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5 And it shall come to pass, that hath brought you out from the land on the sixth day they shall prepare of Egypt: that which they bring in ; and hit 7 And in the morning, then ye shall be twice as much as they shall see k the glory of the LORD: gather daily.

for that he heareth your murmur6 And Moses and Aaron said unto ings against the LORD: And I what all the children of Israel, i At even, are we, that ye murmur against then

ye

shall know that the LORD us? h See ver. 22. Lev. 25. 21, i See ver. 12, 13. k See ver. 10, Isai. 35. 2. & 40. 5. John & ch. 6. 7. Numb. 16. 28, 29, 30.

11. 4, 40.

I Numb, 16. 11.

other. How unspeakably kind and con- that both their hands and their minds descending in the great Father of all to might be unencumbered with domestic assume upon himself the care of our in. cares during the season of worship. terests, and relieve our minds from the Whether the same or a similar preparaoppressive load of anxiety which we so tion of the manna was necessary on the often suffer to weigh upon them! Not other days of the week, it is not possi. that we are to deem ourselves exempted ble to determine. The probability, we from the necessity of diligent exertion; think, is that it was not. not that we are to fold our hands in 6. At even, then shall ye know, &c. listless torpor, and call this an humble The Israelites had charged Moses and reliance on heaven;' but having done Aaron with bringing them out of Egypt what we can, we are not to be solicit. as if from their own motion. Moses, ous; we are not to give way to un. therefore, here assures them, on the believing fears lest we should not be other hand, that they should soon have provided for. Our heavenly Father know- evidence that it was Jehovah, and not eth that we have need of these things. his servants, who had brought them out He will take care of his children, and of the land of bondage. let them not be surprised or stumbled 7. In the morning, then ye shall see if they should themselves painfully the glory of the Lord. That is, shall 'proved on this score at more than one behold the cloudy pillar, the Shekinah, station of their wanderings in this wil. resplendent with a peculiar brightness derness world. The original term 103 and glory, as a signal of the Lord's spenasäh, to tempt or try, is the same as cial presence, both to hear your mur. that applied elsewhere in similar con- murings and to supply your wants. It nexions, and which is fully explained appears that on several occasions the in the Note on Gen. 22. 1. The pro- tumults of the people were assauged by nominal' suffix, however, is not “them,' some visible change in the ordinary apas in our translation, but 'him,' repre- pearance of the pillar of cloud, betoken. senting the whole people as spoken of ing, perhaps, by a fierce and vehement

glow the kindling of the divine dis. 5. On the sixth day they shall prepare pleasure. See Num. 12.5—14, 10–16, that which they bring in.' From this it 42. Or the phrase "glory of the Lord' appears that the manna gathered on the may be but another expression for the sixth day was not eaten in the form in miraculous work, the sending of the which it was brought in. It was first manna, which so strikingly manifested bruised in a mortar, or ground in a mill, his glory. Thus, in like manner, in reand then baked into bread. This pro- ference to the miraculous work of Christ cess, whatever it was, was to be per- in raising Lazarus from the dead it is formed on the day before the sabbath, said, John, 11. 40, 'Said I not unto thee

as one man.

8 And Moses said, This shall be murmurings are not against us, when the LORD shall give you in but m against the LORD. the evening flesh to eat, and in the 9 | And Moses spake unto Aaron, morning bread to the full; for that Say unto all the congregation of the LORD heareth your murmur- the children of Israel, n Come near ings which ye murmur against

m See 1 Sam. 8.7. Luke 10, 16, Rom, 13. him: and what are we? your 2. n Numb. 16. 16,

