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money: that take, and give unto them for me and thee. Mat. 22. 21. Render therefore unto Cesar, the things which are Cesar's; and unto God, the things that are God's.
1 Tim. 2. 1. I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men: For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour.
Ex. 22. 28. Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people. Ac. 23. 4, 5.
305. Were any civil penalties appointed, and what?
Gen. 9. 5. And surely your blood of your lives will 1 require: at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man. Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.
Ex. 21. 12. He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death. And if a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him into his hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee. But if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbor, to slay him with guile: thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die. And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death. And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death. And he that curseth his father or his mother, shall surely be put to death.
Num. 35. 30. Whoso killeth any person, the murderer shall be put to death by the mouth of witnesses: but one witness shall not testify against any person to cause him to die. Moreover, ye shall take no satisfaction for the life of a murderer, which is guilty of death: but he shall be surely put to death. And ye shall take
Jewish capital offences.
no satisfaction for him that is fled to the city of his refuge, that he should come again to dwell in the land, until the death of the priest. So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are: for blood it defileth the land: and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it. Defile not therefore the land which ye shall inhabit, wherein I dwell: for I the Lord dwell among the children of Israel.
Dt. 25. 1. If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, that the judges may judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked. And it shall be, if the wicked man be worthy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to his fault, by a certain number. Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed: lest if he should exceed, and beat him above these with many stripes, then thy brother should seem vile unto thee.
Job 31. 9. If my heart have been deceived by a woman, or if I have laid wait at my neighbor's door11. This is a heinous crime; yea, it is an iniquity to be punished by the judges.
Pr. 20. 26. A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth the wheel over them.
Ac. 25. 10. Then said Paul, I stand at Cesar's judgment seat, where I ought to be judged: to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very well knowest. For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die.
Rom. 13. 4. But if thou do that which is evil, 'be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.
306. What crimes were capital under the Jewish code? 1. Murder.
Num. 35. 16. The murderer shail surely be put to death.
Jewish capital offences.
Lev. 24. 16. He that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death.
Ex. 21. 16. He that stealeth a man and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death. 1 Tim. 1. 9.
Ex. 22. 20. He that sacrificeth unto any God, save unto the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed. Dt.
5. Enticement to Idolatry.
Dt. 13. 6. If thy brother entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods. 9. Thou shalt surely kill him.
Lev. 20. 10. The adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.
7. Sodomy and uncleanness.
Lev. 20. 13. If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death. 17—20.
Lev. 20. 14. If a man take a wife and her mother, it is wickedness: they shall be burnt with fire. V. 21.
Lev. 20. 15. If a man lie with a beast, he shall surely be put to death.
Ex. 22. 18. Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.
11. Smiting Parents.
Ex. 21. 15. He that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death.
12. Cursing Parents.
Ex. 21. 17. He that curseth his father or his mother, shall surely be put to death. Lev. 20. 9.
13. Disobeying Parents.
Dt. 21. 20. This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will not obey our voice-and all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die.
14. Sabbath profanation.
Ex. 35. 2. Whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death. Num. 15. 32.
15. Endangering human life.
Ex. 21. 29. If the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death.
Ex. 30. 33. Whosoever compoundeth any like it, or whosoever putteth any of it upon a stranger, shall even be cut off from his people.
307. What is said respecting the enemies of just civil rulers?
Num. 16. 3. And they gathered themselves together against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them, Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congrega tion are holy, every one of them, and the Lord is among them: wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the congregation of the Lord? And when Moses heard it, he fell upon his face: And he spake unto Korah and unto all his company, saying, Even to-morrow the Lord will show who are his, and who is holy. 5-35.
Dt. 17. 12. And the man that will do presumptuous ly, and will not hearken unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the Lord thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die: and thou shalt put
away the evil from Israel. And all the people shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously.
2 Pet. 2. 9. The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished: But chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Presumptuous are they, self-willed; they are not afraid to speak evil of dignities. Whereas angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them before the Lord.
Jude 8. Likewise also these filthy dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities.
308. Are wicked rulers injurious?
Ps. 12. 8. The wicked walk on every side, when the vilest men are exalted.
Ps. 94. 20. Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee, which frameth mischief by a law? They gather themselves together against the soul of the righteous, and condemn the innocent blood.
Pr. 28. 15. As a roaring lion, and a ranging bear, so is a wicked ruler over the poor people. The prince that wanteth understanding is also a great oppressor.
Pr. 29. 2. When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice: but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn: 4. The king by judgment establisheth the land; but he that receiveth gifts overthroweth it.
309. When civil rulers enact laws which contravene the law of God, ought they to be obeyed?
Ex. 1. 17. But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men-children alive.
1 Sam. 14. 44. And Saul answered, God do so, and more also: for thou shalt surely die, Jonathan. And the people said unto Saul, Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel? God for