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I will let you go,

shall stay

u 2 Chron. 12. 6. Ps. 129. 4 & 145. 17. Lam. 1. 18. Dan. 9. 14. X ch.8

ous, such as there was none like it | 27 | And Pharaoh sent and called in all the land of Egypt since it for Moses and Aaron, and said became a nation.

unto them, I have sinned this 25 And the hail smote throughout time: uthe LORD is righteous, and all the land of Egypt all that was in I and my people are wicked. the field, both man and beast, and 28 « Entreat the LORD (for it is the hail r smote every herb of the enough) that there be no more field and brake every tree of the mighty thunderings and hail; and field.

and

ye 26 s Only in the land of Goshen, no longer. where the children of Israel were, was there no hail.

t ch. 10. 16. r Ps. 105. 33. Sch. 8. 22. & 9.4, 6. & 10. 23. & 11.7. & 12. 13. Isai. 32. 18, 19.

8, 28. & 10. 17. Acts 8. 24. in quiet resting-places, when it shall | eous, and I and my people are wicked. hail, coming down on the forest ; and Under the pressure of his convictions the city shall be utterly abased.' No he humbles himself still farther, and wonder that the visitation should, for entreats that this direful plague may at a time at least, have overpowered the once be stayed, promising without any obduracy of Pharaoh, and prompted him qualification that the people shall be to send in haste for Moses and Aaron, dismissed. Perhaps he sincerely felt and address them in the language of the and intended all that he said at the time humbled penitent.

as the terror of the rod often extorts peni. 25. The hail smote every herb of the tent acknowledgments from those that field. That is, some of all sorts, as is have no penitent affections ; but the re. evident from Ex. 10. 15. Thus, Acts, 10. sult proved that he knew little of the 12, 'Wherein were all manner of four. plague of his own heart, whatever he had footed beasts of the earth.' Gr. navta been compelled to know of the plague TU TET0.11 1da, all four.footed beasts. of God's hand. Moses, however, though

27, 28. I have sinned this time. As he evidently placed no reliance upon it can hardly be supposed that Pharaoh his promise, v. 30, did not hesitate to intended to limit this confession of his listen to his request, and engaged at sin to the present instance of his unbe- once to obtain a cessation of the storm; lief, we are no doubt authorized to ex- thus teaching us that even those of tend the import of the phrase "this whom we have little hopes, and who time to the whole course of his dis will probably soon repent of their reobcdience during the occurrence of the pentance are still to be prayed for and preceding plagues. This sense of the admonished. -1 Righteous, &c. Heb. phrase strikingly confirms the interpre- 277317 hatz-tzaddik, the righteous one tation put upon it in v. 14, as implying - 57077 hareshaim, the sinners ; the time of a future series of judgments. thus showing that the original is far Overcome by the tremendous display of more emphatic than our translation. It the divine indignation which he had just was equivalent to saying that he and witnessed, and which had proved fatal his people fully deserved all that had to many of his subjects, he confessed been brought upon them.- Mighty himself on the wrong side in his contest thunderings. Heb. 67734 03D koloth with the God of the Hebrews, declares Elohim, voices of God; i. e. loud and that he has sinned in standing it out so deafening peals of thunder, called voices long, and owns the equity of God's pro- or thunderings of God as “mountains ceedings against him: 'The Lord is right. I of God' are large and lofty mountains.

29 And Moses said unto him, As were not smitten: for they were
soon as I am gone out of the city, I not grown up.
will y spread abroad my hands unto 33 And Moses went out of the city
the LORD; and the thunder shall from Pharaoh, and c spread abroad
cease, neither shall there be any his hands unto the LORD: and the
more hail; that thou mayest know thunders and hail ceased, and the
how that the 2 earth is the LORD's. rain was not poured upon the earth.