that if thou wouldst believe thou shouldst Lord heareth, &c. These words con. see the glory of God ?' i. e. the glorious firm the idea suggested above, that the work of God. So also Num. 14. 21, 22, language of rebuke and threatening is 'glory' is used in a sense equivalent to intermingled with that of favor. Otherstriking achievements of divine power; wise how can we understand it as a * But as truly as I live, all the earth reason for supplying their wants, that he shall be filled with the glory of the had heard their murmurings ? Such a Lord. Because all those men which reason demanded a punishment rather have seen my glory, and my miracles than a favor; and we can have no doubt (or, even my miracles), &c., shall not that while God intended to bestow upon see the land which I sware unto their them, in his own way, the requisite fathers. The first is dou tless the most means of subsistence, he intended at the primary and legitimate sense, as ap- same time to make such a display of pears from v. 10; and we cannot ques. himself as would chasten, humble, and tion, from the ordinary import of the shame his people in view of their sinful glowing or burning pillar of cloud, that deportment. – - Your murmurings the spectacle now predicted was in- are not against us. Not so much against tended to intimate to them the fact of us as against the Lord. So 1 Sam. 8. 7, the divine displeasure, notwithstanding 'For they have not rejected thee, but the purpose graciously to supply their they have rejected me ;' i. e. not so wants. Thus the Jewish commentator much thee as me. John, 12, 44, 'He Abrabanel; “Their seeing the glory of that believeth on me, believeth not on the Lord is not to be understood of the me, but on him that sent me ;' i. e. not bread, or the flesh he sent them, but of so much on me. Chal. “Your murmur. the fire which appeared to all the people ings are not against us, but against the to reprove them for their murmurings.' Word of the Lord.'

8. The Lord shall give you in the 9. Come near before the Lord. That evening flesh to eat. As God does not is, before the cloud in which the Lord's always withhold in displeasure, so he glorious presence was manifested, and does not always grant in love. A prom- which for the present constituted the ise of bread in the morning is precious Shekinah or habitation of the divine Mainformation, but the addition of flesh to jesty. The symbols of God's presence the full in the evening, and that very are repeatedly in the Scriptures called evening, wears rather the appearance of by his name. Thus Uzzah is said, i a threatening. When our desires exceed Chron. 13. 10, to have died before God;' the bounds of wisdom they amount to whereas in 2 Sam. 6. 7, it is said, 'He died lusts, and if God deigns to gratify our by the ark of God.' So the commandment, lusts it is very far from being a token Ex. 23. 17, “Three times in the year all for good. On the contrary, it is suspi- thy males shall appear before the Lord cious; it is ominous of a purpose to God,' is to be understood of appearing chastise us through the natural results before the tabernacle or temple, 'the of our own folly. - -1 For that the place which the Lord did choose to put Vol. I

18

ap

q ver. 6.

rver. 7.

before the LORD: for he hath heard of the children of Israel ; speak unyour murmurings.

to them, saying, 9 At even ye shall 10 And it came to pass, as Aaron eat flesh, and rin the morning ye spake unto the whole congregation shall be filled with bread: and ye of the children of Israel, that they shall know that I am the LORD your looked toward the wilderness, and God. behold, the glory of the LORD O 13 And it came to pass, that at peared in the cloud.

even s the quails came up, and cove 11 | And the LORD spake unto ered the camp: and in the mornMoses, saying.

ing t the dew lay round about the 12 p I have heard the murmurings host. o ver. 7. ch. 13. 21. Nuwb. 16. 19. 1 Kings

& Numb. 11. 31. Ps. 8. 10, 11. P ver. 8.

78. 27, 28. & 105. 40. t Numb. 11. 9. his name there.' Deut. 12. 5, 6. Be- the two evenings. Gr. to apos éottepov, fore this awful symbol they were now towards evening; i.e. in the afternoon. cited to appear, as before a tribunal. See Note on Ex. 12. 6.

10. They looked toward the wilder. 13. At even the quails came up. Heb. ness. In the direction in which they 732 Byn taal hasselav, the quail (col. were journeying, whither the cloud had lect. sing.) came up. The 'quail' is a probably moved in advance of the con- bird of the gallinaceous kind, some. gregation. The glory of the Lord what resembling the partridge. Has. appeared in the cloud. Chal. “The Glory selquist, speaking of the larger species of the Lord was revealed.' Arab. "And of quail, says, 'It is of the size of the lo, the Light of the Lord in the cloud.' turtle-dove. I have met with it in the That is, the Shekinah appeared in a wilderness of Palestine near the shores new aspect. An unwonted glowing fiery of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, between brightness appeared in the guiding pil. Jordan and Jericho, and in the deserts lar, which on ordinary occasions pre- of Arabia Petræa. If the food of the -sented to the eye merely an opaque Israelites was a bird, this is certain. towering mass of cloud, in which the ly it; being so common in the places divine Majesty was supposed to dwell, through which they passed.' Some com. and did dwell. Its preternatural re mentators have supposed that the orig. splendent appearance was obviously a inal word 730 salav, denoted a species token of the displeasure of God towards of locust, which is well known to have his people.

