aspiring conduct, (ch. iii. 1, 2.); shews the fatal effects of an unbridled tongue, and the duty of governing the tongue, (ch. iii. 3—12.); contrasts the nature and defects of earthly wisdom, with those of heavenly, (ch. iii. 13—18.); exhibits the bad effects of the lusts and passions of the human heart, (ch. iv. 146.); exhorts to repentance, and to submission to God, (ch. iv. 7—10.); cautions them against detrac
* Comprehensive Bible. Introd. to Hebrews.