30 But as for thee and thy ser 34 And when Pharaoh saw that
vants, a I know that ye will not the rain and the hail and the thun-
yet fear the LORD God.

ders were ceased, he sinned yet 31 And the flax and the barley more, and hardened his heart, he was smitten: b for the barley was and his servants. in the ear, and the flax was bolled. 35 And d the heart of Pharaoh was 32 But the wheat and the rye hardened, neither would he let the

children of Israel go; as the LORD y 1 Kings 8. 22, 38. Ps. 143. 6. Isai. 1. 15. z Ps. 24. 1. 1 Cor. 10. 26, 28. a Isai. 26. 10. had spoken by Moses. b Ruth I. 22. & 2. 23.

c ver. 29. ch. 8. 12. d ch. 4. 21. See Note on Gen. 23.6. - Shall stay only here, and its true import is not no longer. Heb. 733 77000 x3 lo easily fixed. Nearly all the ancient vertosiphun laamod, shall not add to stand. sions understand it as intimating a stage Chal. ‘I will detain you no longer.' of maturity in the flax in which it was

29. As soon as I am gone out of the past flowering. We think it probable city. He would retire from the city not that the genuine scope of the Heb. term only for purposes of privacy, in his in- expresses the formation of that small tercession with God, but also to show globous fruit, pod, or capsule on the top that he was not afraid to expose him of the stalk of flax which succeeds the self to the action of the elements in the flower, and contains the seed. Gr. "The open field. By thus venturing forth in flax was in seed, or seeding. The the midst of the tempest with a perfect Egyptians sowed all sorts of grain soon confidence of impunity, Moses gave to after the waters of the Nile had subPharaoh a striking proof that he was sided; but flax and barley being of more the special object of the divine protec. rapid growth would at any given time tion, and consequently that his mes he more forward than wheat and rye, sage ought to be diligently heeded. which explains the circumstance men.

That thou mayest know, &c. That tioned in the text. The interval be. is, that thou mayest be convinced that tween the two harvests is usually about the God of the Hebrews is no local deity a month. like the fancied gods of Egypt, but the 34, 35. The thunders and the hail absolute and universal Sovereign, hold- ceased. The prayer of Moses was in ing sway over all creatures, controlling this case invested with a power like the elements, and making every depart. that of Elias, and the two witnesses of ment of nature obsequious to his will. the Apocalypse, James, 5. 17, 18. Rev. • See what various methods God uses to 11.6, to open and shut heaven, and yet bring men to their proper senses. Judg. the mercy now accorded to Pharaoh ments are sent, and judgments removed, tended as little to soften his heart as and all for the same end, to make men the previous judgment had done. As know that the Lord reigns. Henry. if the sun which now shone forth in the

31. The flax was bolled. That is, clear sky and hardened the soaked and podded. Heb. 3yaa nhun happish. saturated earth had produced a similar tah gibol. The original word occurs I effect upon his heart, he is merely em.

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AN

CHAPTER X.

done among them; that ye may ND the LORD said unto Moses, know how that I am the LORD.

Go in unto Pharaoh : a for I 3 And Moses and Aaron came in have hardened his heart, and the unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, heart of his servants; b that I might Thus saith the LORD God of the shew these my signs before him: Hebrews, How long wilt thou re

2 And that thou mayest tell in fuse to d humble thyself before me? the ears of thy son, and of thy son's Let my people go, that they may son, what things I have wrought in serve me. Egypt, and my signs which I have

d 1 Kings 21. 29. 2 Chron. 1. 14. & 34. 27. a ch. 4. 21. & 7. 14. bch. 7. 4.

Job 42. 6. Jer. 13. 18. James 4. 10. 1 Pet. Ps. 44. 1. & 71. 18. & 78. 5, &c. Joel. 1. 3. 5. 6.

c Deut. 4. 9.

boldened by this respite of wrath to sively to Moses, we may understand it persist in a course of more determined as an intimation, that these miraculous rebellion. Yet the language of the text inflictions were to be recorded and thus implies that this increased hardness of made in his writings a perpetual source heart was an increased measure of of instruction, and admonition to the end guilt: 'He sinned yet more and more, of the world. This use they are in fact and hardened his heart;' i. e. sinned by serving at this moment. Wherever the hardening his heart, God's foretelling word of God is published abroad in the result, therefore, and permitting it, the earth, there are these signal events did not go to lessen his criminality. made known, and there are they operat.

