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thority, and from what has fallen under my own observation, during my attendance at hospitals; we cannot affert, with truth, that more than one out of eleven die in consequence of being cut for the ftone.

• Were we or could we divest the operation of some of its accidental disadvantages, and be careful enough to guard against some. of the causes I have before mentioned, candour might allow us to bring the number to one in fourteen; a degree of danger which attends few capital operations in so small a proportion.

• As the method of attempting to dissolve the stone in the bladder by means of injections has, for several obvious reasons, fallen into general disuse, I have spoken but little of them in particular, because many of the reasons urged against other modes of treatment were equally cogent against this.

• Should a solvent be hereafter offered to the world, it will be necessary, towards forming a proper judgment of its efficacy, to examine all who take it after death; the effects of the medicine on the primæ vid and general health of the patient, should be friely attended to; and the number on whom the trial is made should be considerable.

• Should future ages possess a solvent efficacious, but not deftructive to the system, lithotomy may perhaps be superseded; until then, reason and experience point it out as the best and only resource.

• And it seems very clear that the fame which the most reputed solvents have acquired has been built on errors in judgment, or interested views. For the human calculus seems to be a substance that can be acted upon only by such preparations, the introduction of which into the body, in any neceffary degree of strength, is inconsistent with the delicacy of the parts they must pass through, hurtful to the general health of the patient, and peculiarly injurious to the functions of the parts affected and their appendages.

• I thall conclude with advising those who have prudent resolution enough to undergo the operation, to do it in time, before the irritation of the diseaie itself, or the deleterious use of solvents, have impaired their general health ; for, in a morbid state of the blood and juices, no wound can heal kindly; and the operation, however safe and skilfully performed, by such means may be rendered hazardous, and frequently fatal.'

We cannot take our leave of this little performance without again acknowledging the good intentions of the writer, and recommending the perufal of it to medical practitioners and calculous sufferers.

ART.

ART. VIII. A View of the present State of Derbyshire ; with

an Account of its most remarkable Antiquities. Illustrated by an accurate Map and Plates. By James Pilkington. 8vo. 2 vols. 138. boards. Derby, printed : Drewry, Derby; Deighton, London. 1789. SEVERAL counties of England have already, afforded sub

ject to the writers of topography; and Derbyshire, doubtless has some claim to the diligent attention of such inquirers. This county lies nearly in the middle of England. According to Burdett's survey, its greatest length from north to fouth is about fifty-five, and its greatest breadth from east to west about thirty-three miles. The face of the country exhibits so irregular an appearance that the southern and northern parts of it are a striking contrast to each other. The former is not particularly remarkable for its hills and valleys; but the latter is distinguished in an eminent degree by a long and continued fucceffion of both. In this part of the kingdom the country begins gently to rise into hills, which, in their progress to the north, (well gradually into mountains. They first divide Lancashire from Yorkshire; after which, entering Westmoreland, they spread over the whole face of that county, and a part of Cumiberland. Then contracting into a ridge or chain, they form the limits betwixt Cumberland and Northumberland; whence, continuing their direction northward, they at last enter Scotland.

The northern part of Derbyshire, which is so much diftinguished by the number, height; and extent of its hills and mountains, is no less remarkable for the great depth and width of its valleys, and the beauty and variety of its Jales. The width and depth of the valleys are generally in proportion to the height of the ridges and mountains by which they are bounded. The broadest and deepest, therefore, are found in the High Peak, where their width, however, it is computed, never exceeds two miles, and their depth a thousand feet. Upon looking into the broad deep valleys of the High Peak, says our author, the mind is filled with grand and sublime ideas: but diversified beauty is the prevailing characteristic of the narrow dales of the Low Peak; and perhaps there is no country which can boast of finer scenes of the latter kind than Derbyshire. Though we cannot follow our author in his particular account of the country, we shall give the following short extract as a specimen of his description, which in general we think is drawn with accuracy:

• The valley in the High Peak which has appeared to me most itriking is that in which the town of Caltleton stands. The first view you get into it, when you enter it from the south, is the best, more especially at a point where the road makes a sudden and abrupt turning along the edge of a high and steep precipice down into the town of Castleton. The valley, which is at least 800 feet deep, and in many parts nearly two miles wide, extends directly eastward to the distance of five or six miles. A number of lefser dales from the north and south are seen at various distances to open into it. The steep sides of the valley are also rendered very beautiful by a series of well-cultivated enclosures, which rise one above another to its very edge. The village of Hope with its fpire church, which stands at the distance of two miles to the east down the valley, has a very agreeable effect. Directing your eye along the edge of the north side of the valley, you see the country boldly swelling into hills, and at length terminating in two high points at a considerable distance from each other.

6. When you descend from this elevated situation a fresh set of objects present themselves, no less striking and pi&turesque. At the bottom

you

observe the town of Castleton. On a very high and steep eminence to the south of it, the ruins of an ancient caitle now and then catch your eye. And directly beyond the town the celebrated Mam-Tor raises his lofty head, and with an awful majesty seems to overlook all this fcene of beauty and grandeur.

« This valley does not extend wellward beyond the town of Castleton, but here forms a most noble and magpificent amphitheatre, its back rising in many parts at least 1000 feet, and the diameter of its front measuring nearly two miles. If pursued in a contrary direction, it will however be found to be of very great length, extending to the distance of forty miles even below the town of Derby.

