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11 And the i magicians could not ses, 1 Rise up early in the morning, stand before Moses, because of the and stand before Pharaoh, and say boil: for the boil was upon the unto him, Thus saith the LORD magicians, and upon all the Egyp- God of the Hebrews, Let my peotians.

ple go, that they may serve me. 12 And the LORD hardened the 14 For I will at this time send all heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened my plagues upon thine heart, and not unto them; kas the LORD had upon thy servants, and upon thy peospoken unto Moses.

ple: m that thou mayest know that 13 | And the LORD said unto Mo- there is none like me in all the earth. 1 ch. 8. 18, 19. 2 Tim. 3. 9. k ch. 4. 21.

1 ch.8. 20. mch. 8. 10. so that they were in fact visited with a did harden it. Here, it is true, the treble punishment at once, viz. aching effect is ascribed to the divine agency, boils, nauseous ulcers, and burning itch. but after what we have remarked at To this severe plague the threatening so much length on this subject in that of Moses, Deut. 28. 27, obviously has place, the reader will scarcely be in reference; "The Lord will smíte thee danger of putting a wrong construction with the botch of Egypt, and with the on the words. It is not to be understood emerods, and with the scab, and with that God, by a positive act, created any the itch whereof thou canst not be heal. hardness of heart in Pharaoh, or that ed.' The Gr. renders it by eško«, ulcer, he immediately put forth any influence which occurs, Rev. 16. 2, which in our to render him callous and incapable of version is translated noisome and griev. right feeling. He had before hardenous sore. The judgment of the first ed his own heart by resisting both the vial, therefore, considered in the letter, grace and the wrath of heaven, and nowas similar to that of the sixth plague thing more is meant by the expression of Egypt.

before us, than that God was pleased to 11. The magicians could not stand be leave him under the control of his own fore Moses. They had probably hither strong delusions, and so to order the to continued to linger about the person events of his providence as to make him of Pharaoh, confirming him in his ob more and more obstinate. In no other stinate refusal to let the people go, and sense did God harden his heart, than by pretending that though Moses had thus permitting him to rush forward in prefar performed works beyond their skill, cisely such a course of rebellion as yet they should doubtless be too hard would issue in his hardening his own for him at last; but now, being seized heart. But even this was a fearful judg. with these loathsome and painful ul. ment, and one that speaks awfully to cers, they were utterly confounded, and those who do violence to their own con. quitting the court in disgrace, were sciences and sin with a high hand. henceforth no more heard of. See an 14. I will send all my plagues upon allusion to this part of the sacred his thine heart. In again repeating his detory, 2 Tim. 3. 8, 9.

mand for his people's deliverance, and 12. And the Lord hardened the heart his threatenings against Pharaoh's disof Pharaoh. Heb. Dira yehazzëk. On obedience, the Most High makes a startthe import of the term, see Note on Ex. ling and terrible declaration. If lesser 4. 21. God had there threatened that judgments do not do their work, God he would harden Pharaoh's heart, but will send greater. Moses is charged to we do not, until we come to the present tell Pharaoh that, in the plagues that passage, find it expressly said that he remained to be inflicted there would be

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15 For now I will a stretch out and thy people with pestilence; my hand, that I may smite thee and thou shalt be cut off from the


nch. 3. 20.

a kind of concentrated terribleness, so the idiom of the original will easily that each one should come upon him as admit of this conditional import of the if with the accumulated weight of all passage, and we may consider the mean. the rest. What he had already experi. ing of the divine speaker as fairly repre. enced was indeed grievous, but it should sented by the following paraphrase, be nothing compared to what was to which is largely sustained by Rabbini. follow. They were to be such plagues cal and other critical authorities : 'For as should not only endanger the body, I had, or could have, stretched out my but smite the heart, the inner man. hand (i. e. in the plague of the murrain They should penetrate the inward spirit which destroyed so many of the beasts, with such indescribable pangs of ter- and could easily have numbered thee ror, that it would seem as if the whole among its victims,) and I had (potenmagazine of heaven's vengeance were tially, though not in actual fact) smitten opened upon him and his people. This thee and thy people with (that) pestiseems to be what is intended by the lence, and thou wert (as good as) cut language-'I will at this time send all off from the earth.' On the same prinmy plagues upon thine heart,' where ciple it is said, Luke, 5. 6, “They enwe are probably to understand by “this closed a great multitude of fishes; and time,' the time occupied by the whole their net brake';' i. e. if we may so exensuing course of judgments that should press it, the net, considered in itself, finally end in the utter destruction of brake, but was kept whole by the power Pharaoh.