See Remarks above, p. 164 constituted anciently an article of food --168.

among the inhabitants of that region, 11, 12. The Lord spake unto Moses, and which is in fact eaten by the Arabs &c. These two verses are undoubtedly of the present day. But to this it is an designed to acquaint us with the source insuperable objection, that the Psalmist, and authority of the annunciation which in describing this particular food of the Moses gave v. 6,7, and therefore the Israelites, says, Ps. 78. 27, 'He rained verb 'spake' should be rendered in the flesh also upon them as dust, and feath. pluperfect tense, "had spoken. This ered fowls like as the sand of the sea.' makes the narrative clear, and super. They came up' from the Arabian Gulf, sedes the necessity for which some com across which they fly in the spring in mentators contend, of transposing these great numbers, and are often so fatigued verses so as to bring them in immedi. after their passage, and fly so low, as ately after v. 3. 1 At even. Heb. to become an easy prey wherever they 429977 793 bën ha-arbayim, between I alight. Wisd. 19. 12, 'For quails came

14 And when the dew that lay | 15 And when the children of Iswas gone up, behold, upon the face rael saw it, they said one to anof the wilderness there laya a small other, It is manna : for they wist not round thing, as small as the hoar what it was. And Moses said unto frost on the ground:

them, * This is the bread which

the LORD hath given you to eat. u Numb, 11. 7. Deut. 8. 3. Neh. 9. 15. Ps. 78. 24. & 105. 40.

* John 6. 31, 49, 58. 1 Cor. 10. 3. up unto them from the sea for their con- dew in order that a due degree of moist. tentment.' Another miraculous supply ure might be imparted to it, and that it of quails was granted to the Israelites might be gathered clean and free from about a year after this, of which we the dust or sand of the desert. It was have a detailed account, Num. 11. 31— made to fall upon the face of the wil. 35. David probably alludes to both when derness,' or without the precincts of the he says, Ps. 105. 40, 'The people asked, camp, probably because the camp was and he brought quails, and satisfied not so clean a place for the purpose. them with the bread of heaven (the " A small round thing. Heb. DT. manna).' — The dew lay. Heb. Obonn dak mehuspos, from the root 307 nad 7077 hayethah Shikbath PDT dakak, signifying to beat small or hattal, there was a laying (or layer) of fine, to comminute, to triturate ; and dew. Chal. “There was a descent of hence as an adjective small, minute, dew.' Arab. “There was a spreading atom-like. It would seem to have been of dew.'

a fine powdered substance, like flour,' 14. And when the dew that lay was and perhaps a pretty large mixture of gone up, &c. Heb. 3on habu 39n7 dew was necessary to give it sufficient vattaal shikbath hattal, and the layer of coherence to enable them to gather it. dew came up; i.e. appeared on the sur. As to the connected word Dbonn me. face of the earth, without any special husphos, though rendered round, it is of reference to its originating in the air, extremely uncertain sense, occurring no and much less without intending to con- where else but here, and derived from vey the idea of its evaporation into the an unknown root. From a comparison atmosphere, as our translation has er. of the cognate dialects Castell elicits roneously rendered it. The phrase in the sense of beat, pounded, pulverised; the original is precisely the same with Gesenius that of decorticatum or somethat applied to the quails, v. 13, 3gn thing pealed off ; i. e. scaly, flaky; and 7301 taal hasselav, the quail came up; Michaelis that of snow-like, which lat. i. e. made its appearance. There is no ter Rosenmuller very confidently adopts good reason for rendering the particle 7 as the true sense, particularly as it is and by when’ as is done in our version. immediately after compared to the hoar. The true meaning of the clause must be frost. But it is still a field of con. determined by what is more explicitly jecture. affirmed of the phenomenon, Num. 11. 15. They said one to another, It is 9; 'And when the dew fell npon the manna; for they wist not what it was. camp in the night, the manna fell upon Heb. *77 ya man-hu. The rendering it ;' from which it does not appear that in our translation is manifestly incor. the ordinary dew first vanished away rect and contradictory, and should be before the manna was seen. On the exchanged for that in the margin, 'What contrary, the substance resembling the is this?' For how could the Israelites hoar-frost lay upon the dew. It was be ignorant what it was, if they at once perhaps imbedded thus in the morning I declared it to be manna? Josephus