• In the course of this.valley the views are extremely diversified. In some places it becomes very narrow, and its fides are so thickly clothed with wood, as to render it almost impassable. It then gradually opens again, and you have a wide extended prospect before you. Every mile, nay almost every step, presents fresh objects and scenes, some of them the most grand, beautiful, and romantic, which can be conceived.'

The atmosphere and climate of Derbyshire are no less various than the general furface of the country. In the southern part of it they greatly resemble those of neighbouring counties, which have the fame degree of elevation. But in the High Peak and the north-east extremity of the county, they are different in several respects, particularly with regard to the quantity of rain; of which to large a proportion scarcely falls in any other part of England as in the district last mentioned. It appears, from a comparative view, that the quantity of rain which falls at Chatfworth every year, exceeds, nearly one-third, that which has been collected at Lyndon and London during the fame space of time.

Another circumstance obferveable in regard to the atmosphere of the Peak of Derbyshire is, that it is subject to very strong winds. Brikk currents of air are often felt on these high grounds when the inhabitants of low and less irregular countries in the neighbourhood suffer great inconvenience by the extreme closeness of the weather.

It has been said that no endemic, or epidemic disorders, no agues or fevers, are known to prevail in the «north part of the county. But this affertion must be understood with some degree of limitation. For, upon inquiry; our author has been frequently informed that in the deep vallies and narrow dales agues and fevers are not uncommon, though fuch as live in higher situations are seldom troubled with those complaints. There is, however, one disease to which the inhabitants of Derbyshire are so much subject that it has recived its name from its great prevalence in this situation ; being called the bronchocele, or Derby neck. It is a tumor arising on the fore-part of the neck. But of this we shall say no more, as an account of it, with the method of cure, was published by Mr. Proffer in 1769.

Mr. Pilkington next enters upon the fubterraneous geography of the county, which he describes with much precision, under the general heads of limestone, coal, and gritstone land. We mean not to accompany him through his extensive inquiries on this subject, but shall present our readers with his description of the remarkable cavern at Castleton, known by the name of Peak's Hole :

A • It is situated in a deep and narrow recess of the valley in which the town stands. On each side, and near the end of this recess, two large faces of rock are seen rising to a vast height. On the sunimit to the left, and close to the edge of the precipice, an ancient castle appears as it were perched aloft in the air. And at the foot of the rock, on the opposite side, the mouth of the cavern opens with gran. deur and magnificence. It is about fourteen yards high and forty wide. The arch at the entrance is regularly formed, and in a direct line extends nearly three hundred feet. This part is tolerable light, and inhabited by a number of poor people employed in the manufacture of packthread. They have built small dwellings, and follow their work in this spacious and extended vault without experiencing the burning heats of the summer, or the Marp colds of the winter feason. Beyond the first turning a gentle declivity is perceived, and the path is rendered wet and dirty by the drops of water which are frequently falling from the roof. At the distance of about an hundred and thirty yards from the mouth of the cavern, all further progress into it was formerly obstructed by a projection of the rock, and a deep gulf at the extremity of it. But a passage is now opened through the rock, and a door is hung and locked to prevent any one from going beyond this place without the affistance of a guide.

T

The ENG, REV. VOL. XV. APRIL 1790.

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· The cavern, which has been some time gradually contrading, appears about twenty yards from hence to be entirely closed in every part. However, upon a near approach to the rock, a low paffage under it, almost full of water, is discovered. This opening is just large enough to admit a small boat, but the passenger in it is obliged to lie almost flat down, whilft it is pushed under the rock. Upon landing he finds himself in a cavern, ftill more spacious than the former. It is said to be seventy yards wide and forty, high ; but not a ray of light can enter it, excepting that which proceeds from a single, which he carries with him; and the faint glimmering of this tends only to render him sensible of the extreme darkness and horror of the place. However, by a proper disposition of candles, a toIerably complete idea of its shape and size may be formed. When fufficiently illuminated, a path may be obferved on the right hand, which leads up a steep ascent to the top of a high rock, called the chancel. Descending from this elevated situation, and proceeding farther in the cavern, you perceive that it becomes again much narrower and lower. But from this part to the end nothing occurs which is particularly deserving of remark,

• The whole length of this subterraneous passage is said to be seven hundred and fifty yards; and attempts have been made to extend it farther, from an expectation of opening a communication with another cavern. But though several yards of the rock have been blasted away, all efforts for this purpose have hitherto proved unsuccessful. However, about six years ago, at a small distance from the end of the old passage, a new one was discovered. Its length is about an hundred and sixty-four yards. But it is not equal in either height or width to that which has been described.'

Our author afterwards gives a particular account of the mines of lead, iron, calamine, copper, and coal, with the method of working each.

By inscriptions on several blocks of lead which have been found in this county, it is unquestionable that the lead-mines in Derbyshire were worked by the Romans. It appears that, from the year 1758 to 1783, the Gregory mine at Afhover alone yielded lead to the value of 105,986l. os. 31d. and that during this period it produced, upon an average, 1511 tons annually. The quantity of iron which is annually produced in this county has likewise been of late very confiderable. At prefent it amounts to about 5600 tons. The Right Rev. Dr. Watson fays, in his Chemical Essays, that the calamine annually raised in Derbyshire amounts to about 1500 tons, though sixty years ago it did not produce 40 tons a year. At what time this eftia. mate was made is uncertain; but from the best information Mr. Pilkington could obtain, there does not appear to be more than 500 tons, at present, annually collected from the several places where calamine is found. Copper ore has yet been found only in very small quantity in Derbyshire. What coal is got in

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