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but He for our profit, that we might be partakers of his il holiness. Now no chastisement seemeth for the present

to be joyous, but grievous: nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness to those who have

been* exercised by it. ; 12 Wherefore lift up the hands which hang down, and 13 strengthen the feeble knees; and make straight paths for

your feet, that what is lame be not turned out of the way, 14 but rather be healed. Follow peace with all men ;

and the holinesst, without which no man shall see the 15 Lord : looking diligently lest any man fall short of the

favour of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up 16 trouble you, and by it many be defiled ; lest there be any

fornicator, or any profane person, as Esau, who for one 17 meal sold his birthright. For ye know that afterward,

when he desired to inherit the blessing, he was rejected :

for he found no place for change of mind in Isaac, 18 though he earnestly sought it with tears. For ye are not

come near to the mount which might be touchedll, and

which burned with fire, nor to blackness, and darkness, 19 and tempest, and to the blast of the trumpet, and to the

sound of words1; which sound those that heard, entreated

that the word should not be spoken to them any more : 20 (for they could not bear what was commanded ;

even a beast touch the mountain, it shall be stoned**;" 21 and so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, “ I ex22 ceedingly fear and tremble :") but ye are come neartt

to mount Sion It, and to the city of the living God,

* If

that are, N.
+ and holiness, N.

lest there ba any, N. }" To Sinai, the earthly material mountain; in opposition to the heavenly one, mentioned ver. 22." Newcome.

f God's words. N.
** * or thrust through with a dart," R.T.

# The writer describes a state present, not future : the state of believers under the gospel, as opposed to Israelites under the law, not the state of the virtuous in heaven.

11 It is foretold by the prophets, that the law of the Messiah shall proceed from Mount Sion. Isaiah ii 2, 3; xxviii. 16. The writer is not representing the happy state of the virtuous in heaven, but the superior privileges of the Christian dispensation, as contrasted with that of Moses. “We that are the peculiar people of God," says Dr. Sykes (in his note upon the text), "are not brought to a dreadful mountain, where we could not hear the word spoken for storm, and tempest, and thunder, and fire, as it was at Sinai : but we receive our law from Sion, which we may ascend ourselves without the terror which Moses felt."

the heavenly Jerusalem*, and to myriads of messengers 23 from God t, to the general assembly and congregation

of the first-born that are enrolled in heaven ll, and

to God the judge of all, and to righteous men that are 24 made perfectl, and to Jesus the mediator of the new

covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, which speaketh

a better thing** than that of Abel. 25 See that ye refuse not God who speaketh ft. For if

those escaped not who refused him when he uttered oracles on earth, much less shall we escape, if we reject him 26 speaking from heaven: whose voice then shook the earth : but now he hath promised, saying,

The Christian church, figuratively represented by the city of God, the hearenly Jerusalem.

+ A myriad is ten thousand : it is used proverbially for an indefinitely large number. The Primate's version is, “10 very great numbers of angels," which is commonly interpreted of celestial spirits. But as the writer is evidently describing the Christian church and dispensation, as contrasted with the Mosaic, the connexion requires that the word angels should be understood, as in chap. i., of prophets and messengers from God. And the writer may well be supposed to atlude to the abundant effusion of the holy spint in the apostolic age ; by which multitudes were divinely qualified, as mesængers from God, to teach and to confirm the doctrine of the gospel.

" Not where others are to officiate for you, as the Levites for the first-bom, but where all are numbered as the people of God; and where you may all sacrifice your selves." Sykes.

| “ Among the citizens of heaven. The image of a city, ver. 22, is continued." Newcome.

The spirits of righteous men, Gr. and N. but the spirits of men are men them. selves. See 1 Cor. ii. 11. Gal. iv. 18. 2 Tim. iv. 22; and it seemed better to omit the word in the translation, because it leads the English reader to suppose that the writer is discoursing of disembodied spirits, when he evidently means men living in the world. Righteous or just men, are men who are brought into a justified state by believing in Jesus as the Messiah: and they are said to be perfect because they are eonseerated bye sacrifice, which needs no repetition. Ch. x. 1. The law could not make the comers thereto perfect, bus, ver. 14, by one offering Christ has for ever perfected them that are sanctified.

** better things. R. T.

# " See that ye refuse not him who speaketh." Gr. and N. That God is the speaker intended is evident from the quotation from Hag. ii. 6, 7, See Peirce in loc. God spoke on carth, when he delivered the law upon Mount Sinai: he now speaks from heaven, by the gifts of the holy spirit. i Pet. i. 12. See Lindsey's Seq. p. 356.