says expressly that 'man' is a particle, 'what,' simply because that, upon its of interrogation, and so the Septuagint first appearance, they said, “what is it?' understands it-t1 EOTC TOUTO, what is Although it is true that they did not this? It is but proper to remark here, distinctly know what it was when it however, that another, and perhaps on appeared, and they had no particular the whole a better derivation of the term name by which to express it, yet they itself is given by most of the Jewish had been assured by Moses, verse 12, and many Christian critics. This is to that they should be satisfied with food, trace its etymology to 17an manah, to and they accordingly conjectured that prepare, appoint, determine, apportion, what they saw was the portion intend. whence by apocope of the last letter ed for them from heaven, and applied ga man, the same as mana manah, a to it the proper term for expressing that part, a portion, a prepared allowance. idea.-It can scarcely be necessary to Thus we find the latter employed, 1 inform the reader that attempts have Sam. 1. 4.5, 'And when the time was been made to identify this manna with that Elkanah offered, he gave to Penin. the natural juices or gums of certain nah his wife, and to all her sons and trees or shrubs to which the name has her daughters, portions (177272 manoth). been given. The strongest claim to But unto Hannah he gave a worthy por. identity applies to the substance called tion (itana manah) for he loved Hannah; by the Arabs mann, of which the fullest but the Lord had shut up her womb. account is given by Burckhardt (Tour in 1 Sam. 9. 23, ‘And Samuel said unto the Peninsula of Mount Sinai). Speakthe cook, Bring the portion (773ra ma- ing of the Wady el Sheikh, to the north nah) which I gave thee, of which I said of Mount Serbal, he says, 'It is the only unto thee, Set it by thee.' Ps. 11. 6, valley in the peninsula of Sinai where “This shall be the portion (nara me. this tree grows, at present, in any great nath) of their cup.' That an abbrevia. quantity; though small bushes of it are tion of the word from 732 manah to 12 here and there met with in other parts. man should occur under the circum. It is from the tarfa that the manna is stances is very natural, as the next word obtained. This substance is called by begins with 7h, the very letter elided, the Bedouins mann, and accurately reand similar contractions in regard to sembles the description of manna given the verb 1722 manah are very common. in the Scriptures. In the month of Jane, Thus Ps. 61. 7, 'O prepare ya man) it drops from the thorns of the tamarisk mercy and truth for him.' Jonah, 1. 17, upon the fallen twigs, leaves, and thorns "Now the Lord had prepared (739 ye- which always cover the ground beneath man) a great fish.' Dan. 1.5, 'And the that tree in the natural state ; the manna king appointed (727 yeman) them a is collected before sunrise, when it is daily provision, &c. As, therefore, coagulated; but it dissolves as soon as both the form and the signification favor the sun shines upon it. The Arabs clean this etymology, there is, we conceive, away the leaves, dirt, etc., which ad. little hazard in saying with the most here to it, boil it, strain it through a learned of the Rabbins, that man sig. coarse piece of cloth, and put it in nifies the food appointed, prepared for, leathern skins: in this way they preand doled out to the children of Israel serve it till the following year, and use as their portion. Such a name was ap- it as they do honey, to pour over unpropriate to this miraculous food, while leavened bread, or to dip their bread there is something undignified, to say into. I could not learn that they ever the least, in the idea that this super. made it into cakes or loaves. The man.' natural aliment should always be called | na is found only in years when copious

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