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10 your perfection. Wherefore I write these things, being absent; lest, being present, I should use sharpness, according to the power which the Lord hath given me, but to edification, and not to destruction.


Finally, brethren, farewel. Be perfect, be of good comfort, be of the same mind, live in peace: and the God 12 of love and peace will be with you. Salute one another 13 with an holy kiss. All the saints salute you. The fa14 vour of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the partaking of the holy spirit, be with you allt.

* Or, fellowship.

+Q. d. May the true gospel of Christ (compare ch. iv. 15; vi. 1.), as distinguished from that corrupt doctrine which my opponents would introduce: and, may the love of God, which is exercised freely to all who believe and obey the gospel; and may a participation of spiritual gifts, which are the fruits of his paternal love, and the proper evidences of our adoption into his family (Rom. viii. 15, 16.), be with you all. Hence it appears, 1st, that this text does not authorise prayers to Christ; and 2dly, that it does not prove what is called the personality of the holy spirit, but the contrary.— To pray for the participation of gifts and powers is intelligible, but to pray for the participation of a person is absurd. 3dly, It is improper to use this text as a form of benediction in public assemblies, because it is improper to express a wish for a participation of those spiritual gifts, which were peculiar to the apostolic age, and which have long since been withdrawn.






PAUL, an apostle, (not from men, nor by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from 2 the dead*,) and all the brethren that are with me, to the 3 churches of Galatia: favour be to you, and peace, from 4 God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ; who

gave himself for our sinst, that he might deliver us from this present evil aget, according to the will of our God 5 and Father; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. I wonder that ye are so soon removed from him who called you into [the] favour [of Christ,] to a different


* "Not deriving my mission from other apostles, nor even from God by their appointment, but from Jesus Christ himself; and, consequently, from God his Father. Here, observe, Jesus Christ is distinguished from God, to whom he was subordinate, and by whose power, and not his own, he was raised from the dead.” Dr. Priestley. It may also be observed; that the apostle's distinction here is not between a man and a being of a superior order; but between men now living in the world, and who were themselves servants and messengers of Christ, and Jesus Christ himself, who had been raised from the dead, and exalted to be the head and governor of the church.

† for our sins; eg, not vę, is the true reading. The expression is very general, q. d. in relation to our sins. This is explained by the next clause.

To deliver us from this present evil age, is to deliver us from the bondage of heathen idolatry, the Mosaic ritual, and Pharisaic superstition. The apostle's expression is general, and will include all, though the latter sense is chiefly intended. See Locke. "Into the gracious covenant of the gospel," Newcome. Q. d. from the gospel of Christ to another gospel.

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7 gospel which indeed is not* another; but there are some who trouble you, and desire to alterf the gospel of Christ. 8 But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any gospel unto you, besides that which we have preached 9 unto you, let him be accursed. As we have said already, so I now say again; If any one preach any gospel unto you besides that which ye have received, let him be ac10 cursed. For do I now approve myself to men, or to God? or do I seek to please men? [for] if I still pleased men, I should not be a servant of Christ.


But I declare to you, brethren, that the gospel preach12 ed by me is not according to man. For I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it but by the revelation of 13 Jesus Christ. For ye have heard of my former beha

viour in the Jewish religion, that I exceedingly perse14 cuted the church of God, and laid it waste; and made a proficiency in the Jewish religion above many of the same age in mine own nation, being more exceedingly 15 zealous of the traditions of my fathers: but when it

pleased God, who separated me to the gospel from my 16 mother's womb, and called me by his favour, to reveal his son by me, that I might preach the glad tidings of him among the gentiles; I did not confer immediately with 17 flesh and bloodtt; nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those that were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and 18 returned to Damascus. Then, after three years, I went up to Jerusalem, that I might see Peter; and abode with 19 him fifteen days. But I saw none other of the apostles, 20 except James, the Lord's brother. (Now concerning the

things which I write unto you, behold, as in the presence 21 of God, I speak not falsely.) Afterward I went into the

N. supplies one and another.

Or, a messenger from heaven.

