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complete imitations of the tabernacle and its whole service is 'found in the ancient temple of Hercules at Gades, now Cadiz, in Spain; in which the beams were so ancient that they were supposed to be incorruptible. Women were not permitted to enter, nor swine to come near it; the priests wore no parti-coloured vests, but were clothed in fine linen, with bonnets of the same; they offered incense with their clothes ungirded; (Exod. 20. 26.) they wore a stud of purple on their vest; they ministered bare footed, kept the strictest continency, kept a perpetual fire on their altars; and had no image in their sacred place. (See Silius Italicus, Punicor. 1, üi. v, 17–31.) *
The sacred fire and lamp. The temple of Vesta seems to have been formed on the model of the tabernacle, in which the eternal fire, as it was called, at Rome, was kept perpetually burning by the vestal virgins; and the rup noßeotov, inextinguishable fire,' of the Greeks at Delphi, were evident imitations of this sacred fire. From this also the followers of Zerdusht, or Zoroaster, and the modern Parsees, appear to have derived their doctrine of the perpetual fire, which they still worship as an emblem of the Deity. In the very ancient temple of Hercules at Gades, as already stated, a perpetual fire was kept burning on their altars. (Silius Ital. Punicor. 1. iii. v. 29.)
The golden candlestick. Herodotus, (1. i. c. 62.) states, that when the people have assembled in the city of Sais to sacrifice and to celebrate the festival, they light round their houses lamps, which are filled with salt and oil, in which the wick swims and burns the whole night. This festival is called the feast of the burning of lamps, (Avxvokain.) Even those Egyptians who do not attend at this meeting do not fail to keep the festival : so that lamps are burning at the same time not only at Sais, but throughout all Egypt.' As the Egyptians, according to Clemens Alexandrinus, (Strom. 1. i. c. 20,) were the first who used lamps in their temples, they probably borrowed the use of them from the golden candlestick, I 1717, menorah, rather, a chandelier, which was of pure gold, and is described as having one shaft, with six branches proceeding from it, adorned at equal distances with six flowers, like lilies, with as many bowls and knops placed alternately. On each of the branches there was a lamp ; and one on the top of the shaft, which occupied the centre, making in all seven lamps. Calmet remarks, that the ancients used to dedicate candlesticks in the temples of their gods, bearing a number of lamps. Pliny (Hist. Nat. 1. xxxiv. c. 3.) mentions one in the form of a tree, with lamps like apples, which Alexander the Great consecrated in the temple of Apollo. Athenæus, (l. xv. c. 19, 20.) mentions one which supported 365 lamps, which Dionysius the Younger, king of Syracuse, dedicated in the Pryteneum at Athens. §
The Holy of Holies. According to a belief which was universally pre
+ Idem, on Exod. 27. 20, and Lev. 6.13.
Idem, on Exod, 37. 17.
Idem, on Exod. 35. 14.
valent among ancient nations, the innermost sanctuary was the peculiar abode of the god to whom the temple was dedicated. Into this part, no mortal except the priest dared to enter; which was, therefore, called the inaccessible (adytum, abaton.) Every uninitiated person, who ventured to penetrate into the inner sanctuary, expiated his boldness by a sudden death. Pausanias (1. x. c. 33, § 10.) relates, that at the inclosure and inaccessible sanctuary of Isis,' near Tithorea, “a person, to whom, as not being initiated, access was not lawful, once out of inquisitiveness and wantonness, entered the sanctuary when the pile (prepared for the sacrifices] was already kindled: there he saw the whole place full of spectres. Returning to Tithorea, and relating what he had seen, it is said, he immediately died. Something similar was told me by a Phænician. The Egyptians are accustomed to celebrate a festival in honour of Isis, at the time when, as they say, she mourned for Osiris. At this time, a Roman governor of Egypt once sent a man, whom he had bribed, into the sanctuary of Coptos. He indeed came out again ; but, in relating what he had seen, he fell down dead on the spot.' The same author (in his Bæotica) mentions the temple of Dindymene, which they thought was unlawful to open more than one day in the year; and he says of the temple of 0:cus (in his Eliaca) that it was opened but once a-year.'
