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3 John 9;—sometimes the governors of the church, Matt. 18. 17; Acts 14. 27 ;—sometimes the place of worship, 1 Cor. 11. 18; 14. 19, 34.*

(33.) Of Unity-of the christian church, John 10. 16; Rom. 12. 5; 1 Cor. 10. 17; 12. 13; Gal. 3. 28; Eph. 1. 10; 2. 19; 4. 13; 5. 23, 30; Col. 1. 18, 24;-among Christians, recommended, Rom. 12. 16; 15. 5; 1 Cor. 1. 10; 2 Cor. 13. 11; Eph. 4. 3; Phil. 1. 27; 2. 2; 4. 2; 1 Pet. 3. 8.*

(34.) Of Christian Ministers—in what light to be considered, 1 Cor. 4. 1; 2 Cor. 5. 20; 6. 1; to have a regular calling, John 10. 1; Acts 26. 16; 1 Tim. 4. 14; Tit. 1. 5;—their duty, to be diligent, Rom. 12. 7; 1 Cor. 9. 16; Phil. 1. 20; Col. 4. 4; 1 Tim. 4. 6, 13; 5. 17; 2 Pet. 1. 12;reprove

if

necessary, 1 Thess. 2. 2; 1 Tim. 5. 20; 2 Tim. 4. 2; Tit. 1. 13; 2. 15;--to guard men from sin, 1 Cor. 4. 2: 1 Thess. 2. 11; 1 Tim. 4. 6; Heb. 13. 17;—to set good examples, Matt. 23. 3; Rom. 2. 21 ; 2 Cor. 6.4; 1 Thess. 2. 10; 2 Thess. 3. 7; 1 Tim. 6. 11; Tit. 2.7; 1 Pet. 5. 3 ;-to be peaceable and patient, 1 Cor. 9. 19; 2 Cor. 6.3; 1 Tim. 3. 3; 2 Tim. 2. 24; Tit. 1.7;—not worldly-minded, 1 Cor. 10.33; 1 Tim.3.3; 2 Tim. 2.4; Tit. 1.7; 1 Pet.5.2;-to be respected, Matt. 10.40; Luke 10. 16; John 13. 20; 1 Cor. 16. 10, 16; Phil. 2. 29; 1 Thess. 4.8; 5. 12; 1 Tim. 5. 17; Heb. 13. 7, 17;-entitled to a maintenance, Matt. 10. 10; Luke 10. 7; 1 Cor. 9. 7; Gal. 6.6; Thess. 2.6; 2 Thess. 3.9; 1 Tim. 5. 18; 2 Tim. 2. 6;—how to behave to those who oppose them, Matt. 10. 14; Luke 9.5; 10. 11; Acts 18. 6; Gal. 6. 1; 2 Tim. 2. 25.*

(35.) Of the People,—their duty to God's ministers, ordinary and extraordinary, Deut. 12. 19; 14. 27 ; 18.6; 2 Chr. 36. 16; Matt. 10. 14; Luke 10. 16; 1 Cor. 4. 1; 9. 14; Gal. 6. 6; 1 Thess. 4. 8; 5. 12; 1 Tim. 5. 17; Heb. 13. 7, 17.*

(36.) Of Vows—not to be broken, and rules concerning them. A vow is a religious promise made to God for the most part with prayer, and paid with thanksgiving. Vows were either of abstinence (Nu. vi. xxx.), or the devoting of something to the Lord, as sacrifices (ch. 7. 16.) or the value of persons, beasts, houses, or lands, concerning which the law is here given. A man might vow or devote himself, his children, his domestics, his cattle, his goods, &c.; and respecting the redemption of all these, rules are laid down in this chapter. (Lev.xxvii.) But if after consecrating these things he refused to redeem them, they then became the Lord's property for ever. The persons continued all their lives devoted to the sanctuary ; the goods were sold for the profit of the temple or the priests; and the animals, if clean, were offered in sacrifice, and if not proper for sacrifice, were sold, and the price devoted to sacred uses. This is a general view of the different laws relative to vows.† The laws delivered must have been very useful, as it both prevented and annulled rash vows, and provided a proper sanction for the support and performance of those which were rationally made. Num. 30.

