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dilating the pores of the body you mean to dye; to deposit in them the particles of a foreign substance; to confine them by some kind of cement, so that neither rain sor sun can posibly alter them; to choose the colouring particles of such a tenuity as to penetrate and be retained, by being sufficiently wedged into the pores of the subjećt when dilated by the heat of boiling water, and afterwards çontracted by cold, and finally covered with a kind of mattick, left by the falt used in preparation. Whence it follows that the pores of thefibres of the woollen, either fabricated or to be fabricated into ftuffs, ought to be cleansed, expanded, cemented, or glued, and then contracted, that the colour-atoms may be retained or fastened, as it were, like a diamond in the beazel, or collet of a ring.
• From repeated experiments I am also taught that every ingre. dient for dying in grain has, in fome degree, an aftringent and precipitating quality; that this quality is sufficient to leparate the earth of alum, one of the salts used in the preparation of wool before it be dyed, and that this earth, mixed with the colouring atoms, forms a kind of lacker, something like what painters use, but infinitely finer; that in bright colours, such as scarlet, where alum cannot be used, it is necessary to substitute for this carth, which is always white, when the alum is good, some other body that may supply the colouring atoms with a basis equally white; that tin gives this basis in the scarlet dye; that when all these minute atoms of the colouring earthy lacker, are distributed through the pores of the dilated subject; the gluten which the tartar (another falt used in the preparation) depofites, serves to cement these atoms; and finally, that the contraction of the pores, occasioned by the cold, confines them.
Probably the false colours are defective only because the subject is not fufficiently prepared ; and the colouring particles being deposited only on the smooth surface, or in pores not enough dilated for their reception, the lealt accident must inevitably detach them. If a method of supplying colouring parts of dying woods with the necessary astringency could be discovered, and at the fame time the wool properly prepared, as it is prepared to receive the red of madder, I am convinced, from at least thirty experiments, that these woods might be rendered as useful to dyers in grain, as they have hitherto been to the second class of dyers.'
The art of dying wool in various colours is treated at great length, consisting of thirty-nine chapters, exclusive of some important instructions; that of dying filk is detailed in more than a third of the same quantity; and of cotton in almost as much. These substances being of a different texture, and their pores also different as well in size as in form, muft necessarily be different in their aptitude for receiving and retaining the colouring particles. Wool is composed of an infinite number of fibres, which, like hairs, are only tubes containing a medullary substánce. Thefe tubes are themselves fieves throughout their Jength, with an infinity of lateral pores ; and they are more or Icis curled in proportion to the greater or less quantity of those
pores. The fibres of wool having thus many pores, afford great room for extraneous substances, which may not only be lodgedin the exterior pores, but even penetrate into the whole extent of the tubes, after the medullary fubftance has been expelled. It is therefore not to be wondered at if wool, being of all substances that are made into stuffs the most porous, should be the most easy to dye, and imbibe the greatest quantity of colour.
Silk is a glutinous matter, formed in the body of the worm, and which hardens in the air while the animal is spinning. This liquor doubtless originally proceeds from the mucilage of the mulberry-leaf, which, in the body of the worm, by its combination with the volatile alkali, becomes an animal gluten. It afterwards acquires consistence in the air, in consequence of the evaporation of a thin oil, and a part of this volatile alkali.
· Cotton is a thready substance, enveloping the grain of the cotton-tree. It is not formed, as some imagine, by the extra-" valation of the nourishing juice of the plant; for, were it so, it would vary both in size and form. It is truly a vegetation produced on the outside of the plant; and as no vegetable fub-'. ftance can receive a juice without having vessels proper for its circulation, it neceffarily follows that the fibres of the cotton are tabular, in the same manner as the wool ; but being a great deal finer, must be more difficult to dye, because incapable of admitting such gross particles. It has also lateral pores, like those of wool, containing a kind of medullary oil, which must ne-' ceffarily be expelled previous to dying; otherwise the dye would be extremely superficial.
We have subjoined this general-account of those different fub stances, with the view of explaining to our readers the principles on which the art of dying is founded. Our limits will not permit of describing the process in any of the different operations; but we can reconimend the present work as an excellent introduction to the scientific knowledge of the art of dying. It exhibits, we believe, a faithful display of the practice in France, where great chemical abilities have been exerted to.' wards the improvement of the art; and must therefore afford much useful information to those who would derive advantage in the prosecution of it from the assistance of a rational theory
Art. V. The History and Antiquities of the Town and County of
the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne ; including an Account of the Coal-trade of that Place, and embelliped with engraved Views of the Public Buildings, &c. By John Brand, M. A. Fellow and Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries. 4to. 2 vols. 21. 2s.
boards, White. London, 1789. THAT
' a great book is a great evil,' is a trite observation, but was never more aptly exemplified than by the modern writers of topographical histories. The indefatigable Maitland had a genius particularly calculated for this species of inquiry; and he chose for the purpose such subjects as would afford the most ample scope to his laborious investigation ; but his literary fucceffors, less fortunate in their selection, while they have endeavoured to imitate the industry, have far exceeded the mi. nuteness of that inquisitive author; and instead of interesting details, and researches gratifying to curiosity, present us with an enormous mass of trifling facts and circumstances, and a regifter of nanies which ought to have remained unmolested in their native obseyrity. The principal cause of the extreme amplification of these writers is doubtless a partiality for their subject, to which having themselves annexed an idea of importance, they seem to imagine that the most circumftantial account of it cannot fail of contributing, in a proportionable degree, to the gratification of the public. But in this they are greatly mis-, taken. The public will never look with complacency at a work, however laboriously executed, which neither engages the attention with interesting narrative, nor repays it with useful information. To delineate the origin and progress of eminent places; to trace the various natural or political causes of their advancement or decline; and to recite the extraordinary events which occur in their history; these are objects which will, in general, afford both pleasure aud instruction; but to answer these ends, the inquiry must be prosecuted with the appearance of judgment, and the reader must not, through the indiscriminating zeal of his author, be overwhelmed in the rubbish of antiquity
We have been led into these thoughts by the huge and undigested volumes now before us; in which we can hardly perceive any glimmering of useful investigation; but where, on the contrary, our patience is exhausted with the most frivolous details; and curiosity, instead of being gratified, meets in every step with disappointment.
