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- 20 And I will hstretch out my, and it shall come to pass, that, hand, and smite Egypt with iall when ye go, ye shall not go empty : my wonders which I will do in the 22 m But every woman shall bormidst thereof: and kafter that he row of her neighbour, and of her will let you go.

that sojourneth in her house, jewels 21 And I will give this people fa- of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiTour in the sight of the Egyptians; ment: and ye shall put them upon D'ch. 6. 6. & 7.5. & 9. 15. i ch, 7. 3. & 11.9. your sons, and upon your daughters; Deut. 6. 22. Neh. 9, 10. Ps. 105. 27. & 135.9. and nye shall spoil the Egyptians. Jer, 32. 20, Acts 7, 36. See ch. 7. to ch, 13.

m Gen, 15. 14. ch. 11, 2. & 12. 35, 36, R Job Prov, 16, 7,

Bch, 12, 31, I ch. 11. 3. & 12, 36. Ps, 106, 46,

27, 17, Prov, 13, 22, Ezek. 39, 10,

strong hand.'

and impiously withheld. As the request rity and vigor. He not only assures was in itself simple and reasonable, his them of liberty, but of riches. But this refusal to comply with it would disclose could be accomplished only by turning his real character, and show how truly the hostile hearts of the Egyptians to a be and his people deserved all the wrath posture of clemency and generosity, that they were afterwards made to feel. and this he engages to do. The words,

- No, not by á mighty hand. That | however, “I will give this people favor,' is, be will at first resist and rebel, not. are not to be understood as intimating withstanding all the demonstrations of that he would conciliate towards them my great power against him; but at the affection of their enemies. Unbength he shall yield, as is declared in doubtedly the reverse of this was the the next verse. Or it may be rendered, case, particularly at the time when the with the Gr. and Vulg. Unless by a promised favor was shown them; for

they were then trembling for their lives 20. And I will stretch out mine hand, under the repeated inflictions of the &c. Heb. 07307 veshalahti, and I will plagues; but the meaning is, that God send out. Chal. . And I will send the would so overrule their dispositions to. stroke of my strength. The connective wards his people that they should be. particle 7 and may as properly here be stow upon them marked expressions of rendered but or therefore; as if the de- favor, they should be induced to treat sign were to point to the opposition them as if they loved them, though in which God was to make to Pharaoh's reality they hated them as the procurresistance; or to indicate the reason of ing cause of all their troubles. Such an his stretching forth his hand ; ' There absolute control over the fiercest spirits fore will I stretch forth my hand, be of the enemies of his church shows that cause Pharaoh will not yield to my de- when God allows them to rage it is for mand without it. I will see whose hand the wisest purposes of discipline to his is the stronger, his or mine.'

people. As he could soften them in a 21. I will give this people favor in moment, if he does not do so, it is the sight of the Egyptians. Here again because he sees it better that license we perceive that God has his eye upon should be afforded them for a season. the ancient promise, Gen. 15. 14, 'And 22. Every woman shall borrow of her also that nation whom they shall serve, neighbor, &c. Heb. 7380 shaalah, will I judge: and afterward shall they shall ask. For a somewhat extended come out with great substance.' He view of the moral character of this allurës his people by an accumulation transaction see Note on Ex. 12.35. We of promises, that they may engage in shall there see that when God comthe work before them with more alac- manded the Israelites to possess them