ing to impress the hearts of the children CHAPTER X.

of men with an awful sense of the great1. Go in unto Pharaoh. That is, to ness of God and the danger of provok. renew the demand so often made and ing him to jealousy. - Before him. so often resisted; though this is not in Heb. 720p bekirbo, in the midst of so many words asserted in the text. him; where the person of the king We infer what Moses was ordered to stands for the body of his people colsay from what he did say. Wicked lectively. See Note on Gen. 14. 10. Gr. men are sometimes to be admonished 'That yet my signs may come er' autous even where there is no hope that they upon them.' Chal. "That I might set will be amended. But while the divine my signs in the midst of them ;' i. e. of message was to be repeated, and new Pharaoh and his people. Syr. "That I tokens of the vengeance of God de- might do these my signs among them.' nounced as shortly to appear before 3. How long wilt thou refuse to humPharaoh and his people, an additional ble thyself before me ? Gr. eus rivas ou reason is assigned for the fearful pro- Bovisi Evrpannvar ne ; how long wilt thou ceedings thus far and thenceforth re not reverence me? This is the grand corded. God had providentially and per. controversy of God with sinners, that missively hardened the hearts of Pha. they refuse at his bidding to humble raoh and his servants, in order to take themselves in penitent prostration beoccasion from the event for the display fore him. But to this point they must of such signs and miracles as would come at last, and the more voluntarily furnish a lesson never to be forgotten it is done the better. Pharaoh had into his own people and to their posterity deed on former occasions made some to the latest generation. And not to pretences to humbling himself, but as them only, for as the charge is given he was neither sincere nor constant in more immediately, though not exclu- it, it passed for nothing in God's esteem,

Vol. I

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4 Else, if thou refuse to let my which groweth for you out of the
people go, behold, to-morrow will field:
Ibring the e locusts into thy coast: 6 And they s shall fill thy houses,

5. And they shall cover the face of and the houses of all thy servants, the earth, that one cannot be able and the houses of all the Egyptians; to see the earth: and fthey shall eat which neither thy fathers, nor thy the residue of that which is escaped, fathers' fathers have seen, since the which remaineth unto you from day that they were upon the earth the hail, and shall eat every tree unto this day. And he turned him

self, and went out from Pharaoh. e Prov. 30. 27. Rom. 9. 3. fch. 9. 32. Joel. 1. 4. & 2. 25.

5 ch. 8. 3, 21. and he is here addressed as if it were a through all the earth. Heb. This is duty which he had never yet performed their eye through all the earth ;' i. e. in the least degree. Let us learn from their aspect, their visible appearance. this how little value God puts upon So also possibly Zech. 3. 9, 'Upon one those religious acts in which the heart stone shall be seven eyes ;' i.e. a sevenis wanting.

fold aspect; it shall have the property 4,5. To-morrow will I bring the lo- of presenting under different circumcusts into thy coast. Heb.anan 756 stances seven distinct phases.-Swarms man na hinneni mëbi mahar arbehy of this devouring insect had often be. behold me bringing to-morrow the lo- | fore been the scourge of Egypt, but he cust; collect. sing. for plur. The orig. was told that this irruption of them inal word for locust (137& arbeh) is de- should be beyond all former precedent, rived from 27 rabah, to be multiplied, and that their numbers, size, and vora. or increased. It carries, therefore, the city should be such, that they would import of prodigious numbers, Judg. 6. eat up every vegetable production in the 5, Jer. 46. 23, and on this account im- land. The wheat and the rye, it is clear, mense swarms of locusts stand in the had escaped the ravages of the hail, ch. figurative style of the prophets for mul. 9, 32, but they were now to be swept titudinous armies of men. Thus when away by the locust, and whatever trees the fifth angel sounded his trumpet, Rev. had been left with leaves upon their 9. 3, 'There came out of the smoke of branches were now to be stript bare. the bottomless pit locusts upon earth,'. - Which neither thy fathers nor denoting the countless hordes of Sara- thy fathers' fathers have seen; i. e. the cens which arose in the commencement like of which for numbers and ravages of the seventh century under Moham- thy fathers have never seen; not that med, and overran and depopulated a they had never seen locusts at all begreat portion of Christendom.--4 They fore. shall cover the face of the earth. Heb. 6. He turned himself and went out.

