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true believers. He proceeds to observe, more piously perhaps than philosophically, that, as every one who heartily perseveres will surely obtain the object of his wishes, he procured an introduction to Nadir Shah, who, on condition that he entered into his service, promised that he should be allowed to perform the pilgrimage to Mecca.
After plundering the treasures of the Mogul, Nadir Shah left him in the poffeßion of his dominions. Tyrants, says Montesquieu, have been loudly praised by historians for restoring their crowns to princes whom they have vanquilhed. But this conduct has been generally the effect, not of generosity, but of profound policy. In vain will a conqueror attempt to preserve the poffeffion of an extensive country which he has subdued, since the governors whom he appoints will neither be able to keep the people in subjection, or be disposed themselves to continue long faithful to the service of their master. By giving the throne to the legitimate prince, he acquires a necessary ally, and increases his military strength without distressing his own territories.
When Nadir Shah had performed this political act of generosity, he marched, says our author, from Dehly and encamped in the garden of Shalehmar. Terror was the principle upon which he governed his army. He was consequently fo detested by his soldiers that even victory could not diminish their hatred. Conscious that they had cause for defertion, he gave strict orders that all who should be found in Dehly after his departure, should have their ears and noles cut off, and be sent to him in that condition. This fevere punishment did not deter many from remaining; and several were so unfortunate as to have the
punishment inflicted on them.
On his march his first expedition was against the Afghans of Yousef Zei, a people who had till then preserved their independence inviolate. After a severe flaughter they were compelled to submit. To obtain quarter, they engaged to pay a tribute, and to furnish Nadir Shah's army with thirty thousand effective men. Though fear, however, restrained them from open hoftility, revenge prompted them to fecret treachery. In the silence of midnight three Afghans swam the river which separated them from Nadir Shah. The noise of their feet in his outer tent awoke him; he removed to another place, and, being ignorant of their number, prudently observed a profound filence. They entered the apartment he had quitted, and, though disappointed in their design of affaffinating him, carried off the most valuable effects which they could find. The guards were soon alarmed, but the Afghans plunged into the water, dived (says the author) like aligators, and crossed the river with 3
their booty. In the morning, the guards, by whose neglect they had been able to pass, were punished with different degrees of severity proportionate to their guilt.
The march of a numerous army is generally destructive, in some degree, to itself, and to the countries through which it passes. To punish the Soobahdar of Sind for not meeting him according to his orders at Cabul, Nadir Shah determined to cross a very dangerous and rapid river, in which he lost near a fourth part of the plunder of Hindoftan. Every village he passed through was deserted by its inhabitants, and his troops were repeatedly in danger of perishing by famine. A fingle exception to this general terror shall be related by the author himself: " The only person that I saw was a fat Brahmin “ fitting upon the highway, begging alms in the names of Ram
and Mahadeo. I did all I could to persuade him to save him• self by fight from the fury of the soldiers, who were near at « hand; but he was so infatuated that he would not stir, and
even asked me if I envied him the alms which he should obtain! During our conversation a party of Bukhtyearees
came up, and, binding the poor wretch hand and foot, they ' cut him in pieces to try the sharpness of their swords.'
The Soobahdar of Sind, though compelled to furrender, obtained honourable terms of capitulation. The scarcity of water and provisions, rather than the generosity of Nadir Shah, was, however, the cause of this lenity. Yet a despotic monarch, ar the head of a victorious army, has some merit in not violating his engagements.
In the progress of the army little occurs worthy of remark till Nadir Shah prepares to make an attack upon the Turkomans, The troops on each side are drawn up in order of battle. A violent conflict ensues, and the Turkomans, being poflefied of the ground between the river Gihoon and the Persian army, the Kezlebalhes are much distressed for water, and on the point of being routed. As soon as he knows their distress, Nadir Shah fends iminediately for the two Sucka Bashees, whose duty it is to supply the camp with water, and orders their ears to be cut off. He then gallops to the front of his troops, upbraids his officers for their
delay, and commands them to prepare for an attack. Animated by his example, the army forget their thirst, rush forward with united fury, and totally rout their enemies.