lieve me, nor hearken unto my


But, behold, they will not be hath not appeared unto thee. selves of the jewels and raiment of stranger.' The implication would seem their enemies, and to spoil them, they to be, that the Egyptians in some cases did not take them by rapine and stealth, occupied tenements which belonged to but ‘as spoils voluntarily given up to the Israelites, or at any rate that they them by the Egyptians; in a word, that lived very closely intermingled togethere is no ground in the import of the ther, a circumstance which gave them a original for accusing the Israelites of better opportunity to despoil their opfraud or injustice. Without anticipat. pressors of their effects.- Jewels ing the fuller canvassing the subject of silver and jewels of gold.' Heb. 35 which we there propose, we may here kelë. The present rendering no doubt remark, that the term 'borrow' has restricts too much the meaning of the been somewhat unhappily adopted in original, which properly includes vesour translation, as it implies a promise sels, implements, utensils, of any kind of return. But this is not the sense of made of gold or silver. The term is the original 3D shaal. This signifies here equivalent to valuable effects. to ask, demand, petition, request, and These they were to put upon their is the very word employed Ps. 2. 8, sons and upon their daughters,' by • Ask (580 sheal) of me the heathen which would naturally be understood for thine inheritance,' &c.; although in from our translation, that they were to two passages, Ex. 22. 14, and 2 Kings, put them upon their children as orna6.5, it cannot perhaps be doubted that ments. But would the sons wear female its import is that of borrowing. But for ornaments? A much more probable borrow in the more strict and genuine supposition is, that they were to lay sense of the word, the Heb. has entirely them upon the young people as a but. another term 7773 lavah, which occurs den to be carried. If the original term among other places, Deut. 28. 12, “Thou meant nothing but jewels, the former shalt lend unto many nations, and thou interpretation would no doubt be enshalt not borrow (797377 hilvitha).' tirely plausible. But we have seen that Neh. 5. 4, "There were also that said, it includes every kind of gold and silver We have borrowed (73973 lavinu) articles. They were therefore put upon money for the king's tribute.' Prov. 22. their sons and daughters, not to be 7, “The borrower (1737 malveh) is worn, but to be carried. servant to the lender.' Is. 24. 2, ' And it shall be, as with the lender, so with

CHAPTER IV. the borrower (1773ra malveh).- Of 1. Moses answered and said, But beher that sojourneth in her house. Heb. hold, they will not believe me. Heb. ohn) san miggarath bethah. Gr. 777 vechen, and behold. The Gr: we Ovoknvov avrns, her fellow-dweller. Chal. incline to believe has the most correct 'From her who is a near neighbor to rendering sav, if, making it a hypothetiher house.' But this is not an exact cal instead of an absolute affirmation of rendering of the Heb. nor does it differ Moses. Thus too the Arab, ' Perhaps sufficiently from the preceding term. they will not believe me. The original The original properly signifies an in- term is expressly so rendered, Jer. 3. 1, dweller, as in Job, 19. 15, · They that They say if (77 hen) a man put dwell in mine house (17793 mma garë away his wife, and she go from him,' bëthi), and my maids count me for a l&c. It cannot indeed be questioned

2 And the LORD said unto him, 3 And he said, Cast it on the
What is that in thy hand ? And he ground. And he cast it on the
said, a A rod.

ground, and it became a serpent :
and Moses fled from before it.

a ver. 17. 20,

that Moses was reluctant to be employ- its exhibition. In what this consisted
ed on the embassy to Pharaoh and in it may not be easy confidently to affirm.
tended in these words to urge an ob- Calvin suggests with great plausibility,
jection, but the phraseology appears to that the drift of it was to intimate the
present it in a conditional form. Other formidableness of Moses to Pharaoh,
wise, it may be asked, on what au- notwithstanding his comparatively ab.
thority did he make the assertion? ject and despised condition. The staff
How did he know that the elders would was the ensign of the shepherd's call.
not believe him, when God had ex- ing, and what to hụman view more con-
pressly assured him, ch. 3. 18, that they temptible than a rustic keeper of sheep
would? Would he adventure upon such coming forth from the desert, where he
a pointed contradiction of the words of had been accustomed to encounter only
Jehovah ?

wild beasts of prey, and oppose his
2. What is that in thine hand? The siinple crook to the sceptre of a power.
drift of this question is simply to wake ful king? Would not this be a very
up and direct Moses' attention to the significant mode of teaching that how.
miracle about to be wrought. It is as ever destitute of human means of in.
if he had said, “ Take particular notice, timidation, the shepherd of Midian
and see that there is no illusion in the should notwithstanding be rendered
matter. Be sure that what you see is dreadful to a throned oppressor, when
really what you take it to be. When the rude staff that he carried in his
God questions his creatures it is not for hand should be a more destructive in.
the sake of learning, but of teaching. strument than a thousand swords? His