187779 ON eth ayin haaretz, the eye Seeing no reason to anticipate any betof the earth. The phraseology is sin. ter reception of his message than begular, but it is probably by metonymy fore. Words had hitherto passed beof the faculty for the object, denoting ween them without producing the de. that the sight, the visibility, of the earth sired results. Moses now left it with should be hidden by the dense masses God to deal with him mainly by acts. and layers of locusts. A phraseology of It is a fearful point which the sinner perhaps a similar import occurs, Zech. has reached, when the messenger of God 5.6, in the description of the symboli-thinks it of very little consequence what cal ephan; “This is their resemblances his answer may be.

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7 And Pharaoh's' servants said LORD your God: but who are they unto him, How long shall this man that shall go ? be ha snare unto us? Let the men 9 And Moses said, we will go go, that they may serve the LORD with our young and with our old, their God: knowest thou not yet with our sons and with our daughthat Egypt is destroyed ?

ters, with our flocks and with our 8 And Moses and Aaron were herds will we go: for i we must brought again unto Pharaoh: and hold 'à feast unto the LORD. he said unto them, Go, serve the 10 'And he said unto them, Let

the LORD be so with you, as I will h ch. 23. 33. Josh. 23. 13. 1 Sam. 18. 21. Eccles. 7. 26. 1 Cor. 7. 35.

ich. 5. 1. 7. And Pharaoh's servants said unto Perceiving the feeling that was ' enterhim. That is, the principal men that tained by his court and his subjects, he were about him, his nobles and coun- resolved so far to comply with their sellors. After the loss and devastation wishes as to have. Moses and Aaron which the preceding plague had occa- sent for and brought back, that he might sioned, they ventured to remonstrate. at least ostensibly appear disposed to

- How long shall this man be a treat with them anew. But who snare unto us? How long shall he are they that shall go? Heb. Ar min prove the cause of leading us into fresh 1955767 mi va-mi haholekim, who and calamities? As, however, there is no who (are) going? The repetition of separate word in the original to answer the interrogative is emphatic, implying

man,' some have supposed the that he was to specify with the utmost meaning to be, how long shall this distinctness who were to go, and who, thing, this affair, be a snare to us?' if any, were to stay behind. Moses in And with this the Gr.coincides, EWS FLVOS reply tells him plainly that they were EoTAL TOUTO nuiv owwdov, how long shall to serve God with their all; that their this scandal be to us ? But were this the wives and their children, their flocks true sense, the original would doubtless and their herds, without any exception be opt zoth instead of ot zeh, which or reservation, must go with them. latter is the proper designation of a per 10. And he said unto them, Let the son instead of a thing. Our version is Lord, &c. This bold and positive de. correct. Knowest thou not yet that claration of Moses was too much for Egypt is destroyed? Hast thou not yet Pharaoh. Greatly exasperated by this evidence enough from the calamities uncompromising statement he answers experienced, especially by the ravages in a style of mingled irony and wrath, of the late hail-storm, that the whole 'Let the Lord do with you as I will let country is just upon the verge of de- you go ;' q. d. 'If this be the proposed struction ? If his own courtiers and condition of your going, that

you

take counsellors were of this opinion, the your little ones with you, then may the king could not but infer that in the God whom you serve favor you as much course he was now pursuing, he was no with his presence as I do with my con. longer sustained by the general consent sent, and no more.

In this case your of the Egyptian people, who now la prospects are sorry indeed.' It is a very mented his obstinacy, and had become strong and emphatic mode of denying desirous that, as the least of many evils, them the permission which they sought. the demand of the Israelites should be - Look to it, for evil is before you. complied with. This consideration was It is doubted by commentators whether not without its weight with the king. I this is to be understood as a threatening

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