The author begins with an account of the fortifications and various buildings at Newcastle; informning us that the town
was enclosed with a wall during the reign of William Rufus, We learn likewise that, after the completion of this structure, the town was divided into twenty-four wards, according to the number of the gates, and the round towers with which they were accompanied ; and that these were defended, in times of hoftility with the Scots, by the particular wards originally appropriated to them. The account of the buildings, their various repairs and additions, with the names of the persons concerned, a detail of epitaphs, &c. occupy the whole of the first volume, which is furnished with a copious appendix.
The second volume commences with an account of the river Tyne. The author observes that no literary monuments have been transmitted to inform us with certainty by what name this river was distinguished while the Roman legions were stationed on its banks. It occurs not as a river of Northumberland in Ptolemy's ancient map of Britain ; if it was not then called the Vedra, which is the name of a river marked in it, about the place where that of Tyne ought to be found. The present appellation of this river is implied in the first accounts of a religious house at Tinmouth, evidently so called from its vicinity to the mouth of the Tyne. The house alluded to was first erected a little after the beginning of the seventh century.
According to our author's information, glass-makers are said to have been first brought out of France into England A. D. 674, on the building of the new abbey of Weremouth, at a few miles distance from the mouth of the river Tyne; and he fixes the epoch of the glass-works upon the river Tyne about the year 1619, when they were established by Sir Robert Mansell
, Knt. vice-admiral of England. · The cheapness of sea-coal, as our author observes, was doubtless the chief inducement for erecting them at fo great a distance from London.
Our author gives the following account of the monastery and castle of Tinmouth :
Notwithstanding what has been advanced to the contrary by the learned Horsley, fome recent discoveries seem clearly to prove to us, that the Romans had a station in this place during their residence in Britain.'
A religious house, doubtless of rade and simple architecture, is faid to have been erected here in the very earliest
ages of Christianity, and soon after the introduction of the monaftic institution into our island. ..
• Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, fometime between the years of Christ 617 and 633, erected here of wood a place of residence for nuns only, as some writers inform us, but more probably for religious persons of both sexes, and in which his own daughter Rosella afterterwards took the veil,..
• Oswald, a succeeding king of the same people, and who began his reign A.D. 634, soon afterwards caused this house of wood to be taken down, and raised upon the site thereof a new structure of stone; a circumstance which no doubt gave rise to the opinion of those writer's who affert that this Oswald was the original founder of Tinmouth monaftery.
Mention occurs of an oratory dedicated to St. Mary at this place, foon after it had been rebuilt of fone, where a great number of perfans of diftinction assembled under a regular order for the performance of divine service; the monastery had by this time acquired such a reputation of local sancțity, that persons dying in the neighbourhood were brought to be interred in it according to a superstitious custom that prevailed in that age:
Hither was conveyed for that purpose the murdered body of Ofwin, King of Deira, one of the provinces of the then divided kingdom of Northumberland, who, through the treachery of the ungrateful Hunweld, fell a facrifice to the ambition of Ofwy, King of Bernicia, the other provinee, on the 13th of the kalends of September, A.D.651, at a place called Chillingham, where Queen Eandleda, a relation of the deceased king, is said to have erected a monaftery for his soul. Harding, the writer of an old English chronicle in metre, seoully supposed her to have founded that of Tinmouth on this mourn. ful occasion.
• The division of the kingdom of Northumberland is reported, and with great probability, to have been the cause of the quarrel between the kings Ofwy and Oswin.
Egfrid, made King of Northumberland A. D. 671, and who was Nain May 2oth, 685, was the founder of this monastery, if we will give credit to an old account, that Leland has preserved, of the ravages committed by the pagans in Northumberland during the reign of that king, and which cannot be reconciled with the former history of this place, unless we suppose it to have been destroyed, with other religious houses, in the time of that king, by the barbarous Danes, and to have been restored by his pious munificence; a conjecture which seems by Ino means to want probability,
St. Herebald, the companion of St. John of Beverley, archbishop of York, who died A.D.721, appears to have been a monk, and afterwards abbot of Tinmouth. :::
Ofred, the banished king of the Northumbrians, who was appreKended and sain on the 18th of the kalends of October, A.D.792, on his return from exile, was afterwards interred in this monastery.
• In the year of Chritt 800 the monastery of Tinmouth was plundered by the Danes.
"A.D. 832: an army of pirates from the fame, barbarous nacion made an attempt to land at this place, but were routed and driven back to their ships.
• In the year 866, during the ravages of Hungar and Hubba, the monastery of Tinmouth is said to have been utterly destroyed,
* A. D. 870 a monastery of nuns occurs at this place as having been plundered by the same infidels, who, three years before, had subjugated the whole province of Northumberland.