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was dedicated to the infernal gods; see his account of the death of Dido, Æn. I. iv. y.698.*

The dedication of the altar. The sacrifices of peace-offerings were more numerous than the burnt-offering or the sin offering ; because the priests, the princes, and as many of the people as they invited, had a share of them, and feasted, with great rejoicing, before the Lord. This custom, as Mr. Selden observes, (De Synedriis, 1. iii. c. 14. nu. 3, 6,7.), seems to have been imitated by the heathen, who dedicated their altars, temples, statues, &c. with much ceremony; and the ancient Greeks tohutɛlɛotepOLS LEPELOLS, with more sumptuous sacrifices. Among the Romans, they were dedicated with plays, feasting, and public donations; and at last their feasts became anniversaries, as the feast of dedication also was among

the Jews, after the time of Antiochus. In this feast, there were luxvokald, or illuminations, as expressive of the public joy.t

The passover, of which nothing was to be left till the morning. From this ordinance the heathens borrowed their sacrifice, termed Propter Viam. It was their custom, previously to their undertaking a journey, to offer a sacrifice to their gods, and to eat the whole, if possible; but if any part was left, they burned it with fire; this was called propter viam, because it was made to procure a prosperous journey. It was in reference to this, that Cato is said to have rallied a person called Q. Albidius, who, having eaten up all his goods, set fire to his house. • He has offered his sacrifice propter viam,' said Cato, ' because he has burned what he could not eat.' Macrobius, Saturn. 1. ii.I

The feast of trumpets, on the month Tisri, the seventh month of their ecclesiastical year, but the first of their civil year, answering to our September. This, which was their new year's day, was a time of great festivity, and ushered in by the blowing of trumpets; whence it was also called the feast of blowing the trumpets. In imitation of this Jewish festival, different nations began the new year with sacrifices and festivity. The ancient Egyptians did so; and the Persians also celebrated their naw room, or new year's day, which they held on the vernal equinox, and which • lasted ten days, during which all ranks seemed to participate in one general joy. The rich sent presents to the poor; and were dressed in their holiday clothes; all kept open house; and religious processions, music, dancing, a species of theatrical exhibition, rustic sports, and other pastimes, presented a continued round of varied amusement. Even the dead, and the ideal beings were not forgotten; rich viands being placed on the tops of houses and high towers, on the flavour of which the Peris, and spirits of their departed heroes and friends, were supposed to feast.' (Richardson's Dissertation on the Languages, &c. of Eastern Nations, p.59.) After the Mohammedan conquest of Persia, the celebration of this period sibly declined, and at last totally ceased, till the time of Jelaladin, (about

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sen

* Comprehensive Bible, Note in loco.

+ Idem, Note on Num. 7. 35.

A D. 1082.) who, coming to the crown at the vernal equinox, re-established the ancient festival, which has ever since been celebrated with pomp and acclamations.*

The law of heiresses. The similarity between this, and the law of the Athenians is so striking, that Grotius thinks the latter an evident imitation. At Athens in like manner, an heiress was bound to marry, by the law of Solon, her nearest relation, who inherited the estate. See Jac. Perizonii, Dissert. de Leg. Voconia, vii. p. 137, and S. Petitus, Comment. in Leg. Attic. I. vi. tit. 1. p. 441.7

Division of the sacrifices in making a covenant, Deut. xxix. 12. • That thou shouldest enter (Heb. pass) into covenant,' &c. This is an allusion to the solemn ceremony used by several ancient nations, when they entered into covenant with each other. The victims, slain as a sacrifice on this occasion, were divided, and the parts laid asunder: the contracting parties then passed between them, imprecating as a curse on those who violated the sacred compact, that they might in like manner be cut asunder. Of the Divine institution of this ceremony, we have a detailed account in Gen. xv. 9–17: “And he said unto him, Take me an heifer of three years old, and a she goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtle dove, and a young pigeon. And he took unto him all these, and divided them in the midst, and laid each piece one against another : but the birds divided he not. And when the fowls came down upon the carcases, Abram drove them away. And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram ; and, lo, an horror of great darkness fell upon him." _“ And behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces.” Thus also Homer says, Μερους τεξεταμον, κατα τε κνισση εκαλυψαν, διπτυχα ποιησαντες, επ' αυτων δ' ωμοθετησαν. “They cut the quarters and cover them with the fat: dividing them into two, they place the raw flesh upon them.' St. Cyril, in his work against Julian, shows that passing between the divided parts of a victim was used also among the Chaldeans and other people; and Livy (1. i.decad. i. c. 24.) has preserved the form of the imprecation used on such occasions, in the account he gives of the league between the Romans and Albans, 1 Hence the expression (Jos. ix. 6.), mong 15 nn, kirthoo lanoo berith, ' cut or divide with us a covenant;' or rather the covenant sacrifice offered on these occasions. The same form of speech obtained among the Greeks and Romans. Thus Homer uses the phrase opkla Teuveiv, to cut in pieces the oath offerings, which he expressly says (II. iii. v. 245, 246.) were two lambs; and Eustathius on Il. ii. v. 124, remarks, dia touns swwv OvouevwV Oi enti peyalog opkou kylvovto, by the cutting of sacrificed animals, oaths in important affairs were confirmed. It is well known that the Romans had the similar expressions ferire, icere, percutere, scindere fædus, to strike, smite, or cleave a covenant, for simply making or entering into a covenant. I

+ Idem, note

n Num. 36. 8.