* Comprehensive Bible, Index to Subjects, in roce.

+ Idem, Note on Lev. 27.2.

1, &c.; Lev. 27. 1; Deut. 23. 21 ; Ps. 50. 14; 56. 12; 66, 13; 76. 11; 116. 18; Ecc. 5. 4; Jer. 35.6 ;-of a person, Lev. 27. 2;-of a beast, 9; -of a house, 14 ;-of a field, 16;-of Jacob, Gen. 28. 20;-of Jephtha, Judg. 11. 30, 35;—of the Israelites against the Benjamites, 21. 1, &c.*

(37.) Of Oaths,—to be strictly performed, Num. 30. 2; Ps. 15. 4; Matt. 5. 33;4false ones condemned, Lev. 6. 3; 19. 12; Jer. 7.9; Ezek. 17. 15; Zech. 5. 4; 8. 17; Mal. 3. 5;-light ones not to be taken, Ex. 20.7; Lev. 19. 12; Zech. 5. 3; Matt. 5. 34; 23. 16; Jam. 5. 12;—taken by lifting up the hand to God, Gen. 14. 22;—putting the hand under the thigh, 24. 2; 47. 29;~by the name of God, Deut. 6. 13;-examples, of God to Abraham, Gen. 22. 16; Heb. 6. 13 ;-against Amalek, Ex. 17. 16;—against Moses, Deut. 4. 21 ;-—against the house of Eli, 1 Sam. 3. 14;—to David, 2 Sam. 3.9; Ps. 89. 35; 110. 4;-against the Israelites, 95. 11;—against the Assyrians, Is. 14. 24 ;—for the restoration of Israel, 54.9; 62. 8;—against the Jews going to Egypt, Jer. 44. 26 ;-imposed on Abraham's servant, Gen. 24. 3 ;-on Joseph by Jacob, 47. 31; 50. 5;-on the Israelites by Joseph, 50. 25;-required in case of a pledge, Ex. 22. 11;-of a wife suspected of adultery, Num. 5. 21 ;-of the spies by Rahab, Josh. 2. 12.*

(38.) Of Swearing-censured and forbidden, Matt. 5. 34; Jam. 5. 12.*

(39.) Of Christians,—the term first used at Antioch, Acts 11. 26;—the salt of the earth, Matt. 5. 13;—the light of the world, 14 ;—their privileges, 1 Pet. 2. 5, &c.; Heb. 12. 22;—the sons of God, 1 John 3. 1, 2; Rom. 8. 14, &c.;-one with Christ and the Father, John 17. 11, 21;—all one body, Eph. 4. 15, 16;—the temple of God, 1 Cor. 3. 16.*

(40.) Of Heretics,-or schismatics censured, Rom. 16. 17; 1 Cor. 1. 10; 3. 3; 11. 18; 14. 33; Gal. 5. 20; Phil. 2. 2; 4. 2; 2 Thess. 3. 6, 14.*

(41.) Of Opposers,—how to behave to them, Luke 9. 54; 2 Thess. 3. 14; 2 Tim. 2. 24.*

(42.) Of Apostacy,—the causes and danger of it, Matt. 12. 43; 13. 21 ; John 6.60; 1 Tim. 4. 1; Heb. 6.4; 10. 26, 38; 2 Pet. 2. 20;-of men, Gen. 3; 6. 1–6;—of many of the disciples of Jesus, John 6. 66;-of some early Christians, 1 Tim. 1. 19.*