of God; for had it actually broken, the 15. For now I will stretch out my fish would have escaped, whereas it is hand that I may smite, &c. Heb. 1939 n said, “they filled both the ships, so that 747 979 Tabu ki attah shalahti eth they began to sink. In like manner, if yadi va-ak, for now have I sent forth my we mistake not, it is said, Ps. 105. 26hand and smitten. The true construction 28, 'He sent Moses his servant; and is somewhat ambiguous. The verbs in Aaron whom he had chosen. They the original undoubtedly require a past showed his signs among them, and wonrendering, though the Greek, with our ders in the land of Ham. He sent dark. own and several other versions, give the ness and made it dark; and they rebel. future. But it does not appear in what led not against his word.' That is, sense Pharaoh and his people could be there was such an intrinsic moral power said to have been cut off by pestilence, in these miracles to beget belief, to as they were drowned in the Red Sea, un- work submission and compliance; they less the term be taken in the general were in themselves so convincing, so sense of mortality, to which it is proba overpowering, so absolutely charged bly a valid objection, that the original with demonstration ; that the writer

( by the pestilence) implying a particular | language in him, equal to the abuse of pestilence. At the saine time, if it be reason in them, not to admit the actual applied to the past, it is evident that it working of the legitimate effect. He must be understood in a qualified and says, therefore, that “they (the Egyphypothetical rather than in an absolute tians) rebelled not against his word,' sense ; for Pharaoh had not yet been because the word came attended with really cut off from the earth. But such a flood of evidence that there was

speaks as if it would be an abuse of בהדבר=בדבר) has the definite article

16 And in very deed for this my name may be declared throughcause have I raised thee up, for to out all the earth. shew in thee my power; and that 17 As yet exaltest thou thyself

against my people, that thou wilt o Rom. 9. 17. See ch. 14. 17. Prov. 16. 4. 1 Pet. 2. 9.

not let them go ? a kind of moral paradox, or absurdity, a loose to my power, I should have de. or impossibility in supposing that it did stroyed thee and thy people, and thou not produce obedience, although such wouldst have been eradicated; but I was indeed the fact. In the passage have reserved, &c. Taking the words before us we conceive that God designs in this sense we may gather, (1) That to assure Pharaoh, that considering his however men may forget or disregard liability to have been cut off by the pre- former judgments, God remembers them, ceding plague, he may regard himself and that sooner or later he will rememas having been in effect a dead man; ber his enemies of them. (2) That as 'nevertheless,' says he, 'for this cause a preservative against future tokens of have I raised thee up.' Heb. ‘Have I divine displeasure, we do well to call made thee to stand ;' i. e. have preserved often to mind the plagues and destructhee safe in the midst of danger, ‘for to tions from which we have very nar. show in thee, &c. The word translated rowly, and through the forbearance of braised up' does not signify to bring into heaven, escaped. existence, but to cause to stand, to make

