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19 And they said unto Moses, to prove you, and & that his fear Speak thou with us, and we will may be before your faces, that ye hear: but d let not God speak with sin not. us, lest we die.

21 And the people stood afar off, 20 And Moses said unto the peo- and Moses drew near unto h the ple, e Fear not: f for God is come thick darkness where God was. c Deut. 5. 27. & 18. 16. Gal. 3. 19, 20. Hebr. 5 Deut. 4. 10. & 6.2. & 10. 12. & 17. 13, 19. & 12. 19. d Deut. 5. 25. e 1 Sam. 12. 20. Isai. 41. 19. 20. & 28.58. Prov. 3. 7. & 16. 6. Isai. 8. 13. 10, 13. Gen, 22. 1. Deut. 13. 3.

h ch. 19. 16. Deut. 5. 5. 1 Kings 8. 12. words of the present narrative, or from mediate death which they appear to the more full detail of incidents record. have entertained, and at the same time ed, Deut. 5. 22—31, which the reader assures them that from fear of another will find it interesting to compare with kind they were not by any means to the account before us. The essential be freed. Indeed it was one special character and scope of the ten com- design of the present array of terrors to mandments, as compared with the rest inspire them with it. The language of the Mosaic code, would make it marks very clearly the distinction beproper that it should be promulgated in tween the fear which has torment, a different manner.-9 Removed. Heb. which flows from conscious guilt, which 79777 va-yanu-u. The root 972 nua genders to bondage, and which drives is used not only to convey the idea of away from God, and that salutary fear physical motion, or removal, but also of which prompts to a deep reverence of mental disturbance, agitation, or trem- the divine Majesty, and habitually influ. bling. Accordingly the Gr. renders it ences the conduct. To prove you. by poßnbɛvres, affrighted, and the Chal. Heb. 6703 nassoth, to try, to tempt. in the same manner; “And the people Upon the import of this term see Note saw and trembled and stood afar off.' on Gen. 22. 1, respecting God's temptaSo also the Lat. Vulg. "Terrified and tion of Abraham. Instead of coming to panic-struck. We have little doubt that consume them, he had come to put their this is the genuine sense of the term. obedience to a fresh proof; to give them It expresses at least that degree of a more signal opportumity than ever be. mental emotion which would naturally fore to evince their deference and deprompt to a bodily removal.

votedness to his will. All the fearful 19. And they said unto Moses, &c. accompaniments of this august manifes. This it appears from Deut. 5. 23, was tation, were intended to impress them done through the medium of the elders with a profound regard to the authority and heads of the congregation, who and majesty of Jehovah, and thus to recame from the people to Moses, while strain them from sinning against hiin. he remained in his place. For he says 21. Moses drew near, &c. Heb. 272 in the passage just cited that they niggash, was made to draw near; the came near unto him, when they spake form of the verb being passive. Oi these words; which implies that they his own motion Moses would scarcely were at some distance before. Lest have durst to venture into the thick we die. Upon this popular belief among darkness from which ever and anon the chosen people in ancient times, see the appalling gleams of lightning burst Notes on Gen. 16. 13. Judg. 6. 22.- forth; but being specially called and 13. 22.

encouraged of God, he was virtually 20. And Moses said unto the people, taken by the hand and led up into the Fear not, &c. Moses encourages and precincts of the divine presence. The comforts them against that fear of im- ) incident plainly pointed to their and our VOL. I


22 | And the LORD said unto Mo- 23 Ye shall not make k with me ses, Thus thou shalt say unto the gods of silver, neither shall yemake children of Israel ; Ye have seen unto you gods of gold. that I have talked with you i from heaven.

k ch. 32. 1, 2, 4. 1 Sam. 5. 4, 5. 2 Kings

17. 33. Ezek. 20. 39. & 43. 8. Dan. 5. 4, 23. i Deut. 4. 36. Neh. 9. 13.