(43.) Of the Sabbath-appointed, Gen. 2. 2 ;--charge to keep it, Ex. 16. 23; 20.8, 10; 23. 12; 31. 12; 34. 21; 35. 2; Lev. 23. 3; Deut. 5. 12; Jer. 17. 21 ;-offerings on it, Num. 28. 9;—a breaker of it stoned, 15. 32 ;-how to be kept, Neh. 10. 31; Is. 58. 13; Ezek. 20. 12 ;—given as a sign to the Israelites.* The Apostle is here (Rom. 14. 5.) speaking of the Jewish fasts and festivals; and of course his observations do not regard the sabbath, which was instituted at the creation; and which being a type of the rest which remaineth for the people of God,' must continue in force, as all types do, till the antitype, or thing signified, takes place, that is, till the consummation of all things.t

(44.) Of Alms-giving-recommended, Deut. 15. 7; Job 22. 7; 31. 16; Ezek. 16. 49; Luke 3. 11; 11. 41; Eph. 4. 28; 1 Tim. 6. 18; Heb. 13. 16; 1 John 3. 17;—will be rewarded, Ps. 41. 1; 112. 9; Pro. 14. 21; 19. 17; 22. 9; 28. 27; Matt. 25. 35; Luke 6. 38; 14. 14; 1 Tim. 6. 18, 19; Heb. 6. 10;—the neglect of it will be punished, Job 20. 19; Pro. 21. 13; Ezek. 18. 12; Matt. 25. 40;-to be given chiefly to the pious and deserving, Rom. 12. 13; 2 Cor. 9. 1; Gal. 6. 10;—not to the idle, 2 Thess. 3. 10;-according to men's ability, Mark 12. 43; Acts 11. 29; 1 Cor. 16. 2; 2 Cor. 8. 12; 1 Pet. 4. 11 ;-cheerfully and speedily, Pro. 3. 27; Rom. 12. 8; 2 Cor. 8. 11; 9.7;—not from ostentation, Pro. 20. 6; Matt. 6.1;—proper to attend fasting, Is. 58. 7.*

* Comprehensive Bible, Index to Subjects, in voce,

+ Idem, Note in loco.

(45.) Of Fasting,-mentioned as a general duty of all Christians, at some times, Matt. 9. 14, 15; Mark 2. 20; Luke 5. 35; 2 Cor. 6.5;-accompanying solemn prayer, Ps. 35. 13; Dan. 9. 3; 1 Cor. 7.5;—what kind is acceptable to God, Is. 58. 3, &c.; Joel 2. 12; Zech. 7. 9; Matt. 6. 17;—to be proclaimed in a time of public calamity, Joel 1. 14; 2. 15; -the institution of several annual ones, Zech. 7.3, &c.; 8. 19;-of Moses, forty days, Ex. 24. 18; Deut. 9. 9;—a second time, 18 ;-of Daniel, 10. 2;—of Esther, 4. 15;—by the Ninevites, Jon. 3, 5;—of Jesus, Matt. 4. 2; Luke 4. 2.*

(46.) Of Idolatry,—forbidden, Ex. 20.4. This commandment includes in its studied, express, and comprehensive prohibitions, every species of idolatry; particularly that which is known to have been practised among the Egyptians. See on the plagues inflicted on the Egyptians.t–22. 20; 23. 13, 24; Lev. 26. 1; Deut. 4. 15—19. In these verses there is also an allusion to the idolatrous worship in Egypt. Among the Egyptians almost every thing in nature was the object of their idolatry ; among beasts were oxen, heifers, sheep, goats, lions, dogs, monkeys, and cats ; among birds, the ibis, crane, and hawk; among reptiles, the crocodile, serpents, frogs, flies, and beetles; all the fish of the Nile, and the Nile itself; besides the sun, moon, planets, stars, fire, light, air, darkness, and night. These are all included in the very circumstantial prohibition in the text, and very forcibly in the general terms of Ex. 20. 4; the reason of which prohibition becomes self-evident, when the various objects of Egyptian idolatry are considered.+-11. 16; 17. 2; 18, 9; 27. 15; Ps. 97. 7; Jer. 2. 9; 1 Cor. 10. 14; 1 John 5. 21; Rev. 21. 8; 22. 15 ;—the folly of it ridiculed, 1 Kings 18. 27; “ And it came to pass at noon, that Elijah mocked them, and said, Cry aloud; for he is a god ; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be waked.” Such were the absurd and degrading notions which the heathen entertained of their gods. Vishnoo sleeps four months in the year; and to each of the gods some particular business is assigned. Vayoo'manages the winds; Vuroonu the waters, &c. According to a number of fables in the pooranus, the gods are often out on journeys or expeditions.' Ward's View of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 124. +

