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sabbath there was to be a holy convoca- 1 of stone, it would not be easy to offer a tion, or an assembly of the people, at stronger argument in proof of the perthe tabernacle, as afterwards at the petuity of its obligation. Not doubting, temple, for the public worship of God, therefore, that an institution which was as if this were the appropriate mode of binding before the law is equally binding remembering the sabbath; "Six days after it, unless distinctly repealed, we shall work be done ; but the serenth have only to remark, that the particular day is the sabbath of rest, an holy con- day in the week is not specified ; it is, vocation; ye shall do no work therein: “remember the sabbath day,'-not the it is the sabbath of the Lord in all your “ seventh day-to keep it holy. All dwellings.' But in addition to the 'holy that the commandment expressly re. convocation, the Israelites were re- quires is, to observe a day of sacred quired to offer a greater number of sacri. rest after every six days of labor. fices on that than on other days, Numb. The seventh day indeed is to be kept 28. 9, 10, and we cannot question that holy, but not a word is here said as to these various services were understood the point from which the reckoning is to enter essentially into the due observ- to begin. The seventh day' is not so ance of this hallowed season. It con much the seventh according to any pare sequently leads us to the inevitable in. ticular method of computing the sep. ference, that the sabbath is not properly tenary cycle, as in reference to the six or adequately kept unless it be distin working days before-mentioned ; every guished from other days by being in a seventh day in rotation after six of la. special manner devoted to the duties of bor. The Jewish sabbath was kept on public as well as private worship. our Saturday, but we act equally in ac

It is doubtless true that this com- cordance with the spirit and the letter of mandment is not so purely moral or this commandment by keeping it on Sunself-enforced in its own nature as the day; and as this was the day on which our rest. Although the consecration of a Lord arose from the dead, it has come certain portion of our time to the im to be appropriately designated as the mediate service of God may perhaps be Lord's day, and as such has been obadmitted to be of moral obligation, yet served as the Christian sabhath from the exact proportion, as well as the the earliest periods of the church. particular day, may be considered as of 1 To keep it holy. Heb. 700703 lekadpositive institution, and therefore some desho, to sanctify it. On the import of what more of a Jewish aspect is given this term see Note on Gen. 2. 3. to this precept than to either of the 9. Six days shalt thou labor, and do others. For this reason some in all all thy work. . periods of the church have been led to melakteka, all thy business or servile question whether it is properly to be work. It comes from the ancient root considered as still remaining in force 783 laak, to send, to depute, from under the Christian dispensation, par- which also comes ja malak, a mes. ticularly as no express mention is made senger, and properly signifies all that of it in the New Testament. But as it varied service and ministry to the per. was in its substantial features no doubt in formance of which servants were sent existence long before the period of the or despatched, and about which they Jewish economy, as it forms an inte. were employed. It plainly refers to gral part of that collection of precepts the daily routine of ordinary secular which was spoken from heaven by the employments, all which were to be dili. voice of God, and was afterwards writ- gently pursued on the six working days, ten by the finger of God on the tables I and religiously suspended on the sen

kot כל מלאכתך .Heb

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EXODUS.

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10 But the serenth day is the stranger that is within thy gawa
sabbath of the LORD thy God :
in s thou shalt not do any work, heaven and earth, the sea and
thou, nor thy son, nor thy daugh- that in them is, and rested
ter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid- seventh day: wherefore the Lo
servani, nor thy cattle, p nor thy blessed the sabbath-day, and by

lowed it.

11 For 9 in six days the LORD I

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• Gen. 9. 2, 3. ch. 16. 26. & 31. 15. P Neh.
13. 10, 17, Is, 19.