Zeph. 1. 5. 2 Cor. 6. 14, 15, 16.

need of a Mediator in all our attempts that the injunction before us is equiva. to deal with a God of immaculate purity lent to saying, “Ye have seen the man. and inflexible justice. Unto the ner in which I appeared and spake with thick darkness where God was. Chal. you from heaven. Ye yourselves are 'Where the Glory of the Lord was.' witnesses that no manner of similitude, Targ. Jon. “Where the Glory of the no visible figure or form, nothing which Shekinah of the Lord was.' The orig. could be represented by any pictorial or inal word for thick darkness' (39) sculptured semblance, entered into the araphel) is rendered in the Greek of the scenery that then struck your senses. New Testament, Heb. 12. 18, Avella, Therefore do not think of embodying which properly denotes a storm or tem- your conceptions of me in a material pest, and so also it is rendered by the image. Do not dishonor and degrade Sept. Duet. 4. 11, and 5. 22, in both which me by dividing my worship with that cases the English translation is thick of gods of silver or of gold. I will have darkness. The idea is probably that no participation with images or idols, of just such a dark, lowering, threaten the work of your own hands.' ing cloud as is usually with us attend. 23. Ye shall not make with me gods, ed by raging whirlwinds, tempests, and &c. Heb. ON 77290 x3 lo taasun rain.

itti, correctly rendered, ye shall not 22. The Lord said unto Moses, &c. make with me; i. e. ye shall not make There can be little doubt that this verse to worship in conjunction with me; contains the ground and reason of the plainly implying that this could not be prohibition in the next; but the exact done without making them rivals with chain of sequence which connects the him. The Chal. has however before two together, is not perfectly obvious me;' and this seems to be occasionally from the face of the narrative. But the force of the equivalent particle by upon referring to the parallel passage, im. Thus, Est. 7. 8, "Then said the Deut. 4. 14–16, where a more detailed king, Will he force the queen also beaccount is given of the solemn trans- fore me (7223 immi) in the house?' So actions of Sinai, we seem to be furnish. 2 Sam. 6. 7, 'And then he died by the ed with a clue to the connexion. 'And ark (7978 by im aron) of God,' com. the Lord commanded me at that time pared with the parallel expression, 1 to teach you statutes and judgments, Chron. 13. 10, “And there he died before that ye might do them in the land God (59738 mp3 liphne Elohim.)' By whither ye go over to possess it. Take gods of silver and of gold is plainly ye therefore good heed unto yourselves; meant idols made of those materials, (for ye saw no manner of similitude although in accommodation to popular on the day that the Lord spake unto usages of speech he dignifies them with you in Horeb out of the midst of the the title of gods. Thus the Israelites

Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and when they made the golden calf in the make you a graven image, the simili. wilderness (which in Acts, 7. 41, is ex. tude of any figure, the likeness of male pressly termed an idol), are said Ex, or female,' &c. From this we gather | 32. 8, 31, to have made them gods of

fire) ;

24 | An altar of earth thou shalt | come unto thee, and I will a bless make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thee. thereon thy burnt-offerings, and 25 And • if thou wilt make me an thy peace-offerings, I thy sheep, altar of stone, thou shalt not build and thine oxen: in all m places it of hewn stone, for if thou lift up where I record my name I will thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted

I Lev. 1, 2. m Deut, 12, 5, 11, 21. & 14, 23. it. & 16. 6, 11. & 26. 2. 1 Kings 8. 43. & 9. 3. 2 Chron. 6. 6. & 7. 16. & 12. 13. Ezra 6. 12. n Gen. 12. 2. Deut. 7. 13. o Deut. 27.5. Neh. 1. 9. Ps. 74. 7. Jer. 7. 10, 12.

Josh 8. 31.

gold,' and the idols or images of the goodness to the offerer. The English Philistines, 2 Sam. 5. 21; 1 Chron. 14. reader might suppose, from the present 12, are called their gods.' The words rendering, 'peace-offerings,' that they of this verse are a virtual repetition of were oblations presented for the purpose the second commandment, and point of securing peace or reconciliation with to that sin to which God foresaw the God; but this was the design rather of peculiar addictedness of his chosen peo- the burnt-offerings,' which were strict. ple. Their whole subsequent history ly propitiatory in their nature, whereas shows us that idolatry was their be the peace-offerings were merely eusetting iniquity, and consequently that charistical. the use of the word against which of all others they most peace,' in the sense of welfare,' see needed to be put upon their guard. If Note on Gen. 29.6. - In all places the true worship of the true God were where I record my name. Heb. 73T corrupted, every thing would be sure to go on azkir eth shemi, make my go wrong.