Ps. 115. 4–8; “Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men's hands. They have mouths, but they speak not: eyes have they, but they see not; they have ears, but they hear not : noses have they, but they smell not : they have hands, but they handle not : feet have they, but they walk not: neither speak they through their throat. They that make them are like unto them; so is every one that trusteth in them.” They are metal, stone, and wood; and, though generally made in the form of man, they can neither see, hear, smell, feel, walk, nor speak! Even the wiser heathen made them the objects of their jests. Thus Juvenal, (Sat. xxii. 113.) • Dost thou hear, Jupiter, these things ? nor move thy lips when thou shouldest speak out, whether thou art of marble or of bronze? Or why do we put the sacred incense on thy altar from the opened paper, and the extracted liver of a calf, and the white caul of a hog? As far as I can discern, there is no difference between thy statue and that of Bathyllus :'—a fiddler and player, whose image, by the order of Polycrates, was erected in the temple of Juno at Samos. * In the succeeding verses (13 —18.) we are presented with a beautiful contrast between the God of Israel and heathen idols. He made every thing; they are themselves made by men : He is in heaven ; they are upon the earth : He doeth whatsoever He pleaseth ; they can do nothing: He seeth the distresses, heareth and answereth the prayers, accepteth the offerings, cometh to the assistance, effecteth the salvation, and blesseth His servants ; they are blind, deaf and dumb, senseless, motionless, and impotent.—135. 15; Is, 44. 9. The Sacred Writers, observes Bp. Lowth, are generally large and eloquent upon the subject of idolatry: they treat it with great severity, and set forth the absurdity of it in the strongest light. But this passage of Isaiah, ver. 12—20, far exceeds any thing ever written upon the subject, in force of argument, energy of expression, and elegance of composition. One or two of the apocryphal writers have attempted to imitate the prophet, but with very ill success: Wisd. xiii. 11—19. xv. 7, &c. Baruch, ch. vi., especially the latter ; who, injudiciously dilating his matter, and introducing a number of minute circumstances, has very much weakened the force and effect of his invective. On the contrary, a heathen author, in the ludicrous way, has, in a line or two, given idolatry one of the severest strokes it ever received :-Olim truncus eram ficulnus, inutile lignum, Cum faber incertus faceretné Priapum, Maluit esse deum: deus inde ego, furum aviumque Maxima formido. Formerly I was the stump of a fig-tree, a useless log ; when the carpenter, hesitating whether to make me Priapus or a stool, at last determined to make me a god: thus I became a god, and a great terror to thieves and birds.'*_46. 1; Jer. 2. 26; 10. 3;—the punishment of it death, Deut. 13. 9; 17. 2 ;—the Canaanites extirpated on account of it, Deut. 21. 29;—the monuments of it to be destroyed, Ex. 23. 24; 34. 13; Deut. 7. 5, 25; 12. 1, &c. 29 ;all communications with idolaters forbidden, Deut. 5. 1, &c. ;-exumples

a

* Comprehensive Bible, Note in loco.

of it, of the Israelites in the golden calf, Ex. 32. 1, &c.;-in the worship of Baal-peor, Num. 25. 1, &c. ;-after the death of Joshua, Judg. 2. 12; 3. 7 ;-after the death of Gideon, 8. 33 ;—by the Danites, 18. 30 ;-of Solomon, 1 Kings 11. 4;-by Jeroboam, 12. 28;—in the time of Ahab, 18. 22;—of Ahaz, 2 Kings 16. 3 ;-of the Samaritans, 17. 29 ;-of Amaziah, 2 Chr. 22. 14 ;-of Manasseh, 33. 2 ;-covetousness so called, Col. 3. 5.*

(47.) Of Sacrilege-forbidden and censured, Pr, 20. 25; Mal. 3. 8; Rom. 2. 22.