16. To show in thee my power. Heb. to continue. Thus, 1 Kings, 15. 4, 5 6 7h477 harotheka eth kohi, to Nevertheless for David's sake did the make thee' see my power. This is the Lord his God give him a lamp in Jeru. strictly literal rendering, which is inti. salem, to set up his son after him, and mated by the word 'in' in our transto establish Jerusalem.' Heb. ‘To make lation being printed in Italics. The to stand,' i. e. to preserve. Prov. 29. 4, Gr. however has ev 001, in thee, which "The king by judgment establisheth the Paul also adopts, Rom. 9. 17, leaving us land.' Heb. “Makes to stand ;' i. e. to infer that it is the true sense. Conse. renders safe. So also Ex. 21. 21, 'If he quently 70877 harotheka, make thee to continue a day or two. Heb. “If he see, is an elliptical mode of expression stand a day or two;' i. e. survive. Paul, for 72 67857 haroth beka, show in or however, in quoting this passage, Rom. by thee ; and instances of similar usage 9. 17, employs the term raised up,' are easily adducible. Thus Gen. 30. 20, which will occasion no difficulty, if it. Now will my husband dwell (with)

a (* said to be 'raised up' who is preserved yizbal immi).' Ps. 5. 4, ‘Neither shall alive when in danger of dying, a usage evil dwell (with) thee (77739 yegureka of the word which occurs James, 5. 15. for Tray 673yegur immeka).' Prov. And the prayer of faith shall save the 8. 36, 'He that sinneth (against) me sick, and the Lord shall raise him up.'|(204 hotei forn on hote bi) wrong. It was in this sense of being spared eth his own soul.' from imminent destruction that Pha. 17. Exaltest thou thyself against my raoh was raised up. Among the an- people? Heb. 35,00n mistolël, from cient versions the Chal. has 'For now the root 330 salal, to elevate or cast up. it was near before me (i. e. it lacked The present term is the participle of but little) that I had sent out the stroke Hithpael, or the reflexive voice, and of my strength and thou hadst been con. seems to denote that self-elevation which sumed.' Arab. “Because if I had given resembles a rampart made to oppose an

רזבל עמו yizbeleni_for יזבלנר) be borne in mind that a person may be


18 Behold, to-morrow about this home, the hail shall come down time I will cause it to rain a very upon them, and they shall die. grievous hail, such as hath not been 20 He that feared the word of the in Egypt since the foundation there- LORD among the servants of Phaof even until now.

raoh made his servants and his cat19 Send therefore now, and gather tle flee into the houses: thy cattle, and all that thou hast in 21 And he that regarded not the the field : for upon every man and word of the LORD left his servants beast which shall be found in the and his cattle in the field. field, and shall not be brought

enemy. Gr.

сапог, thou insultest. Chal. ments may be expected to overtake unid. Syr. 'Thou detainest.? Arab. “Thou paralleled offenders. hinderest.' Although Pharaoh was a 19. Send therefore now, and gather, powerful monarch, and God's people a &c. Heb. 191 haëz, gather speedily, poor, degraded, and enslaved race, yet it denoting an action to be performed with was to be to his ruin that he exalted him the utmost expedition, as is explained self against them, inasmuch as it was in the ensuing verse, 'made to filee.' virtually exalting himself against God. With characteristic clemency the Lord No power is too high to be called to couples with the prediction a gracious account for lording it despotically over warning, to as many as will heed it, to 'the people of the saints of the Most send and gather their servants and catHigh.

tle out of the field, and place them un18. To-morrow about this time. Gr. der shelter before the appointed time 'At this same hour. The time is thus arrived. So unwilling is God that any accurately specified, that the effect, should perish that even in the midst of when it occurred, might not be attrib- impending wrath, he kindly provides uted to chance. I will cause it to and points out a way of escape. rain a very grievous hail. As rain is 21. He that regarded not the word. exceedingly rare, and hail almost un- Heb. 123 DW *3 lo sam libbo, that set known in Egypt, so formidable a hail. not his heart to the word. Although storm as that predicted, would be one of there were some, even among the serv. the greatest marvels that could occur ants of Pharaoh, who had been suffiin a climate like that of Egypt. A ciently wrought upon by the former heavy fall of snow in July, would not plagues to tremble at God's word, yet be so great a phenomenon in our own there were others, and they probably country, as a heavy hail-storm at any the majority, who partook of the spirit time in Egypt. - Since the founda- of their master, and would not believe, tion thereof. Heb. 1770777 67777 123 though the event thus far, had in every lemin hayom hivvasedah, since the day instance proved the truth of Moses' preof its being founded. That is, since dictions. One would have thought that its first being inhabited ; otherwise ex even if there were a peradventure that pressed, v. 24, 'since it became a nation.' the calamity might come, they would The Gr. however renders it, 'From the have chosen the safer side, and housed day of its being created,' i. e. physic. their cattle for so short a time, rather ally created. It was at any rate to be than leave the poor creatures exposed to a storm such as never had had a prece- perish in the tempest ; but they were dent in that country, and for the rea so fool-hardy as in defiance of the truth son, that the occasion of it had never of Moses and the power of God to risk had a precedent. But unparalleled judg. I the consequences.