name to be remembered. Chal. 'In every 24. An altar of earth thou shalt make, place where I shall make my Glory to &c. This was a temporary regulation, dwell.' Gr. 'Where I shall name my having respect to such occasional altars name.' The meaning is, in all places as were erected on special emergencies, which I shall appoint for the celebra. of which see instances, Judg. 6. 24.- tion of my name, for the performance 13. 10. 1 Sam. 7. 17. They were made of my worship. by heaping up a quantity of earth, and 25. Thou shalt not build it of hewn covering it with green turf. As God stone. The reason of this probably designed to have the worship of his was, that carved and wrought stone people eventually concentrated at one usually expressed some kind of simili. place, he would not allow the rearing tude or image which might turn to an of altars of durable materials or finished occasion of superstition ; besides that workmanship elsewhere, lest his main they would be apt to be of a more purpose should be frustrated. :- Shall durable nature, and therefore more ea. sacrifice thereonthy peace-offerings. sily converted to monuments of idol. Heb. 7a30 shelamëka, lit. pay-offer- atry. It is possible, moreover, that this ings, compensations, retributions, paci- might be forbidden to the Israelites, in fications, from D300 shalam, to make up, opposition to the practices of the héato make good, restore, repay, and thence then, who built their altars of hewn to make up a difference, to effect a re- stones, and by having them curiously concilation, to be at peace. In this case wrought and adorned, rendered them the idea would perhaps be better con. more attractive as places of worship. veyed by the phrase welfare-offerings,' - If thou lift up thy tool upon it or 'thank-offerings,' i. e. offerings eli- thou hast polluted it. Not that the tool cited by a grateful sense of the dir ne lit elf had the power of pollution, but

26 Neither shalt thou go up by nakedness be not discovered theresteps unto mine altar, that thy on. the work was polluted or defiled by be sons. The ascent to the altar of the ing done contrary to the express com- tabernacle was therefore undoubtedly mand of heaven.

by a gentle slope, and a still farther 26. Neither shalt thou go up by steps, precaution against the inconvenience in &c. The reason is subjoined. As the question was afterwards adopted in the garments of the priests were long and kind of garments prescribed to the flowing, their ascending a flight of steps priests. might indecorously expose their per- |


As this is a term of very frequent occurrence in the Notes composing the present work, and one conveying a meaning of vast importance to the right ex. position of numerous passages in the Scriptures, we have concluded to devote a few supplementary pages to its elucidation. Whatever impressions of the intrinsic moment of the subject the reader may have received from our previous allusions to it, we have no doubt they will be materially deepened by the results of the critical enquiry upon which we now enter. If it were merely a point of curious antiquarian research, of the same class with the hieroglyphics of Egypt, or even the monumental records of the chosen people themselves, we should deem its claims upon our attention comparatively slight. But involving, as we are persuaded it does, an important clue to the true nature of the divine mani. festations recorded in the Old Testament, and their relation to the person and character of Christ, we know of no theme in the whole compass of revelation that more imperiously demands to be investigated. It is not possible indeed that our present limits should allow of full justice being done to the discussion, but we may still be able to present it in a somewhat more prominent light than is done in any of our previous or subsequent annotations.

: The etymology of the term first claims our notice. The Hebrew word 7343 shekinah comes by the most normal mode of formation from the root you shakan, which signifies to dwell, to dwell in, to inhabit, but more usually spoken of that kind of dwelling common to nomade tribes, viz., in tents or tahernacles. The derivative 73930 shekinah is defined by Buxtorf (Lex. Rabbin. voc. 150) to signify primarily habitation or cohabitation, but as being spoken more par. ticularly of the divine presence, glory, and majesty, or of the Divinity itself when it is said to be present to men, or to converse with them, or to vouchsafe to them its sensible and gracious aid. He remarks, moreover, that it is commonly explained by the Rabbinical writers of the divine glory or majesty in its external manifestation, as something present and dwelling among men. ACcordingly the following among hundreds of other passages are rendered by the Chaldee Targum of Onkelos and Jonathan conformably to this definition ; Ps. 74. 2, 'Remember thy congregation which thou hast purchased of old; this mount Zion wherein thou hast dwelt.' Chal. "Wherein thou hast made thy Shekinah to dwell.' Num. 10.36, “Return, O Lord, unto the many thousands of Israel.' Chal. “Return now, 0 Word of the Lord, to thy people Israel, make the glory of thy Shekinah to dwell among them, and have mercy on the thousands of Israel.' Num. 11. 20, Ye have despised the Lord which is among you.' Chal. 'Ye have despised the Word of the Lord whose Shekinah dwelleth among you.' Hag. 1. 8, 'Go up to the mountain, and bring wood, and build the house, and I will take pleasure in it, and will be glorified, saith the Lord. Chal. ‘And

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