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I remember Laing of Wadham dining with him and discussing the subject of Monasticism in England, on which we afterward s heard Appleton read a paper at a meeting of the Architectural Society.1
About this time (Lent Term, 1868), he used to join me in going to Green of Balliol's college-lecture on Modern Philosophy. His interest in this subject seemed always to be uppermost, and to find its centre in the great problems common to philosophy and theology. He was reading, about this time, the history of the Port Royal, and studying the subject of miracles.
When I returned to Oxford in January, 1870, after an absence of a year, Appleton was kind enough to ask me to be sub-editor of the Academy, which he had recently started. He was enthusiastic about the undertaking and gave up nearly all his time to it. We used to sit down to work at a quarter-past nine in the morning, and left off about halfpast three, allowing a very short interval for lunch. Sometimes also, we worked in the evening, and then Cheyne came to help us.
Shortly after I went to Cambridge in January, 1877, your brother wrote to tell me of his intention to send a paper on the subject of "Doctrinal Development" to the Contemporary Review, or the Nineteenth Century; and I think I wrote to him twice in reply, sending (as he had requested me) what struck me as the best references to various works of Dr. Newman.
A few days before coming to the Oratory on Michaelmas Day, 1877, I dined with him at Hampstead and slept at his house. We had a long talk on the question of Development and the nature of Revelation, and next morning I parted from him and said "Goodbye" for the last time.
I am indebted to the Rev. T. A. F. Eaglesim, of the Birmingham Oratory, for the above interesting communication. It passes considerably beyond the time which we have reached in our narrative, but it seemed best to let it run on without interruption to the end.
My brother took his B.A. degree in October, 1863,* and,
1 At the first Meeting of the Society in Trinity Term, 1868. An abstract of the Lecture was published.
2 He subsequently took the Degree of D.C. L., in June, 1871.
after a short holiday, drew out for himself a course of reading in Philosophy, Law and History, which, with the occasional interruption of pupils, fully occupied his time until a long-cherished project' of a residence at one or more German universities could be realized. His scheme of study was no doubt framed in great measure with a view to the proposed sojourn in Germany, so that he might be able to gain the greatest advantage from the lectures he hoped to hear from the professors at Heidelberg, Halle and Berlin. He marked out his time and work with characteristic method:
Each month must consist of four weeks of six days, and each day of a good six hours' reading . . . . the hours kept and the work done to be noted in this book; public lectures, and light biographical, poetical and novel reading not to count.
It is interesting to observe that he read Hegel's Propädeutik" in the early part of 1864, and soon commenced a translation of it, upon which he spent a considerable time during the next three or four years, until the engrossing work of the Academy compelled him to lay it aside. On Dec. 23, 1865, I find the following note, written at Berlin, which shows the expansion of his plan under the influence of his German studies:
My so-called "Translation of the Propädeutik" has increased into the following scheme :
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Introduction: (a) Characteristics of Propädeutik; (b) Explanation of technical terms, with parallel passages; (c) Analysis of the four parts of the work; (d) Account of the Parallel Works"-i.e., i. "The Philosophy of Right"; ii. Phenomenology; ii. Logic; iv. Encyclopædia-in outline.
A. Essay on Philosophy of Right.
Notes and Translation.
1 An old schoolfellow writes; "Long before he left school he had formed the plan, which he afterwards carried out, of adding study in Germany to the university course at Oxford."
B. Essay on Phenomenology.
C. Essay on Logic.
D. Essay on Encyclopædia.
Notes and Translation.
i. Summary of Hegel's system up to the idea of a State. ii. The Italian School.
iii. Criticism of Herbart and the Empirics :-Schopenhauer. iv. History of Philosophy since Hegel.
The notes are to consist of a carefully digested parallel from the four great corresponding works.