- And he said, a rod. Heb. 70n own affrightment on the occasion would
matteh, a rod, or staff, as it is rendered tend to give him a deeper sense of the
Gen. 38. 18; i. e, such a rod or crook hidden power of that terror which Om,
as is used by shepherds in tending their nipotence could strike into the inmost
flocks. Thus Mic. 7. 14, "Feed thy spirit of his adversary, and he could not
people with thy rod' the flock of thine but inser that there was no need of
heritage.' In v. 20, it is called the numerous forces or great preparations

rod of God' from the miraculous effects when he carried in his hand an imple.
which it was instrumental in working. ment the bare sight of which was able
Comp. v. 20.

to smite the monarch with consterna.
3. And it became a serpent. Heb. tion. It may be proper, however, to
On23 ya yehi lenahash, it became to observe that the Jewish commentators
a serpent. It will probably answer all are disposed to consider the serpent
the demands of the text to consider this as representing Pharaoh rather than
as simply a miraculous sign intended Moses. As the original wn) nahash,
to authenticate the mission of Moses. as remarked on Gen. 3. 1, is occasion.
We are not required to seek or assign a ally interchanged with 77367 tannin,
reason why this particular sign was dragon, the very word in fact which oc-
adopted rather than any other, yet we curs Ex. 7. 10, 'And Aaron cast down
may without extravagance suppose that his rod before Pharaoh and before his
there was some intrinsic adaptedness servants, and it became a serpent (930
in the sign selected to the purpose of tannin), and as Pharaoh, king of

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c ch, 3, 15.

4 And the LORD said unto Moses, and the God of Jacob, hath apPut forth thy hand, and take it by peared unto thee. the tail. And he put forth his 6 | And the LORD said further. hand, and caught it, and it became more unto him, Put now thine hand a rod in his hand :

into thy bosom. And he put his 5 That they may b believe that hand into his bosom: and when c the LORD God of their fathers, the he took it out, behold, his hand God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, was leprous das snow. b ch, 19, 9.

d Numb. 12. 10. 2 Kings 5. 27. Egypt, is termed, Ezek. 29. 3, “The ites, and of overawing the obstinacy of great dragon (bun tannim) that lieth Pharaoh. The incident goes evidently in the midst of his rivers,' they suggest on the ground that miracles are a certhat the rod converted into this reptile- tain and satisfactory proof of the divinmonster, (perhaps the crocodile, as ity of the mission and doctrine of a Lightfoot believes), was designed to prophet. They constitute the proper represent Pharaoh in all the terrors of credentials of one sent of God. They his cruelty and oppression ; while on are a divine testimony both to the comthe other hand his being seized by the mission of the messenger and to the hand of Moses, and converted into an truth of the message. The principle innocuous rod, indicated the ease with on which miracles are wrought is clearwhich, under the mighty working of ly and distinctly recognised in the words God, he should be subdued, despoiled of the woman of Sarepta to the prophet of his power to harm, and even brought who had raised her son to life, 1 Kings, to confess himself to be at the mercy 17. 24, ' Now by this I know thou art a of Moses, as a rod is wielded by the man of God, and that the word of the hand of its possessor. Thus, Eliezer, Lord by thy mouth is truth. This is a Jewish commentator: 'As the ser- the language of nature and of common pent biteth and killeth the sons of sense. Adam, so Pharaoh and his people did 6. Put now thine hand into thy bosom, bite and kill the Israelites; but he was &c. That is, into the open part of the turned and made like a dry stick.' tunic, a long outer robe, above the gir.