22 | And the LORD said unto Mo- rod toward heaven, and 4 the LORD ses, Stretch forth thine hand toward sent thunder and hail, and the fire heaven, that there may be p hail in ran along upon the ground : and all the land of Egypt, upon man, the LORD rained hail upon the land and upon beast, and upon every of Egypt. herb of the field, throughout the 24 So there was hail, and fire land of Egypt.

mingled with the hail, very griev. 23 And Moses stretched forth his

9 Josh. 10. 11. Ps. 18. 13. & 78. 47.& 105. 32. & 148. 8. Isa. 30. 30. Ezek. 38. 22. Rev. 8. 7.

P Rev. 16. 21.

23. The Lord sent thunder and hail. 7720 770a nopna Dx esh mithlakHeb. 7727 73 793 nathan koloth u. kahath 'bethok habbarad, fire catching barad, gave voices and hail. The Lord's hold, infolding, involving itself in the voice,' is an expression often used as midst of the hail. The words are no equivalent to 'thunder.' See Note on doubt intended to depict a complication Gen. 3. 8. Thus Rev. 6.1, 'And I heard of elemental terrors which it is not easy as it were the noise (pwrn, voice) of distinctly to conceive. Amid peals of thunder. Rev. 10. 3, And when he deep and portentous thunder, the lighthad cried (the) seven thunders uttered ning gleamed with terrific flashes, and their voices.' - The fire ran long at the same time a tremendous hail. upon the ground. Heb. 7374 aretzah, storm poured its fury over a land of towards the earth. This is the exact which the inhabitants had probably nerendering, and there can be no doubt ver before witnessed or heard of a simi. that the fire meant was the lightning lar phenomenon. If a violent tempest that accompanied the hail. The Psalm- or tornado is an appalling occurrence ist thus speaks of this judgment, Ps. 78. in countries where they are not uncom47, 48, 'He destroyed their vines and mon, what overwhelming dread must their sycamore-trees with frost. He this have produced in Egypt ! How gave up their cattle also to the hail and could they but imagine that heaven and their flocks to hot thunderbolts.' To earth were mingling together in wild this seventh plague of Egypt is com- confusion! And then, when its fury pared the effect of the seventh vial of had somewhat abated, to behold the the Apocalypse ; Rev. 16. 17–21, ‘And desolations it had caused! Men and the seventh angel poured out his vial cattle killed and promiscuously scat. into the air ... and there were voices, tered over the fields-all kinds of trees, and thunderings, and lightnings ; and plants, and grain battered down and there was a great earthquake, such as destroyed—and the whole face of the was not since men were upon the earth ground appearing to have been swept ... and there fell upon men a great hail by the besom of destruction! And yet, out of heaven, every stone about the to enhance the wonder still more, in weight of a talent;' where in the men the land of Goshen not a solitary vest. tion of the hail-stones there is an allu- ige of the wide-spreading havoc was to sion probably to the passage of Joshua, be seen. Here all nature was smiling ch. 10. 11, 'The Lord cast down great unruffled in its usual fertility and beaustones from heaven upon them unto ty. What a contrast between the verAzekah, and they died: they were more dant fields and tranquil flocks of the which died with hail-stones than they one region, and the fearful spectacle of whom the children of Israel slew with scathing and ruin in the other ! And the sword.'

my people shall dwell in a peaceable 24. Fire mingled with the hail. Heb. I habitation, and in sure dwellings, and

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