• Comprehensive Bible, note on Num. 29. 1.

1 Idem, note in loco.

CHAPTER IV.

EVIDENCE OF THE INSPIRATION OF THE SCRIPTURES.

1. From the Sacred Writers expressly claiming Divine Inspira

tion.

(1.) With respect to the Old Testament, from inspiration being claimed by the prophets both for themselves and predecessors. 2 Sam. 23. 1, 2; Neh. 9. 30; Psal. 19. 7–11; Isa. 8. 20; Jer. 20. 7-9; 25. 3, 4; 27. 12–19; Eze. 1. 1—3; 38. 16, 17; Dan. 9. 12, 13; Mic. 3. 8-12;

Zec. 1. 5,6.* By their Writings being expressly recognised as inspired by the Sacred Writers of the New Testament, and especially by our Saviour. Mat. 4. 4–11; 5. 17, 18; 15. 1–14; Mar. 7. 149; Matt. 22. 29–32; Luke 16. 29–31; John 5. 39—47; Matt. 12. 1–5; Luke 6. 3, 4; Matt. 12. 41, 42; Luke 4. 23—27; Matt. 21. 15, 16; 22. 41-46; Mark 12. 35—37; Luke 24. 44–46; John 10. 32–39; Matt. 13. 13–15; 15. 7-9; 21. 13; Mark 7. 6,7; Luke 4. 17-21; Matt. 24. 15; Mark 13. 14; Matt. 9. 13; 12. 7, 39–41; 16. 4; Luke 11. 29–32; Matt. 10. 35, 36; 11. 10, &c; Luke 7. 27; Matt. 17. 10–12; Mark 9. 11– 13; Matt. 21. 42, 43; 26.54–56; Luke 24. 27, 44–46.*

(2.) With respect to the New Testament, from the Sacred Writers expressly claiming inspiration for themselves individually and for one another. 1 Cor. 7. 39, 40; 1 Th. 4. 6–8; 5. 23—28; 2 Pe. 3. 1–4, 14–16; 1 John 4. 4–6.7

and

2. Because a great many wise and good men of all

ages nations have agreed to receive the Bible as a Divine Revelation.

(1.) Thus the Jews have uniformly acknowledged the Scriptures of the Old Testament as the Word of God. For the testimony of the Jews, in the time of Christ, it is sufficient to refer to the New Testament, and to Josephus (Cont. Apion, l.i. $ 8.); and for the belief of the modern Jews, see their confession of faith, which has been in use ever since the thirteenth century, in Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. i. pp. 245, 246.t

(2.) Christians also, from the earliest ages to the present time, have testified their belief of the Inspiration both of the Old and New Testament, and in many instances laid down their lives in testimony of their unshaken belief. The testimonies of the early Christians are collected and ably

exhibited by Dr. Whitby, in the General Preface to his Commentary, s viii. pp. 24–26. 4to. edit.*

3. Because the matter contained in the Scriptures requires a

Divine Inspiration. Such as,

The history of the Creation, ascribed to God only, Gen. 1. 1 ; Ps. 124. 8; 146. 6; Neh. 9. 6; Acts 14. 15; 17. 24 ;—and wrought by the second person

in the Godhead, Jesus Christ, John 1. 3, 10; 1 Cor. 8. 6; Eph. 3. 9; Col. 1. 16; Heb. 1.2; Rev. 4. 11.7

The Deluge, Gen. 6. 13; 7.

Mysteries respecting a Trinity of persons in the godhead, Matt. 28. 19; 2 Cor. 13. 14; 1 John 5. 7: proved by divinity being ascribed to different persons in the godhead, Gen. 1. 1; 2. 26 ; 2 Sam. 23. 2;

Is. 6. 3; Hag. 2. 5; Zech. 3. 2 ; 4. 14; 13. 7; Matt. 3. 16; 17.5; 28. 19; Luke 1. 35; John 14, 16, 26; 15. 26; 16. 13; 2 Cor. 13. 14.f

In Deut. 6. 4, we read, yox 77,713°058 757 5xov ynv, Shema Yisraël, Yehowah Elohainoo, Yehowah aichod, ' Hear, Israel, JEHOVAH, our GOD, is one JEHOVAH. On this passage the Jews lay great stress ; and it is one of the four passages which they write on their phylacteries. On the word Elohim, Simeon Ben Joachi says, “Come and see the mystery of the word Elohim : there are three degrees, and each degree is by itself alone, and yet they are all one, and joined together in one, and are not divided from each other.' Zohar, Lev. § 16. col. 116.I

The Covenant of Grace, Jer. 31. 31 ; 32. 37; Heb. 8. 6; 10. 16.f

The Incarnation of the Son of God, Matt. 1. 18; Luke 1.35; John 1. 1-14.