The cities of refuge. In imitation of these cities, the heathen had their usyla, and the Roman Catholics their privileged altars. The appointment of these cities was a humane institution for the protection of the involuntary homicide; for they were designed only for the protection of such, by which they were distinguished from the asyla of the Greeks and Romans, &c. Similar privileged places are found among various nations, though not attended with the same wise, equitable, and humane regulations as among the Israelites. "The North American Indian nations have most of them either a house or town of refuge, which is a sure asylum to protect a manşlayer, or the unfortunate captive, if they once enter it. The Cheerake, though now exceedingly corrupt, still observe that law so inviolably, as to allow their beloved town the privilege of protecting a wilful murderer, but they seldom allow him to return home afterwards in safety; they will revenge blood for blood, unless in some very particular case, where the eldest can redeem. In almost every Indian nation, there are several towns, which are called old beloved, ancient, holy, or white towns (white being their fixed emblem of peace, friendship, prosperity, happiness, purity, &c.): they seem to have been formerly towns of refuge; for it is not in the memory of the oldest people that ever human blood was shed in them. Adair's Indians, p. 158.7
The burnt-offerings, oby, ôlah, from inby, âlah, to ascend, because this offering ascended, as it were, to God in flame and smoke, being wholly consumed; for which reason it is called in the Septuagint olokavtwja, a whole burnt offering. This was the most important of all the sacrifices;
and no part of it was eaten either by the priest or the offerer, but the whole offered to God. It has been sufficiently shewn by learned men, that almost every nation of the earth, in every age, had their burnt-offerings, from the persuasion that there was no other way to appease the incensed gods; and they even offered human sacrifices, because they imagined, as Cæsar expresses it, (Com. de Bell. Gal. 1. vi.) that life was necessary to redeem life, and that the gods would be satisfied with nothing less. *
The meat-offerings. Offerings of different kinds of grain, flour, bread, fruits, &c., are the most ancient among the heathen nations; probably borrowed from the practice of the true worshippers of God, (Gen. iv. 3.) Ovid, (Fastor. I. ii. v. 515.) intimates, that these gratitude-offerings originated with agriculture :- In the most ancient times men lived by rapine and hunting; for the sword was considered more honourable than the plough; but when they sowed their fields, they dedicated the first-fruits of their harvest to Ceres, to whom the ancients attributed the art of agriculture, and to whom burnt offerings of corn were made, according to immemorial usages.' Pliny (Hist. Nat. l. xviii. c. 2.) observes, that " Numa taught the Romans to offer fruits to the gods, and to make supplications before them, bringing salt cakes and parched corn ; as grain in this state was deemed most wholesome.' And it is worthy of remark, that he further observes, the ancient Romans considered ‘no grain as pure or proper for divine service that had not been previously parched.'t
The assigning of the skin of the burnt offering to the priest: All the flesh of the burnt-offerings being consumed, as well as the fat, upon the altar, there could nothing fall to the share of the priest but the skin; which must have been very valuable, as they were used as mattresses, (Lev. 15. 17.) and probably as carpets to sit upon in the day, as they are still used by some of the inhabitants and dervishes of the East. (Harmer, Observat. vol. i. pp. 155, 156.) It seems probable, as Bp. Patrick remarks, that Adam himself offered the first sacrifice, and had the skin given him by God, to make garments for him and his wife ; in conformity with which, the priests ever after had the skin of the whole burnt-offerings for their portion. The same custom prevailed in after times among the Gentiles, whose priests employed them to a superstitious purpose, by lying upon them in their temples, in hopes of having future things revealed to them in their dreams. (See Virgil, Æn. 1. vii. ver. 86–95.) The same superstition prevails to the present day in the Highlands of Scotland. See Descript. of Western Isles, p. 110. Pennant's Scottish Tour, vol. ii. p. 301. 1 The consecration of the High-priest.
Calmet remarks, that the consecration of the high-priest among the Romans bore a considerable resemblance to the consecration of the Jewish high-priest. “The Roman priest, clothed with a garment of silk, his head covered with a crown of gold, adorned with sacred ribbons, was conducted into a subterraneous place, over which there was a floor of planks pierced through with many holes. On this floor they sacrificed a bullock, whose blood was freely poured out on the planks or floor, which, running through the holes, fell upon the priest, who stood underneath to receive this sacred aspersion, and who, in order to be completely covered with the blood, took care to present the whole of his body, his clothes, face, eyes, nose, lips, and even his tongue, to receive the drops of blood falling through the pierced floor above. Being completely covered with this sanguineous shower, he ascended from this subterranean place, and was acknowledged and adored by the people as Pontifex Maximus, or supreme high-priest.' These rites, which bear a striking similarity to those used in the consecration of Aaron, and from which they are probably borrowed, and disguised by their own superstitions, are particularly described by Aurelius Prudentius, in his book entitled Romani Martyris Supplicium ; from which Dr. Adam Clarke has selected the verses, the substance of which is given above. *
* Comprehensive Bible, Note on Lev. 1. 10.
+ Idem, Lev. 2. 14.
* Idem, Lev. 7. 8.
