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" de cartes,' being made for Charles the Sixth; and even to the earlier evidence in Anstis's History of the Garter, of Edward the First playing at cards, ad quatuor reges,' in 1278.
It seems, however, a strong presumption against Mr. Anstis's explanation of the game ad quatuor reges,' adds Mr. Barrington, --that cards are not alluded to by such an article in the
wardrobe rolls; because we hear nothing about them, either in Rymer's Foedera or our Statute-book, till towards the latter ' end of the reign of Henry VIII.' But Mr. Barrington has strangely forgotten, what he has said in the very page preceding, that he has lately had the perufal of Henry the Seventh's pri'vate expences, by which it appears that money was issued at ( three several times for his losses' at cards. And, as he ingenuously subjoins in a note to the former remark, whilft I am
correcting this page for the press, Mr. Nichols (printer to the
society) hath referred me to 4 Edw. IV. Rot. Parl. Membr. • VI; where pleyinge cardes are enumerated amongst several
other articles, which are not to be imported.' All unites to thew the introduction of card-playing in this country, and in France, to be much earỊies than Mr, Barrington has stated it to be. In the 4th of Edw, IV, we began to make them ourselves, and therefore forbad them to be imported. And, as Mr. Barrington inconsistently remarks in the text immediately afterwards, the daughter of our Henry VII. being married in 1502 to James IV. of Scotland, the played at cards soon after her arrival at Edin
burgh.' Mr. Barrington even subjoins with still greater inconfiltency in another note, that Dr. Woide refers me to a « German publication by Mr. Breitloff, in which he cites an au'thority, that cards were used in Germany fo early as 1. D. I
13€0.' Mr. Barrington has plainly taken up his pen to write, before he had digerted his intelligence. And this, as he very ingenuously betrays it at times, stands in direct opposition to his conclufions.
Mr. Barrington then proceeds with anore steadiness, to point out the Spaniards as (the first inventors of cards.' To the Spaniards, we owe undoubtedly the game of ombre (with its • imitations of quadrille, &c.); the name and the terms being (all Spanish.' Another evidence arises, he thinks, from the four 'suits being named from what is chiefly represented upon “them, viz. Spades from spada a sword; when the spade of our cards is no more like a sword than it is an elephant or a wesel, and when, if the names should be derived from the king of spades carrying a sword in his hands, the name should equally be communicated to the king of clubs, as he equally carries a sword, and just the same kind of sword too; "hearts are called oros, from 'a piece of money being on each card,' when a real heart is
impresfed upon our cards; clubs, bastos, from a stick or club;' though the club of our cards is just as like a stick, as the spade of them is like a sword; "and diamonds, copas; from the cups painted
on them,' when the figure upon our cards is so unlike a cup, and the name is so compleatly English. Mr. Barrington, therefore, has failed egregiously in this, his second argument. His other arguments also inilitate against himself. i The Spanish
packs consist but of forty-eight, having 110 ten;' while ours have a ten, and are fifty-two. The next in degree to the king' is a person on horseback named El Caballo,' or the horseman, in the room of our queen, · The third (or knave with us),' who so properly grasps an halberd, as a serviens or serjeant attending the king and queen, and is therefore fo properly distinguished among us in the language of our elder fathers, by the appellation of knave or servant, is termed foto or footman' in Spanish. And we cannot but think, that Mr. Barrington's reasoning for the Spanish derivation of our cards fies direšly in his face; and that our cards appear from the real heart and the real knave upon them, to be (in part at least) genuine English. These circumstánces unite with the record of Edw. Ift, to prove cards very ancient among us:
Even the amusement had become so ge'neral, in the reign of King James' the First, that the au• dience at the playhouses used thus to divert themselves, before the
play began * Mr. Barrington however perseveres, and produces a ftill 'more decisive proof of the Spanish derivation of our cards. It is what was undoubtedly the cover of a pack of cards, and
probably was made use of by a French card-maker.' It has these words, partly Spanish and partly French, upon it, Cartes finnes (superfine cards) are Spanish, which are followed by two of
French, (viz. faitles par, or made by),' and are succeeded by se [for Fean] Hauvola, a Spanith name (we suppose, for Mr. Barrington notes it not) Frenchified in the personal part of it, and by y-generally used in Spanish for the conjunction
and,' and by Edward Warman,' an English name "inserted • in a new piece of wood laid into the original block.' Nor is this all.
• At each corner are the figures from which the four < suits of cards are denominated in Spain, viz. cups,' a real cup, and totally diffimilar to our diamond, swords,' a real sword, and equally unlike our spade, clubs,' a real club, and as different from our club as Mr. Barrington is from Hercules, and pieces
of money,' a real piece, quite round, and no more like to an
** P. 141 from Mr. Malone's Supplemental Observations on Shakefpeare, p. 31.
heart than he is to Hyperion ; 'whilit at the top, and at the side, Sare the arms of Castile and Leon.' All this decisive proof proves nothing. It shews not the Spaniards, "to have been the inventors of cards. It shews them only, to have been in repute at the time, for making fuperfine cards. Accordingly one juan Hauvola, borrowing a little French, and retaining his old Spanish, set up at Paris for making them, in partnership with some French house; and afterwards engaged with an English house, in London. And the superfine cards used in England might well, be Spanish, and imported by a Spanish manufacturer at Paris, in concert with an English shop-keeper at London; when, as Mr. Barrington himself has shewn, the Spanish game of Primero was played at court.