A fortunate circumstance, which by a partial historian would have been attributed to policy, happened Toon after this victory.
prevent the corn from being injured by the weather, Nadir Shah ordered that fifteen thousand jackets, and twelve thousand -pair of long drawers, should be filled with it. After their defeat, the Usbecks formed a design of burning the boats, and sent
fpies to gain intelligence of their position. Arriving in the night, and seeing the clothes stuffed with grain, they concluded that men were guarding the boats, and returned with such a report as deterred the Usbecks from their enterprise. Had it been successful, the whole army must have perished by famine.
Though the work before us is not distinguished by any acuteness of remark, or depth of reflection, yet there is a plainnels and piety in the author's manner which entitle him to respect and con dence. His account of the murder of Nadir Shah, though he was not then with the army, but on his pilgrimage to Mecca, we lhall give in his own words :
An Account of the Murder of Nadir Shai. * About this time, by letters from the ministers of Nadir Shalr, and from the accounts of persons just arrived from Persia, was learnt the following intelligence :
• Nadir Shah commenced his expedition againit the Lezekee of Daghistan, for which he was making preparations when I took my leave of him at Cazvin. 'As he had conquered Bindoftan and Turan without experiencing any of the hardthips of war, he vainly imagined that he should also now carry all before him, and arrogantly declared that he would make proftitutes of all the virgin daughters of their great men; and, in retaliation of the blood of his brother, would decapitate five thousand Lezekees; and confiding solely in his own strength, fought not the aid and favour of heaven. But the Lezekees, who are remarkable for their ftrength and valour, gave him a different reception from what he had expected.
• I have heard from many of the servants, who attended his per. fon, that in the wars of Hindoftan, Turan, and Turkey, he never neglected his ablutions; but would then humble himself by prostrating his forehead in the dult, and make prayers and supplications to God; and that particularly during the battle with the Omrahs of Hindoftan, he alighted from his horse, rubbed his face against the earth, and made loud protestations of his own unworthiness. But in the war of Daghistan, he behaved in a manner quite contrary, being in fated with pride and arrogance, neglecting his duty to God; in confequence of which, he experienced a severse of fortune; for the Lezekees, after having made great Naughter amongit his troops, took refuge in their mountains; and thus, although in fact victorious, he was obliged to give up the war, without having committed the rapine, and fatiated his revenge, in the manner he had meditated and threatened. After his return from Daghistan, he staid some time in Iran, to prepare for the Turkish war. He then marched to Kera hook, and, after plundering Mouffel, Diarbeker, and other places in that quarter, which I have described, proceeded to NejeÅ and Kerbela, where he visited the shrines of the Imanis, and then proceeded through Irak Agem to Khorafan.
• Allavee Khan, when he was at the court of Persia, availing hiniof Nadir Shah's favour and kindness, employed the opportunities, whilft he was prescribing medicine, to administer also wholesome advice, and which the Shah took in very good part. The Hikeem Bashy was also continually exerting his skill to correct the impetuofity of his temper, for the benefit of mankind; and, by a proper media cal treatment, his disposition was so much improved, that for a fortnight together he would not order the discipline of the stick, much less command any one to be deprived of his eyes or life. And er. pecially when the attempt was made to assassinate him on the borders of Mazenderan, in the manner already described, he did not punish any one until he had coolly and deliberately investigated the matter. But after the departure of Allavee Khan, his own physicians from the dread of offending him, suffered the peccant humours again to predominate, when he returned to his old courses; every day, for the mott trilling offences, he would order fome to be deprived of their eyes, and others of life. At last his cruelty had risen to such a pitch, that he had resolved to have a general massacre of his Perfian troops, by the hands of the Afghans and Uzbecks, in whom alone he now placed confidence. But he was himself murdered the very night preceding the morning in which he had determined to put his bloody purpose into execution. The following are the particulars of this event. On the night of the 11th of Jemady ul Sany, A.H. 1160 (or June 8th, 1747), near the city of Khojoon, three days journey from Mehed, Mohammed Kuly Khan Ardemee, who was of the same tribe with Nadir Shah, his relation, and Kushukchee BaThee, with seventy of the Kukshek or guard, as well from a view to self-preservation, as at the instigation of their commander, bound themselves by an oath to assassinate Nadir Shah; but when the
appointed hour arrived, fifty-seven of them being feized with a panic, refused to join in the execution of the plot. The other thirteen, however, at night tore down the Seraperdah, and entering the Haram, killed the eunuch upon guard, who refused them admittance; they then proceeded to the Shah. The substance of the various accounts is, that they dispatched him with a matchlock ball, with blows, and wounds, with swords and knives. It is said that at first he raged and abused, and then humbly supplicated for mercy; but neither prevailing, he was obliged to submit to his fate.
