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Expediency of.

that he die- -And all Israel shall hear, and fear, and shall do no more any such wickedness as this is, among you.

Dt. 19. 18. If the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you. And those which remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil among you.

2 Ch. 9. 8. Because thy God loved Israel, to establish them forever, therefore made he thee [Solomon] king over them, to do judgment and justice.

Pr. 20. 8. A king that sitteth in the throne of judgment, scattereth away all evil with his eyes. 26. A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth the wheel over them.

Pr. 22. 15. Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child; but the rod of correction shall drive it far from him.

Pr. 23. 13. Withhold not correction from the child. for if thou beatest him with the rod, he shall not die Thou shalt beat him with the rod, and shalt deliver his soul from hell.

Pr. 26. 3. A whip for the horse, a bridle for the ass, and a rod for the fool's back.

Pr. 29. 2. When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice: but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn. 15. The rod and reproof give wisdom: but a child left to himself bringeth his mother to shame. 17. Correct thy son, and he shall give thee rest; yea, he shall give delight unto thy soul.

1 Tim. 1. 8. We know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers, and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for men-stealers,

Authority for.

for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine.

Heb. 12. 9. We have had fathers of our flesh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence.

301. Is there any precedent and authority for human governments?

Ex. 18. 25. And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers oftens. And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves.

Num. 11. 11. And Moses said unto the Lord, Wherefore hast thou afflicted thy servant? and wherefore have I not found favor in thy sight, that thou layest the burden of all this people upon me? 16. And the Lord said unto Moses, Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tabernacle of the congregation, that they may stand there with thee. And I will come down and talk with thee there; and I will take of the spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them: and they shall bear the burden of the people with thee, that thou bear it not thyself alone. [Dt. 1. 9-18.]

Dt. 16. 18. Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the Lord thy God giveth thee throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment. Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou shalt not respect persons, neither take a gift: for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous.

Pr. 8. 12. I wisdom dwell with prudence. 15. By me kings reign, and princes decree justice. By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth.

Ac. 13. 20. He gave unto them judges, about the

Duties of rulers.

space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet. [21. 22.]

Rom. 13. 3. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same: For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain, for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience' sake. For, for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.

302. What duties were required of rulers?

Dt. 1. 16. Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between every man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him. Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; but ye shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God's. [Dt. 16. 19.]

Dt 19. 16. If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong; Then both the men between whom the controversy is shall stand before the Lord, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days; And the judges shall make diligent inquisition: and behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you.

Dt. 25. 1. If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, that the judges may judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and

condemn the wicked.

Pr. 20. 28. Mercy and truth preserve the king: and his throne is upholden by mercy.

Pr. 29. 14. The king that faithfully judgeth the poor, his throne shall be established forever.

Pr. 31. 4. It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for

Qualifications of rulers-Treatment of rulers.

kings to drink wine; nor for princes strong drink: Lest they drink, and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted.

Jer. 22. 2. Hear the word of the Lord, O king of Judah, that sittest upon the throne of David, thou, and thy servants, and thy people that enter in by these gates: Thus saith the Lord; Execute ye judgment and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor: and do no wrong, do no violence to the stranger, the fatherless, nor the widow, neither shed innocent blood in this place. 15. Shalt thou reign because thou closest thyself in cedar? Did not thy father eat and drink, and do judgment and justice, and then it was well with him? He judged the cause of the poor and needy; then it was well with him: was not this to know me? saith the Lord.

303. What qualifications are requisite in civil rulers?

Ex. 18. 21. Thou shalt provide out of all the people, able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them to be rulers. 1. 13. 15.


2 S. 23. 3. The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.

304. Ought faithful rulers to be obeyed, supported, honored, and prayed for?

Dt. 17. 9. And thou shalt come unto the priests, the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days, and inquire; and they shall show thee the sentence of judgment: And thou shalt do according to the sentence, which they of that place which the Lord shall choose shall show thee; and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they inform thee: According to the sentence of the law which they shall teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou

Treatment of rulers.

shalt do: thou shalt not decline from the sentence which they shall show thee, to the right hand nor to the left.

Ec. 8. 2. I counsel thee to keep the king's commandment, and that in regard to the oath of God.

Rom. 13. I. Let every soul be subject to the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be, are ordained of God. 5. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience' sake, For, for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.

Tit. 3. 1. Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work.

1 Pet. 2. 13. Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evil doers, and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God, that with well-doing ye may put to silence the igno rance of foolish men: As free and not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness, but as the servants of God. Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king.

Mat. 17. 24. And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received tribute money, came to Peter, and said, Doth not your Master pay tribute? He saith, yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou Simon? Of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, or of strangers? Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free. Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up: and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of

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