In the summer of 1865, Dr. Appleton, in company with his friend, Mr. Owen, of Cheltondale, Cheltenham, studied for some time at Heidelberg, where he heard Zeller and Bluntschli, and in October of the same year commenced his residence at Berlin, of which University he became a matriculated member. Here is an
account of the ceremony :
You will rejoice to hear I am now a matriculated member of the University, for which honour I paid 18s., and received a whole heap of big, printed papers, in which I am described "vir juvenis ornatissimus," which is, of course, delicate allusion to my personal appearance. The authorities keep my passport till I leave Berlin, and give me a kind of testamur instead, which the police have insisted upon seeing, along with particulars as to my age, social position, object in living here, &c. The police surveillance is very silly, although not in the least annoying. . . . . Professor had his sister staying with him, and the police came with their inquiries, as to what her object was, &c.; to which the Professor being provoked replied, that her object was to found a republic !. . . . Well, as to matriculation, it was a long business, lasting an hour and a half, from the great number of candidates. Our names and particular descriptions were written in about six big books, and then the "Rector Magnificus," a most meek old man, the Professor of Botany, made a speech, and shook hands formally with us all, jurisjurandi loco, — i.e., we
thereby engaged to obey the University regulations. He then singled me out, and said very kindly in German, "You are a foreigner; I must shake hands again with you; my best blessing on your work,"-which was jolly of him.
He finds comfortable quarters in the house of Professor Solly, and soon gets into harness, being much pleased to find Hegel so well represented at Berlin :—
I am getting nicely into work and have heard Michelet, the man I came to hear, for a fortnight with great effect. He delivers his lectures, which are very suggestive, with tremendous energy, throwing his arms about in the wildest way all the time. He is quite an enthusiast in philosophy, which suits me very well. Trendelenberg and Werder have not yet begun. I am most agreeably surprised to find that there are no less than four Hegelians lecturing in Philosophy and Art; three of them personal friends of Hegel, and editors of his works.
(Sunday, Nov. 12.) I had a charming talk with Michelet, this morning, for an hour and a half. He seemed very pleased to have got a disciple, and begged me to call again, and to bring any difficulties to him.
In reply to a request that he would explain briefly what the Hegelian philosophy is, he writes :
It is difficult to state in short what Hegel is, or what German philosophy is. From a letter from a friend to-day I gathered that he thought it was something like what we call in England" Low Church!" This, it is needless to tell you, is not the case. . . . So far as I can describe it in an intelligible manner, I should say it was simply the consummation of the attempt, which has been going on in the best. minds, for the last two thousand years, to find an absolutely certain basis for complete knowledge. Four weeks ago we began with the first principle of the Hegelian Logic, “ Pure Being is Pure Nothing," which appears, at first sight, an absurdity, but, on closer scrutiny, to be the last point of abstraction to which Thought can go, and consequently to form a beginning which is absolutely such, i.e., which takes nothing for granted, not even, like the celebrated Cogito, ergo sum, the thinking mind itself. It would take an essay to explain this fully; and, as the first point of all, in which Thought and Being are fused in complete indifference, it
is the most abstruse. But when we have got this principle, we don't stop, as the old philosophy did when it said, "Whatever is, is;" or, "The one is, the many is not ;" but our principle involves its own development; it contains the necessity of motion in itself, and this necessity is its contradiction. Just as we see nothing in pure light, any more than in pure darkness; the only possible thing for us to see is their union in what we call, Colour. This is only an illustration; as also is Life, which is a complete fusion of the contradictories, growth and decay. This principle, then, is not developed by the application of an external method, which must always be arbitrary, but is its own method, or, as the Germans express it, “The form and the matter are absolutely identical." It developes itself through every stage of thought, then of nature, and then, lastly, of mind, which, instead of being a starting-point, is our last result. And thus the physical sciences, law, morality, politics, art, religion, philosophy proceed in regular and necessary order, until at last a point is reached, which the Germans call Geist, in which the whole universe is subdued to the Infinite Reason.
Professor Croft, Director of Public Instruction, Bengal, has been kind enough to send me the following extracts from letters written to him, in the autumn of 1865, by my brother from Berlin. They are humorous and
After a fortnight's intense thought, we of Michelet's class have arrived at the momentous proposition that "Being is Being:" and, with this formula upon my lips, I feel that I have my finger on the great pulse of the universe.
Being is good, but Not-being is better, because it adds to the notion of Being the notion of Not.
When we enunciate the truth-" Being is, and not-Being is not," you must not suppose that there is no such thing as not-Being. Verily, there is such a thing as not-Being, only it is Not.
Hegel has found a word which approximates to the meaning of ovơía in the German dingheit, which a learned Italian, M. Vera, translates into French choséité; I suppose English equivalent must be “thingamy-tight.”
I have discovered a threefold theological argument, which is completely efficacious in confuting unbelievers. The first