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enth or day of rest. As the words be- thus saith the Lord unto the eunuch! long to the first table, which is not de. that keep my sabbaths, and choose the signed to teach us our duties to our things that please me,' &c. In it selves or our neighbors, but to God, thou shalt not do any work, &c. That they are not in their intrinsic import is, no secular or servile work, nothing so strictly preceptive or imperative, as pertaining to a mere worldly calling. permissive. Though they do in their Works of piety, necessity, and charity spirit inculcate the duty of active and are of course excepted, as these consist exemplary diligence in the season of entirely with the spirit of that day, as it, yet their primary drift is, undoubt. a day of holy rest; for the sabbath edly, to define that season; to teach was made for man, and not man for the us within what bounds our labor is to sabbath. It is obvious, however, that be circumscribed, in contradistinction all works of a different character are to to the allotted time of rest. In mak- be excluded from the hallowed hours of ing this disposal of time, however, the the sabbath, and our affairs should be Most High of course reserved to him. previously so arranged, that the sacred self the right of occasionally setting duties of the Lord's day may be inter. apart some one or more of those six rupted as little as possible; nor should days for religious services, and we are any thing be considered as a work of not to consider it as any infringement necessity on that day, which can be upon the original precept if extraordi- done before the sabbath,

or delayed till nary seasons of fasting, thanksgiving, after it. All buying and selling, pay. and worship should occasionally be set ing wages, settling accounts, gathering apart in like manner, by civil or eccle. harvests, clearing out of vessels from siastical authority.

port, making up, sorting, or transport10. The seventh day is the sabbath of ing of mails, writing letters of business the Lord thy God. Heb. 7777773 nam or amusement, reading books, papers, 77738 shabboth laihovah Elohëka, a or pamphlets on ordinary subjects, trisabbath to Jehovah thy God. That is, Aling visits, journies, excursions, or conthe sabbath appointed by and conse- versation on topics merely secular, are crated to the Lord thy God; the sab. inconsistent with keeping a day holy bath in which God asserts a special in. unto the Lord.'- Thou nor thy son, terest, which he peculiarly claims as nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, his own, and which we cannot refuse to &c. This part of the precept goes not sanctify to him without being guilty of only to extend the obligation, but also a kind of sacrilege, and appropriating to secure the privileges of the sabbath to ourselves what properly belongs to

to every class and condition of men. another. In accordance with this phrase. The wife indeed is not mentioned, beology we find it said, Lev. 26. 2, 'Ye cause she is supposed to be one with

the shall keep my sabbath? Is. 56. 4, "For husband, and as cooperating with him of

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ays the Loommandment of God. But the rest of porrwv EV 001, the proselyte dwelling
and rei female servants, are specified in such a might be resident among the Israelites,
day, ani the responsibility of uniting all their authority of the law sanctifying the sab-

ourse in carrying into execution every on Gen. 22. 17. Gr. 6 mpoonuros o tra-
the family, sons and daughters, male and among thee. Even the strangers who
way as to throw upon heads of families are here required to acknowledge the
household establishment in the due ob- bath day; which is in other words re.
servance of the day. Whatever relief, cognising the right of the Israelites to
refreshment, or rest may be intended to demand that strangers should pay a rev-
be afforded by the institution, servants erent respect to the institutions, civil
sidered as entitled to its merciful provi- whom they sojourned. For otherwise
sions. It is indeed the destiny of man how could this charge be embraced in
that he should earn his bread by the the duty of the Israelites ? But the
sweat of his brow, but the sabbath is thing was in itself in the highest de.
graciously bestowed upon him as a re- gree reasonable and proper. If such a
lief to that destiny. His mental energy stranger were a proselyte of the class
and bodily health are to be renewed by called proselytes of righteousness or
its leisure ; and God who has thus be justice, it was of course incumbent up-
stowed upon man the substantial bless on him to conform to all the observ.
ing of a periodical cessation from toil