† pervert, N. See Wakefield,

Or, if indeed I were attempting to please men, Wakefield.

¶ q. d. from no man living upon earth, but from Christ in his exalted state. See note

on ver. 1.

†† i. e. I did not consult with any man, nor derive instruction from any. See Locke.

22 regions of Syria and Cilicia; and I was unknown by face 23 to the churches of Judea, which were in Christ: but they

had only heard, that he, who formerly persecuted us,

now preached the faith which formerly he laid waste. 24 And they glorified God because of me.

CH. II. THEN, fourteen years after*, I went up again to Jeru2 salem with Barnabas, and took with me Titus also. And I went up by revelation, and communicated to them† that gospel which I preach among the gentiles; but privately to those that were of reputation, lest I might run, 3 or might have run, in vain. But not even Titus, that was with me, being a gentile, was compelled to be cir4 cumcised and that because of false brethren brought in privily, who came in privily to spy out our freedom which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us 5 into slavery: to whom we yielded by subjection, no not for an hour; that the truth of the gospel might conti6 nue with you. But concerning those who appeared to be considerable, (whatsoever they were, it maketh no difference to me: God accepteth no man's person :) those, I say, that appeared to be considerable ‡, in confe7 rence added nothing to me. But, on the contrary, when they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed to me, as the gospel of the circumcision was to 8 Peter (for he who wrought powerfully in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, wrought powerfully in 9 me also toward the gentiles ;) and when James, and Pe


ter, and John, that appeared to be pillars, perceived the favour which was bestowed on me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should 10 go to the gentiles, and they to the circumcision only desiring that we should remember the poor; which very thing I was earnest also to do.

* After fourteen years, N.

+ Or, laid before them, Wakefield.

# "Who were really men of eminence; the Greek being equivalent to Twy OTWY

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But when Peter came to Antioch, I withstood him to 12 his face, because he was to be blamed*. For before some

came from James, he ate with the gentiles: but, when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fear13 ing those of the circumcision. And the other Jews also dissembled with him; so that Barnabas likewise was car14 ried away with them by their dissimulation. But when I saw that they walked not uprightly, according to the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter in the presence of them all," If thou, being a Jew, live according to the manner of the gentiles, and not according to that of the Jews, howt compellest thou the gentiles to live like the Jews? 15 We, who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the gen16 tiles, since we know that a man is not justified by the

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works of the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ; even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law for 17 by the works of the law no man can be justified. But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also

*Or, condemned, Chandler.

why, N. 7. The true reading is w:--How is it that thou compellest, etc. Griesbach.

The Jews by birth, were in a state of privilege and under the Mosaic covenant, and therefore they were holy, and possessed many valuable means of virtue, whether they improved them or not. The gentiles by birth, were in an uncovenanted state, and as suck were unholy, and ceremonially sinners, whatever their moral character might be. The Jews, having violated the terms of their covenant, became sinners, like the gentiles, and, by faith in Christ, again became holy. The gentiles, by faith in Christ, also became holy, were admitted into the same cast, and became entitled to the same privileges; and this without submitting to the yoke of the ceremonial law. This was the liberal doctrine which Paul taught, but which the judaizing bigots every where opposed; insisting upon the indispensable necessity, or, at least, the great advantage, of submission to the ceremonial law. See Acts xv. It is of great importance to the clear understanding of the apostle's writings, and particularly of this epistle, to be apprised and to recollect, that sin, in the apostle's argument, often expresses merely an unprivileged or uncovenanted state: holiness, is separation from the rest of the world by being in a state of privilege or covenant with God: to be justified, is to pass out of a state of sin into a state of holiness; or, in other words, from an unprivileged, into a privileged and covenant state. This is produced by faith, that is, the public profession of christianity; without the works of the law, that is, without submission to the Mosaic ritual. All this has relation to an external rather than to a moral state. See Locke, and Taylor on the Romans, and Taylor's Key.

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