On the whole, however, we think a present pack of English cards to be partly English and partly Spaniih. The club actually impressed upon this Spanish cover, a real club, having three strong knots at the fide, and ending in a thick and heavy head; thews the cypher on the Spanish and English card to have been originally a club, though it is now so different; and to have therefore been called bafto in Spanish, and club in English. The sword also on the cover, a real one, with a handle, a guard, and a double edge, shews the card to have also had a sword originally, though it has now something so diffimilar. And the retention of the names among us, when the figures have disappeared from our cards; and the
particular retention of the Spanish name, for one of them; clearly point out something like a Spanish origin, for two suits in our cards. But then the impression and the appellation of hearts for another, so distinct from the Spanish oros and the Spanish pieces of money, shew this suit to be English. The diamond too, a diamond shaped in a lozenge form, proves the same. And the tens in the English, the queen in the room of the horseman, and perhaps the knave, again unite to mark the English portion of our cards. Ours, therefore, were originally the diamonds and the hearts, and the Spanish were the spades and the clubs. Yet, as the knave is nearly similar in both, and the king is actually the same; and as the Spaniards have four suits, and three court cards, as well as we; this striking coincidence in practice, must necessarily have arisen from some inter-communion of ideas, that can be referred only to one origin for all. And fince 'ombre,' the name of a Spanish game, figniies a
man *,' homo forming ombre, as numerus number, camera chamber, &c.; since spade, the Spanish espada for a sword, is only the Latin Spatha pronounced hard, as th in our Thames and in the French
Bibliotheque at present; since the terms for the principal cards' at ombre are also Spanish, viz. spadill, manill, basto, punto, (matadors *,' and are also derived from the Latin spathula, mas nuale batuo to beat with basto or a club, punctum, and perhaps metadoron a Greek word Latinized, for the super donation given to the holder of matadors; since we must derive being codilled
from codillo, the winning of the pool from polla, which fignifies the stake, the term of trumps,' spelt formerly triumph in English,
from triomphe, as also the term of the ace, which pervades most • European languages,' from the Spanish word for this card, cas tiall words evidently Latin in their origin, as triumphus, pollubrum the bason that holds the stake, and codicillus, and the word as, or ace, pervading mof European languages; since the « Venetians still use the Spanish cards, retaining the Spanish
terms, except that of oros, which they render denari, figni
fying equally pieces of money f;' and equally signifying so in the Latin only; and since cards were used in Germany lo early
as A. D. 1300,' appear so early as 1278 in England, under the tit'e of the game of the four kings, and about 1392 are denominated in France by the express title of cards' and packs of • cards ;' we scruple not to refer them to those from whom the very appellation of chartæ, cards, or leaves of paste-boards, is derived, those common fathers of language and of usages, to the Italians, the Southern Germans, the French, the English, and the Spaniards; the antient Romans themselves. From them the nations of western Europe derived them, we apprehend, varied the námes and the figures, according to their several fancies; but still retain enough of their original fimilarity, to point out their common origin ; and, whether Spanish, Italian, French, or English, are all Roman in their commencement. • XVIII. Observations on Card-playing. By the Rev. Mr. Bowlé,'
: The design of this dissertation, is to confirm that Spanifh origin of cards, which we think we have refuted before. Nor does it prove more in itself, than that many of our games in the reign of Elizabeth were Spanish. · And it shews the modern vingt- un, to be the fame with the Spanish bientuin: though we derived it undoubtedly from the French, and though it hence appears common to both.
[ To be continued. ]
* P. 138.
ART. IV. The Art of dying Wool, Silk, and Cotton. Translated from the French of M. Helot, M. Macquer, and M. Le Pileur D'Apligny. Illustrated with Copper-plate Cuts exhibiting the Infide of a Dye-House; and the various Implements used in the Prac
tice of dying. 8vo. 6s. 6d. boards. Baldwin. London, 1789. IN a country where a great part of the exports is manufac
tured from wool, silk, and cotton, the art of dying these materials is a matter of no small importance to the state. In this light has the subject been for many years considered in France, throughout which kingdom the dyers are subject to certain regulations, and frequent inspection by the government. The dyers of the true and of the false dye, are there distinct occupations, and some of their best chemists have been employed in experiments, partly designed to distinguish precisely the true from the false dye, but still with the general intention of improving the art. A circumstantial detail
of those experiments, with their various results, is the object of the present volume, which has been translated for the ule, and merits greatly the attention, of the English dyers. In fact, though an illiterate dyer may accidentally stumble on an useful improvement, the art of dying will never attain the perfection of which it is capable, until those who profefs it shall make themselves acquainted with the chemnical theory on which its operations are founded.
The work begins with some account of the primitive colours, or rather of those which are so denominated by the dyers; for they have no affinity with the colours properly termed primitive by Sir Isaac Newton. The dyers have only given them this name because, from the nature of the ingredients by which they are produced, they become the basis of every other colour. Those primitive colours are five, viz. blue, red, yellow, fawn or root-colour, and black; each of which furnishes a great number of shades, whence, by combination, are produced all the colours in nature. Next follows a description of the vessels and utenfils used in dying, and an account of the true colours, or those technically denominated in grain.
The following extract presents us with a philosophical view of the principles on which the difference of colours is supposed to depend :
• I have learnt, from experiment, the best guide in philosophy, as well as in the arts, that the difference of colours, according to the preceding distinction, depends party on the preparation of the subject to be dyed, and partly upon the colouring materials. Hence I am of opinion that it may be received as a general principle, of the art in question, that the invisible mechanism of dying consists in