The women, with the jewel-office and other valuable effects, have ing been fent on before to Kelat, under the charge of Nassirulla Mirza, escaped the fury and rapine
of the assassins. Atalaybreak, when the principal Omrahs assembled together to investigate this akonishing event, they found the trunk of Nadir Shah lying headless on the ground, and an old woman lamenting over the head. The troops and the country people now plundered the Shah's camp with that fury of which he had set them the example in Hindoltan, Turan, Turkey, and other places. His head was sent to Aly Kuly Khan, hiš brother's son, who had occafioned the conspiracy in order to raise him. self to the throne. From hence is to be learnt, that it is better for kings to repose confidence in their servants than in their nearest relations. Nine days after the assassination, Aly Kuly Khan ordered
the ENG. REV. VOL. XV. JAN. 1790.
the body to be removed to Meshed, where it was buried on the fifteenth day, in the mausoleum which Nadir Shah had prepared for himself.
• A variety of contemptible anagrams were made of the letters which form the date of his death, and amongst the rest the following: In fire, in hell, with his grandfather and father.'
The date of his accesion to the throne may be thus expressed : • It is good, in what has happened.'
• To speak the truth, Nadir Shah was a brave and experienced foldier, possessed of an acute, discriminating underlianding, with activity, refolution, and foresight; he knew very well how to conquer, and to make himself obeyed, but he was totally ignorant of the true principles of government, for the prosperity of a kingdom ; and the impetuosity of his temper, his cruelty and hardness of heart, made his name universally abhorred and detefted. From a verse of Sheikh Mohammed Aly Hazeen, it should seem that Nadir Shah's grandfather, Imam Kuly Beg, was a skinner: however, as it has been observed by a respectable personage, we ought not, on this occasion, to give entire credit to the poet's affertion, since he was an enemy to the Shah, and fled into Hindoftan from the dread of him, His age
been exactly ascertained, for want of his horoscope. From the appearance of his countenance, the strength of his limbs, and the vigour of his faculties, he did not seem to be above fifty years of age. Some fix his birth in A.H. 1099 (or A. D. 1687); and I have somewhere seen it written that he born of Ramzan 1102, or 13th June 1691. His beard was quite white, and he used to have it dyed black regularly twice a week. Having loft all his double teeth, he seldom eat food that required much malligation, and when he did, swallowed it without chewing. His front teeth were all found and firm in his head.
• After the death of Nadir Shah, his nephew Aly Kuly Khan, with the assistance of Thomas Aly Khan Jelayer, and others of the nobility, mounted the throne, and assumed the title of Aly Shah. He got poffeffion of ten crores of rupees in money, with gold and silver bul. lion, and jewels to an incredible amount, with the peacock throne, and other riches, which Nadir Shah had deposited in Kelat. He put to death all the sons and grandsons of Nadir Shah, excepting Sharokh Mirza, the son of Reza Kuly Mirza, by a daughter of Sultan Hussein. He appointed his own younger brother Ibrahim Khan, his viceroy.'
This volume is, upon the whole, well worthy of perusal. Respecting the translator, whatever may be his merit in the eaftern languages, he does not in his own possess any considerable degree
of taste. His style is seldom elegant, and sometimes ungrammatical,