The supernatural fire consuming the sacrifices. These victims were consumed by a fire of no human kindling. Josephus says (Ant. 1. iii. c. 8. $ 6.) that “a fire proceeded from the victims themselves, of its own accord, which had the appearance of a flash of lightning, and consumed all that was upon the altar. It is not unlikely, that by the agency of the electric spark, sent immediately from the Divine Presence, the victims were consumed. The heathens, in order to give credit to their worship, imitated this miracle, and pretended that Jupiter testified his approbation of the sacrifice by thunder and lightning. See Virgil, Æn. l. xxi. v. 200. +
The scape goat. Most ancient nations had vicarious sacrifices, to which they transferred, by certain rites and ceremonies, the guilt of the community at large. The white bull, sacrificed by the Egyptians to Apis, was of this kind: they cut off the head of the victim, loaded it with execrations, that if there was any evil hanging over them, or the land of Egypt, it might be poured on that head,' and then sold it to the Greeks, or threw it into the Nile. (Herod. Euterp.) Petronius Arbiter (Satir. in fine) says, that it was a custom among the ancient inhabitants of Marseilles,
when afflicted by any pestilence, to take one of the poorer citizens, who offered himself for the purpose ; and having fed him for a whole year with the purest and best food, adorned him with vervain, and clothed him with sacred vestments, they led him round the city, loading him with execrations, praying that all the evils to which the city was exposed might fall upon him, and then precipitated him from the top of a rock. Suidas (in Treply nua) observes, that it was a custom to devote a man annually to death, for the safety of the people, with these words, tepuynja nuwv yevov, be thou our purifier, and throw him into the sea, as a sacrifice to Neptune. I To what has been here adduced concerning these practices among vavarious nations, we may add, that the nearest resemblance to the scapegoat of the Hebrews is found in the Ashummeed Jugg of the Hindoos; which is thus explained in the Code of Gentoo Laws, Section IX. : “An Ashummeed Jugg is, when a person, having commenced a Jugg, (i.e. a religious ceremony) writes various articles upon a scroll of paper, on a horse's neck, and dismisses the horse, sending along with the horse a stout and valiant person, equipped with the best necessaries and accoutrements, to accompany the horse day and night, whithersoever he shall choose to go; and if any creature, either man, genius, or dragon, should seize the horse, that man opposes such attempt, and having gained the victory upon a battle, again gives the horse his freedom. If any one in this world, or in heaven, or beneath the earth, would seize this horse, and the horse of himself comes to the house of the celebrator of the Jugg, upon killing that horse, he must throw the flesh of him upon the fire of the Juk, and utter the prayer of his deity: such a Jugg is called a Jugg Ashummeed, and the merit of it, as a religious work, is infinite.'*
* Comprehensive Bible, Note on Lev. 8. 24.
+ Idem, Lev. 9. 24.
The offering of first-fruits. This offering was a public acknowledgment of the bounty and goodness of God for the kindly fruits of the earth. From the practice of the people of God, the heathen borrowed a similar one, founded on the same reason. The following passage from Censorinus, De Die Natali, is worthy of the deepest attention. Our ancestors, who held their food, their country, the light, and all that they possessed, from the bounty of the gods, consecrated to them a part of all their property, rather as a token of their gratitude, than from a conviction that the gods needed
Therefore, as soon as the harvest was got in, before they had tasted of the fruits, they appointed libations to be made to the gods. And as they held their fields and cities as gifts from their gods, they consecrated a certain part in the temples and shrines where they worshipped.' Pliny is express on the same point, and attests that the Romans never tasted either their new corn or wine, till the priests had offered the first-fruits to the gods.—Ac ne degustubunt quidem novas fruges aut vina, antequam sacerdotes primitius libassent. (Hist. Nat. 1. xvii. c. 2.) See also Hor. Sat. 1. ii. v. 12., and Tibullus, Eleg. 1. i. eleg. i. v. 13. et eleg. V.v. 27.7
The law of the Nazarite, Num. 6. 18. “ And the Nazarite shall shave the head of his separation,” &c. The hair, which was permitted to grow for this purpose, was shaven off as a token that the vow was accomplished. It was probably from this practice of the Jewish Nazarites, that the Gentiles learned the practice of consecrating their hair to their gods, of which Suetonius relates an instance in his life of Nero, (c. xii. 11.); informing us, that he cut off his first beard, and put it into a golden box set with jewels, and consecrated it to Jupiter Capitolinus. Homer relates (Il. I.
142.) that Achilles, at the funeral of Patroclus, cut off his golden locks, which his father had dedicated to the river-god Sperchius, and threw them into the flood. From Virgil we learn that the topmost lock of hair
+ Idem, Lev. 23 10,
* Comprehensive Bible, Note on Lev. 16. 26.