, ances of the Hebrews. If he were mere-
has decreed the same privilege to the ly a proselyte of the gate, who had re-
menial classes and the inferior animals. nounced idolatry without receiving cir.
The rest therefore so kindly provided cumcision, still it was fitting that he
by the Creator for servants and cattle should rest from his labors on the sab-
ought not to be unnece

ecessarily broken. bath day, and not, by engaging in them, The domestic, on that day, should be re- disturb those who were desirous at that in of leased, as far as possible, from his or time of quietly devoting themselves to

dinary labors, and the beast which has the duties of public and private worship.
served us faithfully during the week, It was doing as he would be done by in
should not be deprived of his share of similar circumstances.
the general repose. Were this law but 11. For in six days the Lord made,
duly observed, the servants in many &c: We are here reminded of the origin
families would be spared that labor on of the sabbath, by way of enforcing its
the sabbath which now too often pre observance by an appropriate sanction.
vents their attending to any religious It was designed for a memorial of the
duty. Nor would the use of horses for creation of the world, and therefore to
travelling so extensively disgrace our be observed to the glory of the Creator
own and other Christian lands. Many who made heaven and earth. All the
a driver and ostler, who knows no ces perfections of the Godhead, accordingly,
sation from his daily task, would be which are so conspicuously displayed
found frequenting the place of worship; in the wondrous fabric of creation, and
and many a poor animal, which now in that providence by which it is upheld
pants under the lash of the sabbath, and governed, should be devoutly con-
would then be permitted to recover templated and adored on that solemn
strength for the ensuing six days of in- day. Upon comparing this passage with
evitable labor. Nor thy stranger Deut. 5. 15, a different reason seems to
that is within thy gates. That is, with. be given for the observance of the sab-
in thy cities, as explained in the Note bath; 'And remember that thou wast a

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12 1r Honour thy father and thy | mother; that thy days may be long Ech. 23. 26. Lev. 19. 3. Deut. 5. 16. Jer. upon the land which the LORD thy 35. 7, 18, 19. Matt. 15. 4. & 19. 19. Mark 7. God giveth thee. 10. & 10. 19. Luke 18. 20. Ephes. 6. 2.

THE FIFTH COMMANDMENT.

servant in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord thy God brought thee out thence

SECOND TABLE. through a mighty hand and by a stretch. ed-out arm: therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath

12. Honor thy father and thy mother, day.' But the two are by no means in. &c. Heb. 7) kabüd, from 72 kaconsistent with each other. The first, bad, to be heavy; thence applied to taken from the creation, was well known weight of character, dignity, or what and continued valid of course ; but the entitles one to respect, honor, distin. second, taken from the deliverance from guished esteem. Accordingly in the Piel Egypt, was merely superadded to the conjugation it signifies to regard, treat, first in order to give more force to the or practically declare one as worthy of sense of obligation by coupling it with honor.. It is directly opposed to the the memory of an important event in word 33p kalal, to make light of, to set their national history. It would seem light by, to account mean, vile, or worth. too that the allusion in the latter case less. Accordingly we find this term emhad special respect to that clause of the ployed to signify a conduct. the reverse precept which enjoins the duty of mas- of that enjoined in this precept; as Deut. ters in regard to their servants. While 27. 16, 'Cursed be he that setteth light the Israelites were in Egypt in a state of by (-13pa makleh) his father or his slavery they were no doubt restricted mother.? Ezek. 22. 7, 'In thee have by their despotic oppressors from ob- they set light by (73777 hëkallu) father serving the sabbath as they otherwise and mother. From the same root 15 would. But now when set at liberty kabad, comes the original word for glory, and permitted to serve God according 775 kabod, whence the Apostle has, to the precepts of their religion, he just. 2 Cor. 4. 17, Weight of glory,' and ly expected that they should make a Peter, 2 Pet. 2. 10, denominates magis. right use of their liberty, and deal more trates došai, glories, from the weight mercifully with their servants than the of character attached to them. Comp. Egyptians had dealt with them; and Note on Gen. 31. 1. In Lev. 19. 3, and particularly that they should permit Deut. 5. 16, the word ga yara, to fear, them to rest one day in seven, that is, to reverence is substituted, but obvious. as often as they did themselves. ly with the same import. The grand