5. That they may believe, &c. The dle. The drist of this second sign was sentence is apparently imperfect, re. similar to that of the first, for with quiring some such preliminary clause, these miraculous voices "God speaketh as 'Do this, that they may believe, &c,' once, yea twice,' though it is too often For a similar omission, and the manner the case that ' man regardeth it not. As in which it is to be supplied, compare far as the intrinsic significancy of the Mark, 14.49,‘I was daily with you in the sign is concerned, it was evidently cal. temple teaching, and ye took me not : culated to teach that whatever is now but the Scriptures must be fulfilled,' with vigorous, vital, and flourishing may at Matt. 26. 55, 56, ' I sat daily with you once be withered at the nod of Omniteaching in the temple, and ye laid no potence; and again with equal facility hold on me. But all this was done, that restored to its pristine condition. The the Scriptures of the prophets might effect of a leprosy was to banish the be fulfilled. The miracle was not only subject of it from the abodes of men to exhibited on this occasion to Moses, solitary seclusion. As far as the mirabut the power conferred upon him of cle had relation to the person of Moses, working it himself, both for the purpose an emblematic leprosy was upon him of acquiring credence among the Israel. I when he went out as a shunned and

5, 14, Matt, 8, 3.

7 And he said, Put thine hand 8 And it shall come to pass, if into thy bosom again. And he put they will not believe thee, neither his hand into his bosom again, and hearken to the voice of the first plucked it out of his bosom, and sign, that they will believe the behold, e it was turned again as his voice of the latter sign. other flesh.

9 And it shall come to pass, if € Deut, 32, 39 Numb, 12, 13, 14, 2 Kings they will not believe also these two

signs, neither hearken unto thy hated fugitive from the palace of Pha- port, meaning, drift, of the first sign. raoh, and led his flock over the rough, See Note upon the sense of the word sandy, and arid places of the Midian voice,' Gen. 21. 17. The sign is said desert, and among sapless thorns and to have a 'voice,' because it speaks thickets. After passing forty years in that to the eye which words do to the this desolate state, cast out as a with ear. On the contrary, that which is ered branch, without name, without re- addressed to the ear is sometimes reprepute, without power, he suddenly re- sented as if exhibited to the eye; thus covers all he had lost, and comes forth Gal. 3. 1, 'Before whose eyes Jesus as a messenger of God, clothed in all | Christ hath been evidently set forth the honors of a divine commission. crucified among you ;' i. e. who have With a slight modification, the same heard this fact declared in the preachsign may be considered as shadowing ing of the gospel. The Psalmist probaforth the contrast between the condition bly alludes to the phraseology of the of the Israelites, wasted and worn out text, Ps. 105. 27, · They showed his in their bondage, and the state of pros- signs among them.' Heb.“ They show. perity and glory to which they were ed the words of his signs.' They were about to be raised as the elect people words spoken to the ear of reason, if of Heaven. This view is sufficient to not of sense. They will believe the show the pertinency of the sign, without voice of the latter sign. This is not requiring us to fix upon any more re- perhaps to be understood as a positive condite import. It was plainly adapted affirmation, for the next verse intimates to teach the general salutary lesson, the possibility that they may require that every thing human stands or falls, still farther evidence. The words apflourishes or fades, according to the pear designed to express the intrinsic good pleasure of God; that it is his adaptedness of the signs to produce beprerogative to weaken and abase the lief, or the effect which might be reasonstout, the hardy, the lofty, and his to ably anticipated from their exhibition. restore the decayed and fallen to life, The circumstance strikingly shows the activity, and vigor. - Leprous as extent of the divine indulgence. The

As snow is not leprous, refer- perverse rejection of the first sign alone ence must be intended to the color of would clearly show them unworthy of the flesh. Accordingly the Chal. has being favored with another. But God correctly, 'As white as snow. This multiplies mercies, even when judg. was the worst kind of leprosy, in ments are most richly deserved. He which the body not only assumes the gives sign upon sign, as well as line hue of dead and bloodless flesh, but be upon line. comes covered with white scales, at 9. Take of the water of the river. tended with a most tormenting itch. That is, of the river Nile. This, it would

8. If they will not hearken to the voice appear, was a miracle to be wrought of the first sign. That is, to the im. I for the confirmation of Moses' calling


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