(48.) Of Blasphemy.—Blasphemy, Baoonpia, either from BXATTELV TNV φημην, to hurt or blast the reputation, or from βαλλειν ταις φημαις, to smite with words, or reports, when applied to men denotes injurious speaking, or calumny, and when used in reference to God signifies speaking impiously of his nature, attributes, and works. +- Against God punishable with death, Lev. 24. 15, 16, 23 ;-blasphemer executed, 23 ;-of Sennacherib, 2 Kings 18. 17; 2 Chr. 32. 9; Is. 36. 1, &c, ; -of the Pharisees in ascribing the miracles of Christ to Beelzebub, Matt. 9. 34 ; 12. 24; Mark 3. 22; Luke 11. 15; John 10. 20;-against the Holy Spirit not to be forgiven, Matt. 12. 31; Mark 3. 28; Luke 12. 10.

(49.) Of Afflictions—the appointment of God, Job 5. 6, 7; 14. 1 ; Ps. 75. 6, 7; 1 Thess. 3. 3 ; John 16. 33; 2 Tim. 3. 12 ;-no proof of guilt, Job 5. 7; Ecc. 2. 14; Luke 13. 1, &c.; John 9. 2 ;—though sometimes the consequence of sin, and the punishment of guilt, Gen. 3. 17; 4. 12; 2 Sam. 24. 13; 2 Kings 5. 27; Prov. 10. 4; 20. 4; 23. 29, &c.; Acts 28. 4, &c. ;—the effect of man's sin and folly, Prov. 19. 3 ; 22. 8; Lam. 3. 39; Hos. 10. 13;—suffered in consequence of the discharge of duty, Gen. 39. 20; Ps. 69. 5,7; Matt. 10. 17, 18, 22; 24. 9;—why permitted, Mich. 7. 9; John 9. 2, 3; 1 Cor. 11. 32; Heb. 12. 6;—not a mark of God's anger, but of his love, Prov. 3. 12; Rev. 3. 19;—for the improvement of virtue and the trial of faith, Deut. 8. 5; Job 5. 17; Ps. 66. 10; 78. 34; 94. 12; 119. 67, 71, 75; Prov. 3. 11; Ecc. 7. 3; Is. 26. 9, 16; 48. 10; Jer. 2. 30; Zeph. 3. 7; Rom. 5. 3; Heb. 12. 5, 10; 1 Pet. 1. 6;—are sometimes the means of bringing transgressors to a sense of duty, Deut. 8. 5; 2 Chron. 33. 11; Job 5. 17; 36. 8; Ps. 78. 34; 104. 12; 119. 67, 71, 75; Prov. 3. 11; Ecc. 7. 3; Is. 26. 9, 16; Jer. 2. 30; Zeph. 3. 7; Rom. 5. 3; Heb. 12. 5;—to be borne with patience, Prov. 24. 10; 2 Tim. 2. 3; 4. 5.;-instances of such behaviour, 1 Sam. 3. 18; Job 1. 21, 22; Acts 5. 41; 16. 25; 2 Cor. 7. 4; Heb. 10. 34; afflictions of persons better than we have been greater than ours, 1 Cor. 4. 9; 2 Cor: 4. 11; Jam. 5. 10; Pet. 5.9;-especially those of Jesus Christ, Rom. 8. 17; 2 Cor. 4. 10; 2 Tim. 2. 12 ; Heb. 12. 3; 1 Pet. 2. 21; 4. 13;—God supports the righteous under them, Ps. 9. 1; 34. 19; 37. 24 ; 41. 3; 55. 22 ; Prov. 24. 16; Lam. 3. 31, &c.; 1 Cor. 10. 13; 2 Cor. 12. 8; 2 Tim. 3. 11; 2 Pet. 2. 9. This David experienced, Ps. 31.

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