For a more extended and elaborate duty here inculcated is that of filial view of the origin, design, obligation, piety, embracing that entire class of and due observance of the holy sabbath, duties which children owe to their par. the reader is referred to Edwards' and ents. The foundation of these duties is Dwight's Theology, and to the Trea- laid in the nature of the relation which tises of Bp. Wilson, Gurney, Humph. parents and children sustain to each rey, Agnew, Waterbury, and Kings- other, and they are so obvious that chil. bury, in which is accumulated an im- dren themselves, even at a very tender mense fund of argumentative and prac. age, are capable of feeling deeply their tical matter relative to this divine in obligation. Parents are under God the stitution.

immediate authors of the being of chil.

dren. It is to their parents that they ableness to refuse them succor or relief; owe their preservation, sustentation, that it is more than incivility to be unand protection during that helpless pe kind to them; that it is more than sor. riod in which they are utterly incapable did avarice to withhold aid from their of taking care of themselves. The hearts necessities? Who is not prompted at of parents are full of the kindest affec- once to brand such conduct as impiety? tion-love, tender solicitude, pity, sym. Indeed the language of inspiration ex. pathy, benevolence-towards their chil. pressly confirms this view of the subdren, affections which show themselves ject, i Tim. 5. 4, 'If any widow have in the most painful exertions, toils, children or nephews (i. e. grandchil. watchings, privations, sacrifices of com- dren) let them learn first to show piety fort and ease, of which human nature is (evoeßelv) at home, and to requite capable. They willingly undergo hard. their parents; for that is good and acship, encounter peril, incur expense, and ceptable before God;' where the term jeopard their lives and their health to employed is the proper one for expresspromote the welfare of their offspring. ing piety towards God. And children, when they are more ad As to the precise import of the prevanced in age, come of course into the cept, it will perhaps be more distinctly full participation of all the temporal ad- gathered from the several parallel in. vantages of their parents' station in life, ctions scattered through the and whether of wealth, honor, or respect. New Testament ; ‘Ye shall fear every ability. Indeed it is in great measure man his mother and his father, and for their children that parents live and keep my sabbath; I am the Lord your labor in the world.

God.' 'My son, keep thy father's com. For these and similar reasons parents mandment, and forsake not the law of most justly claim what the great Parent thy mother.' 'Children, obey your paof all here claims for them. And as rents in the Lord; for this is right.' they have affections and perform actions Children obey your parents in all things, nearly akin to those of God towards us, for this is well pleasing unto the Lord.' they may properly be deemed in a sense In these passages the phraseology is so his representatives, the lively images varied, as to make it evident that the of him in whom we live and move and precept implies not only an abstract have our being, and on that account en sentiment, a cordial inward respect and titled to a special veneration from their esteem for their persons, but also obe. children. God himself, we know, in dience to their lawful commands, sub order to endear himself to our hearts, mission to their rebukes, instructions, and to win more effectually our obedi- and corrections, deference to their counence, assumes the title of Father, and sels, and sincere endeavors to promote on this ground lays a special claim to their comfort, particularly in old age, our respect; 'If I be a father, where is when by affording them a maintenance mine honor?' And it is remarkable that we can in some measure requite their while the duties owed to other men are care of our infancy and childhood. If termed justice, or charity, or courtesy, such are the duties of children, ра. or liberality, or gratitude, those due to rents, on the other hand, remember that parents in most languages are compris- correspondent duties, rest upon them. ed under the title of piety, implying Though children are not absolved from something divine in the objects of them. the obligation of this commandment by Who indeed does not feel that it is the misconduct of their parents, yet in something more than injustice to wrong the nature of things it is impossible a parent ; that it is more than uncharit- I that they should yield the same hearty

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