His mediatortal offices, as the only mediator between God and man, 1 Sam. 2. 25; Job 9. 33; 1 Tim. 2. 5; Heb. 8. 6; 9. 15; 12. 24.7

Redemption from sin and death, through his blood, 1 Cor. 1. 30; Gal. 3. 13; Eph. 1. 7; Col. 1. 14; Heb. 9. 12; 1 Pet. 1. 18; Rev. 5. 9.4

The Atonement ;—Christ made an atonement for the sins of the world, Is. 53. 4; Matt. 20. 28; 2 Cor. 5. 21; Gal. 3. 13; Tit. 2. 14; Heb. 9. 28; 1 Pet. 2. 24; 3. 18; 1 John 2. 2; 4. 10; which is received through Him, Rom. 5. 11.7

Justification, which is not to be attained by the law, Acts 13, 39; Rom. 3. 20; 8. 3; Gal. 2. 16; 3. 11; Heb. 7.19 ;-nor by any other performance, Job 9. 2; 25.4; Ps. 130. 3 ; 143. 2; but is given unto us by the grace of God, Rom. 3. 24; 4. 4; 11. 5; Eph. 2. 8; 2 Tim. 1, 9; Tit. 3. 5;-through the merits and blood of Christ, Acts 13. 38; Rom. 5. 9, 19; 1 Cor. 1. 30 ;—by the means of faith, Rom. 3. 22: 4. 16; Gal. 2. 16; 3. 11, 24; Eph. 2.8; Heb. 10. 38; 11. 7; and in answer to fervent prayer, Deut. 4. 29; Jer. 29. 13.4

Comprehensive Bible. Introd. p. 61.

Note in loco.

+ Idem, Index to Subjects in voce.

Adoption, the promise, marks, and effects of which are stated, Isa. 56. 5; John 1. 12; Rom. 8. 14; 2 Cor. 6. 18; Gal. 3. 26; 4.6; Eph. 1.5; 1 John 3. 1; Rev. 11. 7.*

For a more full detail of this evidence see the next section.

4. From the scheme of doctrine and morality contained in the

Bible being so exalted, pure, and benevolent, that God alone could either devise or appoint it. Such as,

(1.) Concerning God.—The word obx, elohim, which is rendered God, in the singular 1958, eloah, and in Arabic all, allah, is derived from the Arabic, dl, alaha, he worshipped, adored, was struck with astonishment, fear or terror : and hence, he adored with sacred horror and veneration : it also signifies, he succoured, liberated, kept in safety or defended. Hence we learn that b7bx, elohim, denotes the sole object of adoration ; the perfection of whose nature must astonish all who contemplate them, and fill with horror all who rebel against him; that consequently he must be worshipped with reverence and religious fear; and that every sincere worshipper may expect help in his weaknesses, &c. freedom from the power, guilt, and consequences of sin, and support and defence to the uttermost. See Dr. A. Clarke, on Gen. 1. 1.f The name 1m, Yehowah, which we translate Lord, is the name by which God had been known from the creation of the world, (Gen. 2. 2.) and by which He is known to the present day. Even the heathen knew this name of the true God, and from it formed their Jao, Jeve, Jove, and Jupiter, i. e. Jovis pater, father Jove. 1977), Yehowa, from 1977, hawah, to be, subsist, signifies He who is, or subsists, i. e. eminently and in a manner superior to all other beings; and is essentially the same with 17*7x, eheveh, I AM, in Exod. 3. 14.1–His unity, Ex. 20.3; Deut. 4. 35, 39; 5.7; 6. 4; 32. 39 ; Ps. 86. 10; Is. 37. 16; 43. 10; 44. 6; 45.5; Jer. 10. 10; John 17.3; 1 Cor. 8. 4–6; Gal. 3. 20; Eph. 4. 6; 1 Tim. 2. 5;—a spirit, John 4. 24; 1 Tim. 1. 17; 6. 16;-invisible, Ex. 33. 20; John 1. 18; 5. 37; Rom. 1. 20; Col. 1. 15; 1 Tim. 6. 16; Heb. 11. 27; 1 John 4. 12;—the true God, Jer. 10. 10;—the living God, Dan. 4. 34 ; 6. 26; Acts 14. 15; 1 Thess. 1, 9; Heb. 9. 14; 10. 31;—God and Lord alone, 2 Kings 19. 15; Neh. 9.6; Ps. 33. 18; 86. 10; Isa. 37. 16, 20;none else, or beside him, Deut. 4. 35; 2 Sam. 7. 22; 22. 32; 2 Kings 5. 15; Isa. 44. 6, 8; 45. 5, 6, 14, 18, 21, 22; 46.9; Hos. 13. 4;none with him, Deut. 32. 39 ;-none before him, Isa. 43. 10;-none like him, or to be compared to him, Ex. 8. 10; 9. 14; 15. 11; Deut. 4. 12; 33. 26; 2 Sam. 7: 22; 1 Chr. 17. 10; Ps. 35. 10; 86. 8; 89. 6; Isa. 40. 18; 46. 5, 9; Jer. 10. 6, 7, 10; God is alone,—who can re

+ Idem, note on Deut. 5. 9.

Comprehensive Bible, Index to Subjects in voce.

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