“ Yet once more I 27 shake not only the earth, but also the heaven *.” Now

this expression, “ Yet once more,” signifieth the remov

ing of the things shaken, as of things which ate made, 28 that the things which are not shaken may remain. Where

fore, since we receive a kingdom which cannot be shaken, * let us hold fast favour t, by which we may serve God 29 acceptably with reverence and godly fear. For even our

Godt is a consuming fire. CA. XIII. Let brotherly kindness continue. Be not forgetful 2 of hospitality: for by this some have unknowingly en3 tertained angelsll. Remember those that are in bonds,

as if bound with them; and those that are cruelly treated, 4 as being yourselves also in the body. Marriage is ho

nourable among all, and the bed undefiledtt: but for5 nicators and adulterers God will judge. Let your man

ner 1 of life be without covetousness. Be content with

such things as ye have : for God himself hath said, “I 6 will never leave thee, nor utterly forsake thee|III.” So that we may boldly say,

“ The Lord is mine helper, and 7 I will not fear what man can do unto me." Remember

those who preside over you, whoff spake to you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their

behaviour ttt. 8 Jesus Christ It is the same yesterday, and to-day, and

The shaking of heaven and earth denotes convulsions in the political and moral world; and, as the writer explains it, the abolition of the Jewish dispensation, to make way for the everlasting kingrom of the Messiah. See Acts ii. 19, 20. “I shake not the earth only, but heaven also.” N. + The gospel with its benefits, Newcome. Or, let us give thanks, etc.

For our God, N. | " See Gen. xviii. xix. So, among you, hospitality may be attended with unexpected pleasure and reward." Newcome. Or, Let marriage be honourable, etc. Wakefield.

++ the bed is, etc. N. 11 Or, conduct, N. m.

Il nor forsake thee. X. See Wakefield. 9 Or, your rulers, or leaders, or guides, who, N. m.

The issue of their course of life. Wakefield. *“ The evangelical doctrine, as delivered by Christ and his apostles." Newcome.

9 for ever*. Be not carried aside f by various and

strange doctrines : for it is a good thing that the heart be strengthened by the gracious gospel !, not by meats,

which have not profited those that have attended to 10 them. We have an altar of which they have no right to 11 eat who serve the tabernacle. For the bodies of those

beasts the blood of which shed for sin is brought into the

sanctuary by the high-priest?, are burned without the 12 camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the

people by his own blood, suffered without the gate. 13 (Let us therefore go out unto him without the camp, 14 bearing his reproach tt: for here have we no con15 tinuing city, but we seek one to come.) By him there

fore let us offer up the sacrifice of praise to God con

tinually, that is, the fruit of our lips which render thanks 16 to his namett. But to do good, and to distribute, forget

not : for with such sacrifices God is well pleased. 17 Obey those who preside over youlill, and submit your

selves: for they watch for your benefits, as those who

must give account: that they may do it with joy, and not 18 with grief: for this would be unprofitable to you. Pray

for us: for we trust that we have a good conscience, de19 siring to behave ourselves well in all things. But I more

especially beseech you to do this, that I may be shortly

restored to you. 20 Now the God of peace, who brought back ttt from the

dead our Lord Jesus, who is the great shepherd of the

* Or, Jesus Christ, the same yesterday and today, will also be the same for ever.

carried about, R. T.

Gr. favour, N. m. | Gr. in which those that have walked have not been profited. N. m.

whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high-priest for sin, N. # bearing the cross, his reproach : N.

the fruit of lips which confess his name. Wakefield. | Or, your leaders, or guides, N. m. 51 Gr. “in behalf of your souls,” which is equivalent to 6 in your behalf." Newcome. 14 Or, who raised. S. 41. N. m.

21 sheep by the blood * of the everlasting covenant †, make

you perfect in every good work, that ye may do his will ; working in you that which is well-pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ : to whom I be glory for ever (and

ever.] Amen. 22 Now I beseech you, brethren, suffer the word of ex

hortation : for I have written a letter to you in few words. 23 Know that our brother Timothy is set at liberty: with 24 whom, if he come shortly, I will see you. Salute all

those who preside over you ll, and all the saints. They 25 of Italy salute you. The favour of God be with you all.

Amen T.

* " By shedding his blood, to ratify that covenant which will never be annulled. Ch. viji. 13." Newcome.

† who brought from the dead that shepherd of the sheep, become great by the blood of an everlasting covenant, even our Lord Jesus Christ. Wakefield. 1 i. e. to the God of peace.

|| Or, your leaders, or guides. N. m. The epistle to the Hebrews is the first of those books which are distinguished by Eusebius, as having been disputed in the primitive ages of Christianity, and which, therefore, are not to be received as of equal authority with the rest. This epistle, however, which contains many important observations and many wholesome truths, mingled, indeed, with some far-fetched analogies and inaccurate reasonings, was probably written before the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, for it contains no allusion to those calamitous events. But by whom it was written is uncertain. Origen says, that no one can tell who was the author of it. It has been ascribed to Paul, to Barnabas, to Luke, and to Timothy: but if Origen, the most learned and inquisitive writer in the third century, could not discover the author, it is in rain for us to attempt it; and we must be content to remain in ignorance.

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